A loanword is a word adopted from one language and incorporated into another language without translation. This is in contrast to cognates, which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an etymological origin, calques, which involve translation. A loanword is distinguished from a calque, a word or phrase whose meaning or idiom is adopted from another language by word-for-word translation into existing words or word-forming roots of the recipient language. Examples of loanwords in the English language include café, kindergarten. In a bit of involutionally heterological irony, the word calque is a loanword from the French noun calque. Loans of multi-word phrases, such as the English use of the French term déjà vu, are known as adoptions, adaptations, or lexical borrowings. Speaking, the term loanword conflicts with the ordinary meaning of loan in that something is taken from the donor language without it being something, possible to return; the terms substrate and superstrate are used when two languages interact.
(However, the meaning of these terms is reasonably well-defined only in second language acquisition or language replacement events, when the native speakers of a certain source language are somehow compelled to abandon it for another target language. Most of the technical vocabulary of classical music is borrowed from Italian, that of ballet from French; the studies by Werner Betz, Einar Haugen, Uriel Weinreich are regarded as the classical theoretical works on loan influence. The basic theoretical statements all take Betz's nomenclature as their starting point. Duckworth enlarges Betz's scheme by the type “partial substitution” and supplements the system with English terms. A schematic illustration of these classifications is given below; the phrase "foreign word" used in the image below is a mistranslation of the German Fremdwort, which refers to loanwords whose pronunciation, inflection or gender have not been adapted to the new language such that they no longer seem foreign. Such a separation of loanwords into two distinct categories is not used by linguists in English in talking about any language.
Basing such a separation on spelling is not common except amongst German linguists, only when talking about German and sometimes other languages that tend to adapt foreign spellings, rare in English unless the word has been used for a long time. According to the linguist Suzanne Kemmer, the expression "foreign word" can be defined as follows in English: "hen most speakers do not know the word and if they hear it think it is from another language, the word can be called a foreign word. There are many foreign words and phrases used in English such as bon vivant, mutatis mutandis, Schadenfreude." This is however not how the term is used in this illustration: On the basis of an importation-substitution distinction, Haugen distinguishes three basic groups of borrowings: “ Loanwords show morphemic importation without substitution.... Loanblends show morphemic substitution as well as importation.... Loanshifts show morphemic substitution without importation”. Haugen refined his model in a review of Gneuss's book on Old English loan coinages, whose classification, in turn, is the one by Betz again.
Weinreich differentiates between two mechanisms of lexical interference, namely those initiated by simple words and those initiated by compound words and phrases. Weinreich defines simple words “from the point of view of the bilinguals who perform the transfer, rather than that of the descriptive linguist. Accordingly, the category ‘simple’ words includes compounds that are transferred in unanalysed form”. After this general classification, Weinreich resorts to Betz's terminology. Popular loanwords are spread orally. Learned loanwords are first used in written language for scholarly, scientific, or literary purposes; the English language has borrowed many words from other languages. For examples, see Lists of English words by country or language of origin and Anglicization; some English loanwords remain faithful to the original phonology though a particular phoneme might not exist or have contrastive status in English. For example, the Hawaiian word ʻaʻā is used by geologists to specify lava, thick and rough.
The Hawaiian spelling indicates the two glottal stops in the word, but the English pronunciation, contains at most one. The English spelling removes the ʻokina and macron diacritics. Most English affixes, such as un-, -ing, -ly, were used in Old English. However, a few English affixes are borrowed. For example, the verbal suffix -ize or ise comes from Greek -ιζειν through Latin -izare. During more than 600 years of the Ottoman Empire, the literary and administrative language of the empire was Turkish, with many Persian, Arabic loanwords, called Ottoman Turkish differing from the everyday spoken Turkish of the time. Many such words were exported to other languages of the empire, such as Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Ladino, Montenegr
Klaus Welle is a German politician who has served as Secretary General of the European Parliament since 15 March 2009. He was Head of the Office of the President of the European Parliament, Hans-Gert Poettering MEP, from January 2007, he succeeded a Danish career civil servant, who had reached retirement age. Born in Beelen, Germany in July 1964, Welle completed professional training at WestLB in Münster and studied economics at the Witten/Herdecke University. A member of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Welle was a member of the national board of the party's youth organization Young Union from 1989 until 1998. From 1991 until 1995, he chaired the Democrat Youth Community of Europe, which brought together Christian Democrat and Conservative students from across Europe. From 1991 until 1994, Welle worked as Head of Foreign and European Affairs for the CDU party in Bonn, serving under successive Secretaries General Volker Rühe and Peter Hintze. A strong admirer of Chancellor Helmut Kohl, he made his political reputation by masterminding an unexpectedly strong CDU performance in the 1994 European elections.
Welle served as Secretary General of the European People's Party - the transnational, centre-right, European political party - before becoming Secretary General of the EPP Group known as the EPP-ED Group, in the European Parliament. He was subsequently appointed as the first Director General for EU Internal Policies within the general secretariat of the European Parliament, the administrative department which services the 17 parliamentary committees dealing with domestic EU issues. During his time with both the EPP transnational party and EPP Group in the EP, Welle is credited with the strategy of opening the Christian Democrat alliance to a broader range of conservative and liberal political forces, so consolidating most of the mainstream European centre-right under an EPP umbrella; this approach culminated in the EPP Group becoming the largest political group in the European Parliament in June 1999, a position that it has enjoyed since. As Secretary General of the EPP party and EPP Group, Welle played a key part in keeping the British Conservative MEPs in the group - during the period from 1997, when the party moved into Opposition at Westminster - by negotiating or suggesting compromise solutions designed to allow them a high degree of autonomy.
Since 2004, the EPP has been the strongest political force in the main EU institutions as a whole, with Welle still perceived as an important behind-the-scenes influence at senior level within EPP politics. In the run-up to the 2014 European elections, for example, he played a important role in advocating the fielding of lead candidates or'Spitzenkandidaten' by the various European political parties; as Secretary General of the European Parliament since 2009, Welle has interpreted his role in a more proactive way than most of his predecessors emphasising the Parliament's role as a law-making body given the significant boost in powers the institution received under the Lisbon Treaty. He has promoted a long-run shift in the use of staff resources towards policy work, away from back-office administration and traditional overheads, notably translation and interpretation, he has strengthened the policy staff servicing parliamentary committees, has emphasised the importance of ex-ante and ex-post evaluation, so that the Parliament can insert itself more in the whole EU policy cycle, has established a new European Parliamentary Research Service to support such work.
He has used his position to strengthen the Parliament's position in inter-institutional relations, not only with the European Commission, but with the EU Council of Ministers. He boosted links with the US Congress by opening an EP representative office in Washington DC. Konrad Adenauer Foundation, MemberWelle is an advisor to the Yale University-based transatlantic student think tank, European Horizons. On 23 May 2010, British newspaper Sunday Times, citing an anonymous source, alleged that Welle intended to provide an Apple iPad to each of the 736 MEPs; the article suggested that earmarking money for iPads was not the best example of austerity, at a time when EU member states were suffering severe budget deficits. However, a Parliament spokesperson interviewed for the article was unaware of any such initiative. Welle, has promoted moves to a'paperless' Parliament, for example, an'eCommittee' facility, whereby Members can table amendments and undertake some other aspects of committee work electronically
Cronulla Beach, is a patrolled beach on Bate Bay, in Cronulla, New South Wales, Australia. The Cronulla Pavilion and the Cronulla Lifesaving Club are two prominent buildings located close to the sand. Cronulla Park sits behind the beach; the Cronulla Rock Pools are between North Cronulla beach. The Alley is the local name given to the area between North Cronulla Beach. Shark Island is a dangerous reef break, located off Cronulla Beach. Cronulla is derived from an Aboriginal word kurranulla, meaning'place of pink seashells'; the Cronulla Surf Life Saving Club, was one of the first surf clubs established in Australia in 1907. The club started out in a tram carriage and today it is housed in an art deco building on the beachfront, built in 1940. Cronulla is one of the largest and strongest clubs in the surf life saving movement with 1,200 members, including 620 in its nipper ranks. Many lifesavers volunteer their time to patrol the beaches during the season from late September to late April. Cronulla has won three World Championships encompassing all rescue and Surf Life Saving competition and has placed in the top 10 clubs at the Australian championships over the past 20 years.
The Australian Boardriders Battle and Shark Island Challenge are held on Cronulla Beach. Cronulla beach came to international prominence with film Puberty Blues. Beaches in Sydney Wanda Sand dunes 2005 Cronulla riots Beach Lifestyle - Sydney.com