SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lobbying

Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials, most legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying, which involves direct, face-to-face contact, is done by many types of people and organized groups, including individuals in the private sector, fellow legislators or government officials, or advocacy groups. Lobbyists may be among a legislator's constituencies, meaning a voter or bloc of voters within their electoral district. Professional lobbyists are people whose business is trying to influence legislation, regulation, or other government decisions, actions, or policies on behalf of a group or individual who hires them. Individuals and nonprofit organizations can lobby as an act of volunteering or as a small part of their normal job. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying that has become influential; the ethics and morals involved with lobbying are complicated. Lobbying can, at times, be spoken of with contempt, when the implication is that people with inordinate socioeconomic power are corrupting the law in order to serve their own interests.

When people who have a duty to act on behalf of others, such as elected officials with a duty to serve their constituents' interests or more broadly the public good, can benefit by shaping the law to serve the interests of some private parties, a conflict of interest exists. Many critiques of lobbying point to the potential for conflicts of interest to lead to agent misdirection or the intentional failure of an agent with a duty to serve an employer, client, or constituent to perform those duties; the failure of government officials to serve the public interest as a consequence of lobbying by special interests who provide benefits to the official is an example of agent misdirection. In a report carried by the BBC, an OED lexicographer has shown that "lobbying" finds its roots in the gathering of Members of Parliament and peers in the hallways of the UK Houses of Parliament before and after parliamentary debates where members of the public can meet their representatives. One story held that the term originated at the Willard Hotel in Washington, DC, where it was used by President Ulysses S. Grant to describe the political advocates who frequented the hotel's lobby to access Grant—who was there in the evenings to enjoy a cigar and brandy—and tried to buy the president drinks in an attempt to influence his political decisions.

Although the term may have gained more widespread currency in Washington, D. C. by virtue of this practice during the Grant Administration, the OED cites numerous documented uses of the word well before Grant's presidency, including use in Pennsylvania as early as 1808. The term "lobbying" appeared in print as early as 1820: Other letters from Washington affirm, that members of the Senate, when the compromise question was to be taken in the House, were not only "lobbying about the Representatives' Chamber" but active in endeavoring to intimidate certain weak representatives by insulting threats to dissolve the Union. Dictionary definitions:'Lobbying' is a form of advocacy with the intention of influencing decisions made by the government by individuals or more by lobby groups. A'lobbyist' is a person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest or a member of a lobby. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying as part of laws to prevent political corruption and by establishing transparency about possible influences by public lobby registers.

Lobby groups may concentrate their efforts on the legislatures, where laws are created, but may use the judicial branch to advance their causes. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, for example, filed suits in state and federal courts in the 1950s to challenge segregation laws, their efforts resulted in the Supreme Court declaring such laws unconstitutional. Lobbyists may use a legal device known as amicus curiae briefs to try to influence court cases. Briefs are written documents filed with a court by parties to a lawsuit. Amici curiae briefs are briefs filed by groups who are not parties to a suit; these briefs are entered into the court records, give additional background on the matter being decided upon. Advocacy groups use these briefs both to promote their positions; the lobbying industry is affected by the revolving door concept, a movement of personnel between roles as legislators and regulators and roles in the industries affected by legislation and regulation, as the main asset for a lobbyist is contacts with and influence on government officials.

This climate is attractive for ex-government officials. It can mean substantial monetary rewards for lobbying firms, government projects and contracts worth in the hundreds of millions for those they represent; the international standards for the regulation of lobbying were introduced at four international organizations and supranational associations: 1) the European Union. In 2013, the director general of the World Health Organization, Margaret Chan, illustrated the methods used in lobbying against public health: Efforts to prevent noncommunicable diseases go against the business interests of powerful economic operators. In my view, this is one of the biggest challenges facing health promotion, it is not just Big

Zutto.../Last Minute/Walk

"Zutto.../Last Minute/Walk" is the 53rd single of Japanese singer Ayumi Hamasaki. It was released on December 2014, by Avex Trax. In November 2014, Hamasaki announced through her official Facebook page that she had started recording new material for a "winter trilogy single", comprising three ballads composed by Kunio Tago, Tetsuya Yukumi and Tetsuya Komuro; this was the first time of Hamasaki's career that she shared in social media all the process of making the single, mentioning how she had "writer's block" problems while creating the lyrics for the songs. "Zutto...", which translates to "Always...", is one of the few songs of Hamasaki that has a Japanese title, although written in romaji. The single was released digitally on December 17, physically on December 24, 2014, it in five different formats: CD, Limited Edition CD single, three music card singles. "Zutto..." was the only song of the single for which a music video was recorded. The music video, inspired by feelings of "loneliness", including scenes recorded in a studio with −10° Celsius, was published on YouTube on December 19, 2014.

After the release of the single, in February 2015 Hamasaki announced that she had decided to record a music video for "Last Minute", as it had become one of her favorite songs. The video was included in the DVD of A One. "Zutto.../Last Minute/Walk" debuted at number 5 on the Oricon charts, selling 28,446 copies on its first week. It ended up charting for 7 weeks; the single made Hamasaki the first solo artist in Japan's history —and third artist in general, after groups Morning Musume and SMAP— to have 50 singles within the Top 10 since the establishment of the charts in 1968. Zutto... Last Minute Walk Zutto... Last Minute Walk Zutto... Last Minute Walk Winter Ballad Medley Zutto... Last Minute Walk Zutto... Last Minute Walk

Peter Farrell (footballer, born 1957)

Peter John Farrell is an English former football midfielder, now a coach. He started his career with Bury in 1975, before he made a £40,000 move to Port Vale in 1978. Loaned out to Doncaster Rovers and Shrewsbury Town in 1981, he joined Rochdale in 1982, he transferred to Crewe Alexandra in 1985, before he finished his career at non-league Barrow after a short tour of Europe. During this tour he played for IFK Göteborg, Keflavík, Hamilton Academical, APOEL, he spent ten years as a coach at Bolton Wanderers, two years as a coach at Brentford. He was appointed manager of Warri Wolves in February 2016, before returning to former club Port Vale as a coach four months later. Farrell played for Ormskirk, before turning professional at Third Division Bury in 1975. Under Bobby Smith, the "Shakers" posted mid-table finishes in 1975–76 and 1976–77, before continuing to finish an uneventful 1977–78 campaign in mid-table under the management of Bob Stokoe. During his three years at the club Farrell made 54 league appearances.

Farrell joined Dennis Butler's Port Vale for a then-club record fee of £40,000 in November 1978. He was soon ` castigated' by Vale fans, he finished 1978–79 with four goals in 29 games. The "Valiants" avoided finishing second-from-bottom in 1979–80 following two wins in the final two games of the campaign – despite this Farrell scored five goals in 33 games, Vale won in each of the five games in which he scored. There was a managerial merry-go-round at Vale Park, as Butler was replaced by Alan Bloor and John McGrath. Farrell made thirty appearances in 1980–81, scoring twice, but found himself dropped by McGrath in February, he went on loan to Third Division Doncaster Rovers in August 1981 and Second Division Shrewsbury Town in October of that year. However, he did not make a league appearances for either side, played just four games for Vale in 1981–82, he was given a free transfer in May 1982, signed with Rochdale. Under manager Peter Madden, the "Dale" finished 1982–83 outside of the re-election zone on goal difference, after Blackpool were deducted two points.

Rochdale finished third-from-bottom in 1983–84 under new manager Jimmy Greenhoff, but their peers voted them back into the Football League. The club improved under Vic Halom's stewardship, finished seventeenth in 1984–85, still only three points above the re-election zone. During these difficult times Farrell played 73 league games, he joined Crewe Alexandra for the 1985–86 campaign, playing 28 league games for Dario Gradi's side, scoring four goals. He moved to Sweden to play for IFK Göteborg, though he played just three games in the Allsvenskan under manager Gunder Bengtsson. Farrell switched to Frank Upton's Icelandic outfit IBK Keflavík, playing 25 games in the Úrvalsdeild, scoring four goals, he flew to Scotland to play three games for Hamilton Academical. After playing for APOEL in Cyprus, he retired after a spell with English non-league side Barrow. From the turn of the century he played a role in youth development at Bolton Wanderers. In ten years he worked his way up from under-18 coach to assistant academy director.

In July 2011, he was appointed as first team coach at Brentford by manager Uwe Rösler. Following Rösler's departure to Wigan Athletic on 7 December 2013, Farrell left the club nine days later, he returned to football as manager of Nigeria Premier League side Warri Wolves in February 2016. He was appointed as first team coach at former club Port Vale in June 2016, working under new manager Bruno Ribeiro. However, he never signed a contract with the club or took a day's training leaving chairman Norman Smurthwaite to explain that "...it is just not Geographically possible and it has put a lot of pressure on him, so Peter is now not going to be part of the future". Farrell did not find out about the club's change of heart until he heard it reported on the radio, said "It would have been more respectful if someone had the decency to ring me up rather than leave it for 10 days". Source