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Lobedu people

Balobedu is a southern African tribe and an ethnic group of the Northern Sotho group. They were known as BaKwebo; the name "bolobedu" means place of tribute. Hence BaLobedu are people, they have their own kingdom, the Balobedu Kingdom, within the Limpopo Province of South Africa with a female ruler, the Rain Queen Modjadji. The population of BaLobedu numbers around 2 million, it is estimated. Their population is distributed in around Vhembe regions of Limpopo; some are found in Gauteng as labour migrants in Tembisa and Alexandra townships. The majority of Northern Sotho people living in Tembisa are BaLobedu, their language is known as Lobedu, KheLobedu or Khelovedu, a "non-Pedi" dialect of Northern Sotho. Khelovedu is grammatically similar to other Sotho–Tswana languages. Khelovedu is similar to the TshiGuvhu and TshiIlafuri dialects of TshiVenda. Mutual intelligibility between these TshiVenda dialects and Khelovedu is so high that speakers of this Venda dialects can communicate with Khelovedu speakers without difficulty.

A TshiGuvhu speaker can understand a Khelovedu speaker so or vice versa, Khelovedu could have been classified as a Venda dialect or an independent language. For example, Northern Sotho and its parent dialect Sepedi have a higher mutual intelligibility with Southern Sotho and Setswana than with Khelovedu. Most Khelovedu speakers only learn to speak Northern Sotho at school, as such Northern Sotho is only a second or third language and foreign to them like English and Afrikaans; until Khelovedu existed only in an unwritten form, the standard Northern Sotho language and orthography was used for teaching and writing. As of 2018, a Khelovedu dictionary is being compiled and a specific Khilovedu orthography is in the process of being developed. There are three sub-groups of the Lobedu: BaLobedu Ba Ga Modjadji, the main group of BaLobedu and is led by the Royal House of Spoja BaLobedu Ba Ga Sekgopo, which are located at Ga-Sekgopo Village, they separated from the main group of BaLobedu in the late 1700s when the first female ruler of BaLobedu was crowned.

BaLobedu Ba Ga Mamaila, founded by Prince Mmamaila elder brother of Modjadji I, who objected to being ruled by women. He was one of the eldest sons of the last male rulers of BaLobedu, King Mokodo Mohale of the Royal House of Mohale of BaKwebo as BaLobedu where known; this tribe is located at around Ga-Mamaila and Sekhosese township an area known as Boroka which means north in Khelovedu. The Balobedu migrated south from present day Zimbabwe to their present location in South Africa; the central tribal village is Khethakoni in the district of Balobedu. This Kalanga migrants consisted of the Mokwebo, who are the ancestors of all wild pig clans like Mamabolo Ramafalo and Modjadji, the Nengwekhulu, who are ancestors of all elephant clans and the Ramabulana, ancestors of the other elephant clans, are uncles of the Nengwekhulus. All BaLobedu are descended from these three groups BaKwebo and Ramabulana; the rest of the people are descendants of East Sotho or BaLaudi refugees and indigenous South Venda groups like BaNgona.

As a results the most common animal totems among BaLobedu are the elephant. The wild pig clans are the Modjadji, Modika, Mabulana, Mokwebo, Molokwane and Ramafalo all this are descendants of the ancient Mokwebo royal house. All Chiefs in Bolobedu are of the wild pig clans with the exception of the chiefs of Taulome who are Dinoko; the elephant clan are Rabothata, Shai, Matlou and Maenetja, these are the descendants of the ancient royal house of Nengwekhulu. The BaLobedu are more related to the Lozwi Kingdom started by Dlembeu; as they were migrating southward, another splinter went South-East. The Northern Lozwi or Lozi are found in the present day Southern province of Zambia, they settled alongside the Zambezi River Banks day establish it as Musioa-thunya, present day Victoria falls. They have the praise lines Sai/Shai and Dewa, call themselves the people of Thobela, the same as the Lozvi/Kalanga; the rainmaking powers of Queen Modjadji are synonymous with the Njelele Shrine in SiLozvi and it is therefore accepted that there is an intertwining of their history with the rest of the Lozvi.

Linguists have listed Lobedu together with Kalanga, Venda, Shankwe and Karanga, as a language of the Lozvi, connects them to their history. Their rainmaking history is tied to that of the Banyai in northern Matabeleland and. Kalanga in southern Matabeleland ad there re two areas called Njelele in Matabeleland. Balobedu have their own traditional dances called khekhapa for women and dinaka for men. Dinaka is a traditional dance of all the Northern Sotho speaking people covering such areas as gaSekhukhune, gaDikgale and Bolobedu. Balobedu have a male initiation ceremony called Moroto; the female initiation ceremony is called Dikhopa. Balobedu have their own way of talking to their God through Dithugula, they sit next to a traditionally designed circle in their homes and start calling the names of their ancestors. The Lobedu have female rulers known as "Rain Queens"; the queen is believed to have powers to make rain. The Balobedu Kingdom consists of a number of small groups tied together by

John Collingham Moore

John Collingham Moore was a British artist during the Victorian era. He painted landscapes in Italy before becoming known as a portrait painter upon his return to England. John Collingham Moore was born in Gainsborough in Lincolnshire, he was one of the 14 children of the artist William Moore of York, who in the first half of the 19th century enjoyed a considerable reputation in the north of England as a painter of portraits and landscape. Amongst his brothers were the artists, Albert Joseph Moore and Henry Moore. Moore trained at the Royal Academy Schools from 1850, he first worked in London. In 1858, the three brothers moved to Italy in order to paint the landscape so popular with the British public, in both oils and watercolour, he sent paintings of Rome and the Roman Campagna back to England, where they were exhibited in the Dudley Gallery's summer exhibitions in London. Upon his return to England, however, he became best known as a portrait painter. Moore married Emily Simonds, the youngest sister of the sculptor and businessman George Blackall Simonds of Reading in Berkshire.

The couple had a daughter. They lived together at Kensington in Middlesex. In life, Moore lived at Northbrook House in Grove Road, St John's Wood in Middlesex, where he died on 12 July 1880

Tan Si

Tan Si is a Chinese footballer playing as a striker for Hunan Billows in the China League Two. He would make his league debut coming on as a late substitute against Changsha Ginde F. C. in a 3-0 victory on October 30, 2005. Several weeks he will score his first senior match goal against Shanghai Shenhua on November 15, 2005 in the Chinese Super League in 1-1 draw. Under the club's manager Pei Encai, Tan would start to establish himself within the team, however due to a run of bad results Pei Encai would leave the club and his replacement Chen Fangping would decide to allow Tan to leave the club at the end of the 2007 Chinese Super League season. Tan Si would transfer to second tier club Jiangsu Sainty and be reunited with his previous manager Pei Encai, along with his teammates Ren Yongshun, Guo Mingyue and Li Zhuangfei in early 2008, he would start to establish himself within the team and go on to score his first goal for the club in a league game on July 5, 2008 as well as scoring his first hat-trick against Harbin Yiteng F.

C. in a 5-2 win. Going on to become a vital member of the team Tan would go on to play in thirteen games and score ten goals to help Jiangsu Sainty in their promotion to the Chinese Super League. After winning the 2008 Chinese League One title Tan Si and Jiangsu Sainty enjoyed an impressive start to the 2009 Chinese Super League season, which saw him included in Gao Hongbo's senior team squad for several friendlies. On 26 February 2015, Tan transferred to China League Two side Nanjing Qianbao on a free transfer. On 9 March 2018, Tan transferred to League Two side Hunan Billows. Jiangsu Sainty China League One: 2008 Player stats at

Course in General Linguistics

Course in General Linguistics is a book compiled by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye from notes on lectures given by Ferdinand de Saussure at the University of Geneva between 1906 and 1911. It was published in 1916, after Saussure's death, is regarded as the starting point of structural linguistics, an approach to linguistics that flourished in Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. One of Saussure's translators, Roy Harris, summarized Saussure's contribution to linguistics and the study of language in the following way: Language is no longer regarded as peripheral to our grasp of the world we live in, but as central to it. Words are not mere vocal labels or communicational adjuncts superimposed upon an given order of things, they are collective products of social interaction, essential instruments through which human beings constitute and articulate their world. This twentieth-century view of language has profoundly influenced developments throughout the whole range of human sciences.

It is marked in linguistics, psychology and anthropology". Although Saussure was interested in historical linguistics, the Course develops a theory of semiotics, more applicable. A manuscript containing Saussure's original notes was found in 1996, published as Writings in General Linguistics. Saussure distinguishes between "language" and "speech". Language is a well-defined homogeneous object in the heterogeneous mass of speech facts. Speech is many-sided and heterogeneous: it belongs both to the individual and to society. Language is a self-contained whole and a principle of classification: it is social. Language is not complete in any speaker: it is a product, assimilated by speakers, it exists only within a collective. Language is "a system of signs that express ideas". To explain how the social crystallization of language comes about, Saussure proposes the notion of "individual speaking". Speaking is intentional. While individual speaking is heterogeneous, to say composed of unrelated or differing parts or elements, language is homogeneous—a system of signs composed of the union of meanings and "sound images", in which both parts are psychological.

Therefore, as speech is systematic, it is this that Saussure focuses on since it allows an investigative methodology, "scientific" in the sense of systematic enquiry. Beginning with the Greek word semîon meaning "sign", Saussure proposes a new science of "semiology": "a science that studies the life of signs within society"; the focus of Saussure's investigation is sign. The sign is described as a "double entity", made up of the signifier, or sound pattern, the signified, or concept; the sound pattern is a psychological, not a material concept, belonging to the system. Both components of the linguistic sign are inseparable. One way to appreciate this is to think of them as being like either side of a piece of paper – one side cannot exist without the other; the relationship between signifier and signified is, not quite that simple. Saussure is adamant that language cannot be considered a collection of names for a collection of objects. According to Saussure, language is not a nomenclature. Indeed, the basic insight of Saussure's thought is that denotation, the reference to objects in some universe of discourse, is mediated by system-internal relations of difference.

For Saussure, there is no essential or natural reason why a particular signifier should be attached to a particular signified. Saussure calls this the "arbitrariness of the sign". No two people have the same concept of "tree," since no two people have the same experiences or psychology. We can communicate "tree," however, for the same reason we can communicate at all: because we have agreed to use it in a consistent way. If we agreed to use the word and sound for "horse" instead, it would be called "horse" to the same effect. Since all, important is agreement and consistency, the connection is arbitrary. In further support of the arbitrary nature of the sign, Saussure goes on to argue that if words stood for pre-existing universal concepts they would have exact equivalents in meaning from one language to the next and this is not so. Languages reflect shared experience in complicated ways and can paint different pictures of the world from one another. To explain this, Saussure uses the word bœuf as an example.

In English, he says, we have different words for the animal and the meat product: beef. In French, bœuf is used to refer to both concepts. In Saussure's view, particular words are born out of a particular society's needs, rather than out of a need to label a pre-existing set of concepts, but the picture is even more complicated, through the integral notion of'relative motivation'. Relative motivation refers to the compositionality of the linguistic system, along the lines of an immediate constituent analysis; this is to say that, at the level of langue, hierarchically nested signifiers have determined signified. An obvious example is in the English number system: That is, though twenty and two might be arbitrary representations of a numerical concept, twenty-two, twenty-three etc. are constrained by those more arbitrary meanings. The tense of verbs provides another obvious example: The meaning of "kicked" is motivated by the meanings of "kick-" and "-ed". But, most this captures the insight that the value of a syntagm—a system-level sent


The SACI-2 was a Brazilian experimental satellite and built by the Brazilian Institute for Space Research. It was launched on 11 December 1999 from the INPE base in Alcântara, Maranhão, by the Brazilian VLS-1 V02 rocket. Due to failure of its second stage, the rocket veered off course and had to be destroyed 3 minutes and 20 seconds after launch; the name was an acronym of Satélite de Aplicações CIentíficas, but was taken from the Saci character of Brazilian folklore. The satellite weighted 80 kg, it was a box 60 cm long and 40 cm square, with a circular base plate and surrounded by a metal ring, both about 80 cm in diameter. Besides being a technology testbed, it carried four scientific payloads, with a total weight of 10 kg, to investigate plasma bubbles in the geomagnetic field, air glow, anomalous cosmic radiation fluxes, it was meant to circle the Earth on a circular orbit at 750 km altitude, inclined 17.5 ° from the Equator. Solar cells: Gallium Arsenide Dimensions: 3 panels of 57 cm x 44 cm Efficiency: 19% Power output: 150 W Nickel Cadmium Battery Cells Voltage: 1.4 V Capacity: 4.5 Ah Remote control rate: 19.2 kbit/s Transmission rate: 500 kbit/s Antennas of edge: 2 of transmission and 2 of reception, type Microstrip Operating frequency telemetry/remote control: 2,250 GHz / 2,028 GHz Receiving antenna in soil: 3.4 m in diameterThe spin-stabilized spacecraft carried two S-band communication links, a 48 MB solid state data recorder.

It is variously reported to have cost between US$800,000 and US$1.7 million. 1999 in spaceflight SACI-2 in Gunter's Space Page

Chronique d'un été

Chronique d'un été is a 1961 French documentary film shot during the summer of 1960 by sociologist Edgar Morin and anthropologist and filmmaker Jean Rouch, with the technical and aesthetic collaboration of Québécois director-cameraman Michel Brault. The film begins with a discussion between Rouch and Morin on whether or not it is possible to act sincerely in front of a camera. A cast of real-life individuals are introduced and are led by the filmmakers to discuss topics on the themes of French society and happiness in the working class. At the end of the movie, the filmmakers show their subjects the compiled footage and have the subjects discuss the level of reality that they thought the movie obtained; this feature was filmed in Saint-Tropez, France. Synchronized sound was used by Rouch using a 16 mm camera connected through pilottone with a prototype of Nagra III, a transistorized tape recorder with electronic speed control, developed by Stefan Kudelski, it is widely regarded as an experimental and structurally innovative film and an example of cinéma vérité and direct cinema.

The term "cinema verite" was suggested by the film's publicist and coined by Rouch, highlighting a connection between film and its context, a fact Brault confirmed in an interview after a screening of Chronique d'un été at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto in 2011. In a 2014 Sight and Sound poll, film critics voted Chronicle of a Summer the sixth best documentary film of all time. All cast members appear as themselves. Jean Rouch Edgar Morin Marceline Loridan-Ivens Marilù Parolini Angelo Jean-Pierre Sergent Jean Nadine Ballot Régis Debray Céline Jean-Marc Landry Raymond Jacques Simone Henri Madi Catherine Sophie Véro Maxie Jacques Rivette Inquiring Nuns Chronique d'un été on IMDb Chronicle of a Summer: Truth and Consequences an essay by Sam Di Iorio at the Criterion Collection