The Hawaiian lobelioids are a group of flowering plants in the bellflower family, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species; the six genera can be broadly separated based on growth habit: Clermontia are branched shrubs or small trees, up to 7 metres tall, with fleshy fruits. The group contains morphologically divergent species, was long thought to have derived from at least three introductions: one for Lobelia and Trematolobelia, one for Brighamia, one for Clermontia and Delissea. Based on recent DNA sequence evidence it now believed that all are derived from a single introduction; this was a Lobelia-like species that arrived about 13 million years ago, when Gardner Pinnacles and French Frigate Shoals were high islands and long before the current main islands existed. Many species have beautiful and spectacular flowers those in Lobelia and Trematolobelia, they are highly vulnerable to feeding by feral ungulates such as feral pigs.
The bark contains a milky latex, is chewed by rats and pigs. Seedlings are vulnerable to disturbance by pig digging, in areas with high densities of pigs it is not uncommon to find the only lobelioids being epiphytic on larger trees or on fallen logs. Brighamia is quite unlike the other genera, with a succulent stem and long, tubular flowers, it was long thought to have been the result of a separate introduction, its unique combination of characters made it difficult to place. These characters are the result of adaptation to growing on cliffs and pollination by the endemic Hawaiian hawkmoth, Manduca blackburni; this moth is now itself listed as endangered, surviving on the southern slopes of Maui, well away from where Brighamia live. Some pollination may be done by related alien hawkmoths such as the five-spotted hawkmoth and pink-spotted hawkmoth. Despite their inaccessible habitat on cliffs, Brighamia are sometimes hand-pollinated by botanists to ensure seed set. Both species are now rare; the genus is named in honour of the first director of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, William Tufts Brigham.
Brighamia species Brighamia insignis* A. Gray – ʻŌlulu Brighamia rockii* H. St. John – Pua ʻAla † species believed to be extinct * species is listed as endangered Lobelia is a cosmopolitan genus of over 350 species, including common ornamentals. However, many lobelioid genera are derived from it and it is paraphyletic; the Hawaiian species are divided based on flower color and other characters. Like Brighamia and Trematolobelia, the fruit of Lobelia is a dry capsule; these species are the closest in appearance to the original Hawaiian colonist. Lobelia species section Galeatella: flowers red or yellow to white Lobelia gaudichaudii* A. DC Lobelia gloria-montis Rock Lobelia kauaensis A. Heller - Puʻe Lobelia villosa H. St. John & Hosaka section Revolutella: flowers blue or magenta Lobelia dunbarii Rock Lobelia grayana F. Wimmer Lobelia hillebrandii Rock Lobelia hypoleuca Hillebr. – Kuhiʻaikamoʻowahie Lobelia monostachya* Lammers Lobelia niihauensis* H. St. John Lobelia oahuensis. - Pānaunau † species believed to be extinct * species is listed Endangered Trematolobelia is distinguished from Lobelia by its unique dispersal method.
Rather than drying and splitting apart, the outer wall of the fruit disintegrates, revealing a perforated hard "frame" that allows the tiny wind-dispersed seeds to escape. They can be quite spectacular when in flower, with multiple flower hundreds of flowers. Individual plants live for 5 -- 10 years before dying. Trematobelia species Trematolobelia grandifolia Rock Trematolobelia kauaiensis Rock – Koliʻi Trematolobelia macrostachys A. Zahlbr. – Koliʻi Trematolobelia singularis* H. St. John † species believed to be extinct * species is listed Endangered Clermontia, with 22 species, are the most common of Hawaiian lobelioids. Unlike Cyanea, which are found in dense forest, Clermontia are found in more open areas and edges, therefore persist better when forests become fragmented. There are still many endangered species; the flowers are large and spectacular. Clermontia is a important host for many species of Hawaiian Drosophilidae; the larvae of these flies breed in the rotting bark, leaves and fruit of all lobelioids, but Clermontia since it is largest and most common.
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Matthias de l'Obel
Mathias de l'Obel, Mathias de Lobel or Matthaeus Lobelius was a Flemish physician and botanist, born in Lille, Flanders, in what is now Nord-Pas de Calais and died at Highgate, England. Graduating in medicine from the University of Montpellier in 1565 he practiced medicine in the low countries and England, including positions as personal physicians to two monarchs. A member of the sixteenth century Flemish School of Botany, he wrote a series of major treatises on plants in both Latin and Dutch, he was the first botanist to appreciate the distinction between dicotyledons. The Lobelia plant is named after him. Mathias de l'Obel was born in Lille in the County of Flanders, Spanish Netherlands, now French Flanders in 1538, the son of Jean De l'Obel, a lawyer whose practice specialized in aristocrats in the army. Little is known about his life. By the age of sixteen he had developed an interest in both botany and medicine, he spent some time traveling and studying in Italy in 1551 and 1563–1564 before studying medicine in Leuven and at Montpellier in France.
He sought out Montpellier due to the reputation of Guillaume Rondolet, as had his earlier contemporary, Carolus Clusius. It is said that l'Obel was Rondolet's favourite pupil, on his death in 1566 l'Obel inherited all his manuscripts, his botanical field work was under the supervision of Rondolet's son-in-law, Jacques Salomon d'Assas. He graduated with a medical degree on 22 March 1565, at the age of twenty-seven, he remained in Montpellier for a further two years, furthering his studies, including botanical expeditions in the Languedoc region. He spent some time traveling and settled in Elizabethan England for about four years, together with his fellow student Pierre Pena as a protestant refugee, he lived on Lime Street, London in any area containing many protestant refugees from the continent, among fellow Flemings like James Garrett the apothecary. There he came to know the English botanist, John Gerard, he and Pena brought with them their botanical collection and carried out botanical exploration in England before returning to the low countries sometime between 1571 and 1574.l'Obel married Isabeau Laigniez in Lille in 1596.
Of their children, one daughter, Mary l'Obel, married Louis Le Myre, who collaborated with him, the other, Anne l'Obel married Wolfgang Rumler. Both sons in law, le Myre and Rumler were pharmacists, with good reputations in London society, he moved permanently to England in 1596. Among the English botanists, his closest friend was Thomas Penny, whom he had first met in Montpellier, to whom he pays tribute in his dedication of the Stirpium adversaria. L'Obel died in Highgate in 1616 at the age of 78, was buried in the churchyard of St Denis. L'Obel's coat of arms alludes with two poplar trees. Following his studies in Montpellier l'Obel set up a medical practice in England, living in London, in Somerset, near Bristol at the home of his patron, Edward St. Loo. There he was joined in botanical expeditions by Clusius. On his return to continental Europe, he practised in Antwerp and Delft; this period from 1571 to 1596, prior to his return to England was one of the most productive in his life, with two major publications.
Delft had been the residence of William, Prince of Orange since 1572, became the capital of the newly independent Netherlands in 1581. In Delft l'Obel served as personal physician to the Protestant Prince William; the exact date of this appointment is uncertain, but his Kruydtboeck is dedicated to the Prince, the title page describes l'Obel as Medecijn der Princ. Suggesting it was some time between returning to the low countries in 1571 and 1581, his name appears on a list of court personnel dated 1578. William. However, was assassinated in 1584. Claims that after William's death, l'Obel was employed by the Estates General, the governing body of the Netherlands, have been disputed. Following the assassination l'Obel became a city physician in Middelburg, a prosperous centre of trade and capital of the province of Zeeland, he was responsible for the establishment of a botanical herb garden there, would have known Ambrosius Bosschaert, the artist, best known for his meticulous flower paintings. Bosschaert was a member and dean of the Saint Luke’s Guild in Middelburg.
In 1596 he moved from Middelburg, returning once more to England, becoming personal physician and botanicus regius to King James I of England in 1607. From there he periodically returned to Middelburg for a visit. Amongst his responsibilities in England was as superintendent of the botanical garden of Lord Zouch in Hackney, a partnership brought about by Clusius; this was a physic garden and at one of the few in existence in England. It became a gathering place for botanists, enabling l'Obel to become an important link between England and the continent, he accompanied Lord Zouch on his posting as ambassador to Denmark in 1598, where he carried out botanical exploration. The latter was published in 1605 as an appendix to the second edition of Stirpium adversaria, it was through Zouch. In 1597 he became involved in a controversy surrounding his friend John Gerard. In 1596 he had provided a preface to Gerard's Catalogus; the following year, Gerard was working on a translation of Dodoens's Stirpium historiae pemptades sex, to be published by John Norton, the Queen's Printer.
James Garrett, on a visit to the Norton's publishing hous
In biogeography, a taxon is said to have a cosmopolitan distribution if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats. Such a taxon is said to exhibit cosmopolitism; the opposite extreme is endemism. The term pandemism is in use, but not all authors are consistent in the sense in which they use the term; this means near cosmopolitanism, but with major gaps in the distribution, complete absence from Australia. Terminology varies, there is some debate whether the true opposite of endemism is pandemism or cosmopolitism; the term "cosmopolitan distribution" should not be taken because it is applied loosely in various contexts. The intention is not to include polar regions, extreme altitudes, deserts, or small, isolated islands. For example, the housefly is nearly as cosmopolitan as any animal species, but it is neither oceanic nor polar in its distribution; the term "cosmopolitan weed" implies no more than that the plant in question occurs on all continents except Antarctica.
Another concept in biogeography is that of oceanic endemism. Although there is a temptation to regard the World Ocean as a medium without biological boundaries, this is far from reality. For example, temperature gradients prevent free migration of tropical species between the Atlantic and Indian-plus-Pacific oceans though there is open passage past continental masses such as the Americas and Africa/Eurasia. Again, as far as many species are concerned, the Southern Ocean and the Northern marine regions are isolated from each other by the intolerable temperatures of the tropical regions. In the light of such considerations, it is no surprise to find that endemism and cosmopolitanism are quite as marked in the oceans as on land. Another aspect of cosmopolitanism is that of ecological limitations. A species, cosmopolitan because it occurs in all oceans might in fact occupy only littoral zones, or only particular ranges of depths, or only estuaries, for example. Analogously, terrestrial species might be present only in forests, or mountainous regions, or sandy arid regions or the like.
Such distributions might be patchy, or extended. Factors of such a nature are taken for granted, so they are mentioned explicitly in mentioning cosmopolitan distributions. Cosmopolitanism of a particular species or variety should not be confused with cosmopolitanism of higher taxa. For example, the family Myrmeleontidae is cosmopolitan in the sense that every continent except Antarctica is home to some indigenous species within the Myrmeleontidae, but nonetheless no one species, nor genus, of the Myrmeleontidae is cosmopolitan. Conversely as a result of human introduction of unnatural apiculture to the New World, Apis mellifera is the only cosmopolitan member of its family. Where a cosmopolitan population is recognised as a single species, such as indeed Apis mellifera, there will be variation between regional sub-populations; such variation is at the level of subspecies, varieties or morphs, whereas some variation is too slight or inconsistent for formal recognition. For an example of subspecific variation, consider the so-called "African killer bee", the subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata, the Cape bee, the subspecies Apis mellifera capensis.
Other cosmopolitan species, such as the osprey and house sparrow, present similar examples, but in yet other species there are less familiar complications: some migratory birds such as the Arctic tern occur from the Arctic to the Southern Ocean, but at any one season of the year they are to be in passage or concentrated at only one end of the range. Some such species breed only at one end of the range. Seen purely as an aspect of cosmopolitanism, such distributions could be seen as temporal, seasonal variations. Other complications of cosmopolitanism on a planet too large for local populations to interbreed with each other, lead to genetic effects such as ring species, for example in the Larus gulls, they lead to the formation of clines such as in Drosophila. Cosmopolitan distributions can be observed both in extinct and extant species. For example, Lystrosaurus was cosmopolitan in the Early Triassic after a mass extinction. In the modern world, the killer whale has a cosmopolitan distribution, extending over most of the Earth's oceans.
The wasp Copidosoma floridanum is another example. Other examples include humans, dogs, the foliose lichen Parmelia sulcata, the mollusc genus Mytilus; the term can apply to some diseases. It may result from a broad range of environmental tolerances or from rapid dispersal compared to the time needed for evolution. Ecoregion Gondwanan distribution Holarctic Pantropical The dictionary definition of cosmopolitan at Wiktionary
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Traditional medicine comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge and practices based on the theories and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness". Traditional medicine is contrasted with scientific medicine. In some Asian and African countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs; when adopted outside its traditional culture, traditional medicine is considered a form of alternative medicine. Practices known as traditional medicines include traditional European medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Korean medicine, traditional African medicine, Siddha medicine, ancient Iranian Medicine, Islamic medicine, Ifá.
Scientific disciplines which study traditional medicine include herbalism, ethnomedicine and medical anthropology. The WHO notes, that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have negative or dangerous effects" and that "further research is needed to ascertain the efficacy and safety" of several of the practices and medicinal plants used by traditional medicine systems; the World Health Organization has implemented a nine year strategy to "support Member States in developing proactive policies and implementing action plans that will strengthen the role traditional medicine plays in keeping populations healthy." In the written record, the study of herbs dates back 5,000 years to the ancient Sumerians, who described well-established medicinal uses for plants. In Ancient Egyptian medicine, the Ebers papyrus from c. 1552 BC records a list of folk remedies and magical medical practices. The Old Testament mentions herb use and cultivation in regards to Kashrut. Many herbs and minerals used in Ayurveda were described by ancient Indian herbalists such as Charaka and Sushruta during the 1st millennium BC.
The first Chinese herbal book was the Shennong Bencao Jing, compiled during the Han Dynasty but dating back to a much earlier date, augmented as the Yaoxing Lun during the Tang Dynasty. Early recognised Greek compilers of existing and current herbal knowledge include Pythagoras and his followers, Aristotle, Theophrastus and Galen. Roman sources included Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Celsus's De Medicina. Pedanius Dioscorides drew on and corrected earlier authors for his De Materia Medica, adding much new material. Latin manuscripts of De Materia Medica were combined with a Latin herbal by Apuleius Platonicus and were incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon codex Cotton Vitellius C. III; these early Greek and Roman compilations became the backbone of European medical theory and were translated by the Persian Avicenna, the Persian Rhazes and the Jewish Maimonides. Some fossils have been used in traditional medicine since antiquity. Arabic indigenous medicine developed from the conflict between the magic-based medicine of the Bedouins and the Arabic translations of the Hellenic and Ayurvedic medical traditions.
Spanish indigenous medicine was influenced by the Arabs from 711 to 1492. Islamic physicians and Muslim botanists such as al-Dinawari and Ibn al-Baitar expanded on the earlier knowledge of materia medica; the most famous Persian medical treatise was Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, an early pharmacopoeia and introduced clinical trials. The Canon was translated into Latin in the 12th century and remained a medical authority in Europe until the 17th century; the Unani system of traditional medicine is based on the Canon. Translations of the early Roman-Greek compilations were made into German by Hieronymus Bock whose herbal, published in 1546, was called Kreuter Buch; the book was translated into Dutch as Pemptades by Rembert Dodoens, from Dutch into English by Carolus Clusius, published by Henry Lyte in 1578 as A Nievve Herball. This became John Gerard's General Hiftorie of Plantes; each new work was a compilation of existing texts with new additions. Women's folk knowledge existed in undocumented parallel with these texts.
Forty-four drugs, flavouring agents and emollients mentioned by Dioscorides are still listed in the official pharmacopoeias of Europe. The Puritans took Gerard's work to the United States where it influenced American Indigenous medicine. Francisco Hernández, physician to Philip II of Spain spent the years 1571–1577 gathering information in Mexico and wrote Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus, many versions of which have been published including one by Francisco Ximénez. Both Hernandez and Ximenez fitted Aztec ethnomedicinal information into the European concepts of disease such as "warm", "cold", "moist", but it is not clear that the Aztecs used these categories. Juan de Esteyneffer's Florilegio medicinal de todas las enfermedas compiled European texts and added 35 Mexican plants. Martín de la Cruz wrote an herbal in Nahuatl, translated into Latin by Juan Badiano as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis or Codex Barberini, Latin 241 and given to King Carlos V of Spain in 1552, it was written in haste and influenced by the European occupation of the previous 30 year
In zoological nomenclature, a type species is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e. the species that contains the biological type specimen. A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen, the type of a species name; the species name that has that type can be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology, a type species is assigned for each genus; every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not recognized as valid, is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type.
A type species is both a concept and a practical system, used in the classification and nomenclature of animals. The "type species" represents the reference species and thus "definition" for a particular genus name. Whenever a taxon containing multiple species must be divided into more than one genus, the type species automatically assigns the name of the original taxon to one of the resulting new taxa, the one that includes the type species; the term "type species" is regulated in zoological nomenclature by article 42.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, which defines a type species as the name-bearing type of the name of a genus or subgenus. In the Glossary, type species is defined as The nominal species, the name-bearing type of a nominal genus or subgenus; the type species permanently attaches a formal name to a genus by providing just one species within that genus to which the genus name is permanently linked. The species name in turn is fixed, to a type specimen. For example, the type species for the land snail genus Monacha is Helix cartusiana, the name under which the species was first described, known as Monacha cartusiana when placed in the genus Monacha.
That genus is placed within the family Hygromiidae. The type genus for that family is the genus Hygromia; the concept of the type species in zoology was introduced by Pierre André Latreille. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature states that the original name of the type species should always be cited, it gives an example in Article 67.1. Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775 was designated as the type species of the genus Homarus, thus giving it the name Homarus marinus. However, the type species of Homarus should always be cited using its original name, i.e. Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775. Although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants does not contain the same explicit statement, examples make it clear that the original name is used, so that the "type species" of a genus name need not have a name within that genus, thus in Article 10, Ex. 3, the type of the genus name Elodes is quoted as the type of the species name Hypericum aegypticum, not as the type of the species name Elodes aegyptica.
Glossary of scientific naming Genetypes – genetic sequence data from type specimens. Holotype Paratype Principle of Typification Type Type genus