SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Local government

A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government occupies the second or third tier of government with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions; the question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public governance. The institutions of local government vary between countries, where similar arrangements exist, the terminology varies. Common names for local government entities include state, region, county, district, township, borough, municipality, shire and local service district.

Local government traditionally had limited power in Egypt's centralized state. Under the central government were twenty-six governorates; these were subdivided into villages or towns. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers; the coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman. Before the revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables, but under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government; the extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village.

The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union, fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Mubarak; the earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state; the district police station balanced the notables, the system of local government integrated them into the regime. Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces; the elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget.

In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, local policies reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers. In recent years, Mali has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of Bamako, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, 682 rural community districts; the state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, it provides technical support and legal recourse to these levels.

Opportunities for direct political participation, increased local responsibility for development have been improved. In August–September 1998, elections were held for urban council members, who subsequently elected their mayors. In May/June 1999, citizens of the communes elected their communal council members for the first time. Female voter turnout was about 70% of the total, observers considered the process open and transparent. With mayors and boards in place at the local level, newly elected officials, civil society organizations, decentralized technical services, private sector interests, other communes, donor groups began partnering to further development; the cercles will be reinstituted with a legal and financial basis of their own. Their councils will be chosen from members of the communal councils; the regions, at the highest decentralized level, will have a similar legal and financial autonomy, will comprise a number of cercles within their geographical boundaries. Mali needs to build capacity at these levels to mobilize and manage financial resources.

South Africa has a two tiered local government system comprising local munici

Disha Parmar

Disha Parmar is an Indian actress and model. She is known for her lead role as Pankhuri in Star Plus' Pyaar Ka Dard Hai Meetha Meetha Pyaara Pyaara. Parmar completed her schooling from Sadhu Vaswani International School Delhi. During her higher secondary education, she used to participate in dance competitions and fashion shows. For a year, she worked in a Delhi-based company'Elite Model Management India Pvt. Ltd' and organised the auditions for Rajshri Productions, she was selected for the lead role of Pankhuri in Pyaar Ka Dard Hai. She was 17. Parmar appeared in commercial ads in Delhi, she left her studies in midway as she was named as the lead for the show Pyaar Ka Dard Hai Meetha Meetha Pyaara Pyaara as Pankhuri. She has received praise for her pairing with co-star Nakuul Mehta She continued with working in the commercials along with the serial. In 2017 she played the lead role of Jhanvi/Jia in Zee Tv's daily soap Woh Apna Sa, she participated in Box Cricket League in 2014. List of Hindi television actresses Disha Parmar on IMDb

David Rocco's Dolce Vita

David Rocco's Dolce Vita is a television show hosted by David Rocco airing since 2004. The show is shot on location in and around the cities and countrysides of Italy, following the cultural and culinary escapades of Rocco and his friends. Besides cooking, the show explores the Italian ways of life and ways of food in this culture exposé. Rocco and his wife Nina traipse around Florence and Sicily, cooking dinner for friends, checking out local hot spots, living the sweet life; the recipes that Rocco makes are easy to follow, classic Italian dishes. The whole concept behind the cooking aspect of the program is that good cooking does not have to be difficult; the dishes he makes are always simple and quick. Some episodes deal with thematic recipes, such as "The Hunt for Funghi". Other episodes include "The Party", "Boy's Night Out", "Rocco and the City". David Rocco's Dolce Vita Official Website David Rocco's Dolce Vita on Food Network Canada David Rocco's Dolce Vita on TLN