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Locarno

Locarno is a southern Swiss town and municipality in the district Locarno, located on the northern shore of Lake Maggiore at its northeastern tip in the canton of Ticino at the southern foot of the Swiss Alps. It has a population of about 16,000, about 56,000 for the agglomeration of the same name including Ascona besides other municipalities; the town of Locarno is located on the northeastern part of Maggia's delta. It is the 74th largest city in Switzerland by population and the third largest in the Ticino canton, after Lugano and Bellinzona; the official language of Locarno is Italian. The town is known for hosting the Locarno International Film Festival which takes place every year in August and involves open-air screenings at the main square, the Piazza Grande, it is known for the Locarno Treaties, a series of European territorial agreements negotiated here in October 1925. In January 2004, the Italian historian Marino Vigano speculated that Locarno's castle may have been designed by Leonardo da Vinci.

In 1934 in the vicinity of today's Via S. Jorio, a necropolis with 14 urn graves from the Early Bronze Age were found; some of the urns were directly buried. The urns contained, in addition to burned bones, bronze ornaments, which had some fire damage, bangles, hair pins with conical head and thickened neck and knives. Similar urns were discovered in the district of S. Antonio, also a small cemetery; the ceramic and bronze objects date from the Canegrate culture. However, no traces of the settlement have been discovered. In 1935, a large necropolis was discovered at Solduno; the over 200 graves cover nearly a thousand years, from the La Tène culture to the 3rd century AD. Many of the La Tène era grave goods are brooches; these objects demonstrate a cultural influence from regions north of the Alps. However, the ceramic objects are indigenous to Golasecca culture which spread into Ticino and Lombardy. Between 1946 and 1949, a number of Roman era tombs were discovered on the terrace between the churches of Santa Maria in Selva and San Giovanni Battista in Solduno.

The Roman city that became Locarno was therefore between the vicus of this cemetery. Intensive construction and agricultural activity have destroyed most traces of the ancient city. In 1995 and 1997, 57 graves were found in Via Valle Maggia. Nineteen were from the Roman period, which confirms that in the 3rd century AD cremation and body burials were practiced side by side. Among other significant finds, a number of glass items were discovered; the Roman necropolis was used from the end of the prehistoric La Tène era until the middle of the 3rd century AD. The extensive Romanization of Locarno wiped out much of the local culture and replaced it with ancient Roman elements. However, it appears that there was no Roman ruling class which could have dominated the local population; the capitanei were a group of prominent noble families who emerged in the early Middle Ages and led Locarno. The term is first mentioned in a document granting market rights to the town by the Emperor Frederick I in 1164.

This title was reserved only the direct vassals of the king's fief. The lower vassals were known as valvassores, but could have been awarded the title of capitanei as a special concession; the original capitanei were descendants of the old Lombard noble family of Da Besozzo from the county of Seprio, a historic region of Lombard Italy which comprised areas in southern Ticino and modern day Italian provinces of Varese and Como on the western side of Lake Maggiore, was centered in Castelseprio, some 20 kilometres south of Locarno. Around 1000, the family was granted a fief in Locarno by the schismatic Bishop of Como Landolfo da Carcano; the capitanei were given the right to manage the property of the Church entrusted to the local pieve, they had the rights of immunity and coercion, but were not owners of the village cooperatives' land, with the exception of the churches and royal estates. They did not have the right of high justice. However, they played an important role in the conflicts in the 13th and 14th century between the Guelphs and Ghibellines and in the wars between Como and the Duchy of Milan.

In Locarno, during the Reformation period in the 16th century, two of the three great feudal families of capitanei, the Muralto and the Orelli families, left the town and moved to Zürich. A branch of the Muraltos was established in Bern; the third great Locarno family, the Magoria, remained in Locarno. The capitanei retained a central role in Locarno's politics until 1798. In 1803, the lands and rights of the capitanei were integrated into the political municipality of Locarno. Starting in the Lombard period, the area around Locarno was part of the county Stazzona and the Mark of Lombardy. Locarno is first mentioned in 807 as Leocarni. In German, it came to be known as Luggarus, Lucaris, it is that a market existed at or near the lake since the Roman era. The long history of the town and its location led to the creation of a royal court, first mentioned in 866. During the Middle Ages Locarno and Ascona formed a community, with separate neighborhoods; the community managed its common goods and tax police.

In the 10th century

Sarah Moore (racing driver)

Sarah Moore is an English female racing driver. She is most notable for winning the Ginetta Junior Championship in 2009, for competing in the InterSteps Championship in 2011, she was awarded the Rising Star status by the British Racing Drivers' Club in 2009. Moore was the first female racing driver to win a TOCA-sanctioned race, the first to win a junior mixed-gender, national-level series in the UK and the first female to have won the Britcar Endurance Championship. Moore, born in Harrogate, competed in the Rotax Mini Max class of the Stars of Tomorrow National Championship in 2007, finishing 24th, she drove for Tockwith Motorsports in both the Ginetta Junior Championship and the Ginetta Junior Winter Championship. In the Ginetta Junior Championship, she entered the season finale at Brands Hatch, with her best result being 15th in the first race of the day. For 2008, she entered the BRDC Stars of Tomorrow MiniMax Championship, finishing 40th overall, but the Ginetta Junior Championship became her primary focus, as she competed in the full season for Tockwith Motorsports.

She finished the season with her best race finish being a sixth place at Silverstone. She entered the Ginetta Junior Championship Winter Series that year, finishing all four races on the podium, with one victory, finishing as runner-up to Josh Hill. Moore remained in the Ginetta Junior Championship in 2009 with Tockwith Motorsports, won the title, having taken five wins, scored sixteen more points than runner-up Jake Cook, she became the first female driver to win a race in a series that formed part of the TOCA package, the first to win a mixed-gender series in the UK, was awarded the BRDC Rising Star status. As a result of this, she was shortlisted for the BBC Young Sports Personality of the Year award being ranked fifth. In addition to this, she was named as the British Club Driver of the Year at the Autosport Awards, joined the YourRacingCar.com scheme. The owner of Ginetta Cars, Lawrence Tomlinson, praised Moore, stating "Seeing Sarah go on stage at the awards in front of 1,400 industry heads has been one of the proudest moments in Ginetta's history."In 2010, Moore received the Lord Wakefield Award from the BWRDC.

Sarah and her brother David switched to the Eurotech Racing team, but remained in the Ginetta Junior Championship. She was less successful that year, with the series having changed to the Ginetta G40. In 2011, she graduated to the new InterSteps Championship series, returned to the family-run Tockwith Motorsport team, who were entering under the "TMS Atlantic" name. Having taken two fourth-place finishes in the first two races, she finished the season in sixth place, she competed in the first series of the 4Two Cup that year, taking a single victory. She entered the 4Two Cup again in 2012, finishing second twice out of the four the races held at Spa-Francorchamps, third in both races held at Snetterton. Moore drove a Smart ForTwo alongside her brother Nigel in the Donington Park round of the Britcar Production Cup that year, finishing twentieth overall. Moore started in the reformed Britcar Endurance Championship in 2017, with professional Smart driver Rob Baker in a ForFour run by his S2Smarts team.

She drove in the last 3 rounds of the championship, in the end and Baker were fourth in the overall Sprint category standings and first in class. In round six at Oulton Park, she raced alongside her brother, Ed and father, who were both in Tockwith Ginetta G50s. Sarah upgraded to a Ginetta G50 with Tockwith Motorsport in the Endurance category with Matt Greenwood winning the endurance category overall in the first race at Brands Hatch. In 2019, driving with Moh Ritson, Sarah returned in a Tockwith Motorsport G50, but it hasn't been a great season for them. In round six at Snetterton, Moore was needed in the final round of the WSeries at Brands Hatch, so brother Ed took over driving duties, but mechanical issues hindered his return to Britcar for the rest of the weekend, her brothers David and Edward are all racing drivers. Her father, runs the Tockwith Motorsports team, owns Tockwith Motorsports Centre, founded by her grandfather Reg, she stated in 2010. (Races in bold indicate pole position – 1 point awarded just in first race.

Narendra Kumar (mountaineer)

Colonel Narendra "Bull" Kumar, PVSM, KC, AVSM, is an Indian soldier-mountaineer. He was deputy leader of the first Indian successful Everest Expedition scaled the Mount Everest on 1965, he is known for the mountaineering reconnaissance expedition he undertook in Teram Kangri, Siachen Glacier and Saltoro Range for the Indian Army in 1978 at the age of 45. If he had not undertaken this expedition, all of Siachen Glacier would be Pakistan's; that is an area covering 10,000 km2, but because of his expedition, India conquered all the entire area. Kumar crossed seven mountain ranges—Pir Panjal Range, Zanskar, Saltoro and Agil—to give India Siachen. Narendra was born in Rawalpindi, British India in 1933, he has three more brothers. His skirmishes with history began in 1947,when Narinder represented Punjab state at a scouts jamboree in Paris at the age of 13; the team of 50 scouts was returning by ship, when news of Independence broke over them like a tsunami. "All of us, Muslims and Hindus, decided to design a flag," he says.

"We put the Union Jack in the Centre and Pakistan on either side." They wanted to sing a national song, but which one? So in just-broken voices, "we sang… tera sahara." One night, he thought. Next morning, he found. Narinder got off in alien Bombay and went to Shimla, where his parents had migrated after partition of India. Narendra's youngest brother Major K. I. Kumar died after falling from 8,500 m. Narendra Kumar entered the Indian Army in 1950, he took part in boxing and cycle-polo during his years of training. He was commissioned in Kumaon Rifles in June 1954 and became interested in winter sports and mountaineering, he earned "Bull" sobriquet at the Indian Military Academy, during the first boxing match he fought. His rival was a senior cadet, Sunith Francis Rodrigues, who went on to become the Chief of the Army Staff. Kumar lost the bout, but helped earning himself a nickname: "Bull." The nickname "Bull" comes from his tendency to charge relentlessly into. The mountain bond was born when Colonel Kumar met Tenzing Norgay, director of the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute, in Darjeeling.

In March 1958, Narendra led the successful Navy expedition to Mt. Trisul, he scaled Kabru Dome in 1959 and Yellow Needle Peak in 1960. He was the first Indian to reach up to 28,700 ft, in his first attempt at climbing the Mount Everest in 1960, before having to turn back due to inclement weather. In 1961, Kumar led a harrowing 5-men expedition to climb Neelkanth in the Garhwal Himalayas. While descending from the summit,Kumar lost four of his toes due to frostbite and stopped 200m short of the summit. In 1964, he was first Indian to scale Nanda Devi. In 1965, he was deputy leader of a team that put nine Indian Army climbers at the top of the world's tallest peak. Capt. Mohan Singh Kohli, who led the 1965 Everest expedition, said Kumar's climbing career was "astonishing", he scaled Mont Blanc, the highest peak in the Alps in 1968. In 1970 he led the first recognised ascent of the highest mountain in Bhutan. Kumar climbed the Kangchenjunga from the toughest north-east spur in 1976. Kumar followed up his 1981 Siachen feats with the challenge, as Antarctica Task Force member, of acclimatising the First Indian Expedition there, led by Dr. S. Z. Qasim in 1982.

Training was carried out at Dras. In 1983, Kumar conquered Abi Gamin, he superannuated on 1 January 1984 but that did not slow him down. Later,Kumar was put in "permanent category C" by the Indian Army, which meant no postings above 7,000 ft; every time he was in the mountains, he had to give the government a non-liability certificate saying that he absolve them of all responsibilities should anything happen to him. He has entered the oxygen-depleted death zone above twenty times, he spent 35 years in the Indian Army. Lieutenant General V. R. Raghavan, commanding officer of Operation Meghdoot, called Colonel Kumar'a mountain of information', he has shared a lifelong camaraderie with Tenzing Norgay. Kumar's involvement with the Siachen dates back to 1977, when he was approached by a German rafter who wanted to undertake the first descent of the Nubra River from its source at the snout of the glacier; the man brought Kumar a map of northeastern Kashmir. Beyond NJ9842,the map showed a dotted line connecting NJ9842 with Karakoram Pass.

Kumar asserted that it was Cartographic error. In January 1978, he took his findings to Lieutenant General M. L. Chibber, India's director of military operations. Chibber obtained permission for Kumar to mount a reconnaissance expedition to the Siachen. In 1978,Kumar, as commanding officer of the Indian Army's High Altitude Warfare School, joined two German explorers in an attempt to navigate the upper reaches of the Indus river in Ladakh. Two years one of his former co-travellers returned to India and asked Kumar to join him in an expedition to the Nubra Valley, which separates Ladakh from the Karakoram ranges. Kumar took one full batch of students from the High Altitude Warfare School in 1978, saying that he is taking them for practical training, it was the first Indian expedition into the remote glacier. The team started at the snout of the glacier and reached glacier's halfway point, braving temperatures that dipped to −50 degrees Celsius, navigating tricky crevasses and passes—bound to each other with thick ro