Caledonian MacBrayne shortened to CalMac, is the major operator of passenger and vehicle ferries, ferry services, between the mainland of Scotland and 22 of the major islands on Scotland's west coast. Since 2006 the company's official name has been CalMac Ferries Ltd although it still operates as Caledonian MacBrayne. In 2006 it became a subsidiary of holding company David MacBrayne Ltd, owned by the Scottish Government. MacBrayne's known as David Hutcheson & Co. began in 1851 as a private steamship operator when G. and J. Burns, operators of the largest of the Clyde fleets, decided to concentrate on coastal and transatlantic services and handed control of their river and Highland steamers to a new company in which Hutcheson, their manager of these services, became senior partner, their main route went from Glasgow down the Firth of Clyde through the Crinan Canal to Oban and Fort William, on through the Caledonian Canal to Inverness. David Hutcheson was married to Margaret Dawson, born at her parents home'Bonnytoun House' in Linlithgow.
She was the sister of Adam Dawson who owned the St. Magdalene Whisky Distillery in Linlithgow and sister to James Dawson who were born at'Bonnytoun House'. In 2011 Glasgow historian Robert Pool added over 200 letters and documents to his collection relating to David Hutcheson and the Dawson family; the Caledonian Railway at first used the services of various early private operators of Clyde steamers began operating steamers on its own account on 1 January 1889 to compete better with the North British Railway and the Glasgow and South Western Railway. It extended its line to bypass the G&SW's Prince's Pier at Greenock and continue on to the fishing village of Gourock, where they had purchased the harbour. After years of fierce competition between all the fleets, the Caledonian and G&SW were merged in 1923 into the London and Scottish Railway and their fleets were amalgamated into the Caledonian Steam Packet Company, their funnels were painted yellow with a black top. At the same time the North British Railway fleet became part of the London and North Eastern Railway.
With nationalisation in 1948 the LMS and LNER fleets were amalgamated under British Railways with the name Clyde Shipping Services. In 1957 a reorganisation restored the CSP name, in 1965 a red lion was added to each side of the black-topped yellow funnels; the headquarters remained at Gourock pierhead. At the end of December 1968 management of the CSP passed to the Scottish Transport Group, which gained control of MacBrayne's the following June; the MacBrayne service from Gourock to Ardrishaig ended on 30 September 1969, leaving the Clyde to the CSP. On 1 January 1973 the Caledonian Steam Packet Co. acquired most of the ships and routes of MacBrayne's and commenced joint Clyde and West Highland operations under the new name of Caledonian MacBrayne, with a combined headquarters at Gourock. Funnels were now painted red with a black top, a yellow circle at the side of the funnel featuring the red Caledonian lion. In 1974 a new car ferry service from Gourock to Dunoon was introduced with the ferries MV Jupiter and MV Juno.
In 1990 the ferry business was spun off as a separate company, keeping the Caledonian MacBrayne brand, shares were issued in the company. All shares were owned by the state, first in the person of the Secretary of State for Scotland, by the Scottish Government. A joint venture between Caledonian MacBrayne and the Royal Bank of Scotland named NorthLink Orkney and Shetland Ferries won the tender for the subsidised Northern Isles services run by P&O Scottish Ferries, commencing in 2002; the ambitious programme ran into financial difficulties, the service was again put out to tender. Caledonian MacBrayne won this tender, formed a separate company called NorthLink Ferries Limited which began operating the Northern Isles ferry service on 6 July 2006. On 29 May 2012, NorthLink Ferries Ltd lost the contract for provision of the Northern Isles ferry services to Serco. To meet the requirements of European Union Community guidelines on state aid to maritime transport, the company's routes were put out to open tender.
To enable competitive bidding on an equal basis, Caledonian MacBrayne was split into two separate companies on 1 October 2006. Caledonian Maritime Assets Limited retained ownership of CalMac vessels and infrastructure, including harbours, while CalMac Ferries Ltd submitted tenders to be the ferry operator, their bid for the main bundle and Hebrides Ferry Services, succeeded and on 1 October 2007 CalMac Ferries Ltd began operating these services on a six-year contract. The Gourock to Dunoon service was the subject of a separate tender. In an interim arrangement CalMac Ferries Ltd continued to provide a subsidised service on this route, until 29 June 2011, when Argyll Ferries took over the service. On 14 July 2009, it was announced that CalMac would begin Sunday sailings to Stornoway on the Isle of Lewis from Sunday 19 July; these had faced strong opposition from Sabbatarian elements in the Lewis community the Lord's Day Observance Society and the Free Church of Scotland. However, CalMac stated that EU equality legislation made it unlawful to refuse a service to the whole community because of the religious beliefs of a part of it.
The company enjoys a de facto monopoly on the shipment of freight and vehicles to the islands, competes for passenger traffic with number of aircraft services of varying quality and reliability. Nonetheless, few if any of the routes operated by CalMac are profitable, the company receives significant government subsidies due to its vital r
Loch Eil is a sea loch in Lochaber, Scotland that opens into Loch Linnhe near the town of Fort William. ".. The name of the Chief of Clan Cameron is spelt LOCHIEL, while the name of the loch is spelt LOCH EIL.."Loch Eil Outward Bound railway station and Locheilside railway station are both situated on the northern shore of the loch. Achaphubuil is on the southern shore. Lochiel was a historic place east of Fassfern on the north shore of Loch Eil; the place was home to Jacobite chieftain Donald Cameron, of Lochiel. The earliest known residence of the chiefs of Clan Cameron was on Eilean nan Craobh just outside the entrance to Loch Eil, they moved from there to Tor Castle in the 17th century and to Achnacarry. The island has now become part of harbour works. Loch Eil and Loch Linnhe are joined by narrows at Annat where a paper mill once stood and where there is a now a large timber yard
Firth of Lorn
The Firth of Lorn or Lorne in origin refers to the waters off the coast of a now obsolete geopolitical region, Lorn or Lorne. A firth in Scottish English is a long estuary, the same as or similar to a fjord, although somewhat arbitrary in application; the name of Lorn descends from the proto-history of Scotland. A nineteenth-century geographical reference defines it as being a district in the county of Argyllshire, where the –shire segment reflects a former political status of Argyll. Lorn was a maritime district, located on Scotland's west coast, on the eastern shore of Loch Linnhe and the Firth of Lorn; the northern border was Loch Leven. The eastern and southern borders were the line of Loch Awe, Loch Avich, Loch Melfort. Lorne lost its geopolitical status with the passage of the Local Government Act 1973, effective in 1975, it had survived the same act of 1947 and again 1972, which retained most of the traditional local structure. In 1975, two Lorne's appeared and South, both now burghs in the county of Argyll, in the region of Strathclyde.
With the abolition of the counties in 1996, Argyll and Bute and part of Dumbarton were united into the Argyll and Bute Council Area. It contains only "towns and villages." None of them are Lorn. Lorn shattered; the firth, which had long since acquired the name, remains a living concept. In 2005 much of the eastern side became a Special Area of Conservation according to European Union's Habitats Directive; the reefs and skerries of the small islands on that side are deemed habitats of interest. Two of Scotland's 40 defined national scenic areas are to be found in the firth: the Lynn of Lorn National Scenic Area covers the island of Lismore and the surrounding seas, along with neighbouring areas on the mainland such as Benderloch and Port Appin; the naming of the firth after Lorn, a major province on its eastern shore, reflecting the geopolitical power distribution of the times, became less apt as Lorn receded and disappeared. Much of Lorn bordered Loch Linnhe, a fiord to the north that, for whatever reason, escaped being included in the firth.
Moreover, the firth extended far to the south of Lorn. To some writers, the name was to be extended south to Colonsay, but to others it went only as far south as the Garvellachs; the official maps of the British Empire did not resolve the exact borders of the firth. Admiralty chart 2724, mapping the coast from the North Channel, places the label, “Firth of Lorn,” on only the narrowest part of the firth, leaving the reader to guess how far south it applied, the concomitant Ordnance Survey map follows the same convention; the waters between the open Atlantic to the north of the North Channel and the named inner firth are an undefined and unnamed lagoon. In the last two or three decades the firth has become the subject of geologic and biologic field studies undertaken by research organizations working for, or with the permission of, Scottish Natural Heritage, a Non-Departmental Public Body of the Scottish Government, which implements the acts of the Scottish Parliament; the recommendations of SNH are binding.
It has responsibility for the study and allowed use of Scotland’s natural resources including the Firth of Lorn. Although there is no universally binding geopolitical terminology apart from that defined by legislation, the SNH - in promulgating research - has in fact endorsed a more precise definition of the firth. Prior to the establishment of the SAC of 2005, the SNH was one organization of a consortium funding the Broadscale Mapping Project, 1996-1998, conducted by the SeaMap Research Group, it conducted surveys by a variety of methods electronic, mapping the presence of benthic communities in a number of areas, including the Firth of Lorn. The report of this survey, instrumental in getting the SAC designated, defines the firth as follows; the “Inner Firth of Lorn” is the waters directly south of the peninsula between Loch Buie and Loch Spelve on Mull and east of the peninsulas between Loch Spelve and Duart Bay. The waters around the islands on the east side of the firth are included, being in the current SAC though they may have their own names.
The “Outer Firth of Lorn” is the waters south of the Ross of Mull as far as the west coast of the Isle of Jura. There is no indication that the Sound of Jura is to be considered in the firth though its northern portion was in the study area; the inner firth's northeast end forms a junction with several other arms of the sea, namely Loch Linnhe, the Lynn of Lorne, Loch Etive, the Sound of Mull. Loch Spelve and Loch Don on the Isle of Mull and Loch Feochan on the mainland are inlets of the Firth of Lorn. On the southeast side, there are several channels and sounds in the Slate Islands; the Ordnance Gazetteer of 1882 cites a length of 17 miles from the intersection of Loch Linnhe and the Sound of Mull, with widths of from 5 miles to 15 miles, inclusive of the islands on the east side, such as Kerrera and the Slate Islands. The west side is an ample deep-water channel leading inland to the Caledonian Canal. Although the English word firth, the Gaelic equivalent linne, all the major firth names, have been in use since proto-historic times in Scotland, the combination “Firth of Lorn” was not innovated until the late 19th century.
Lorn is presumed in modern Gaelic dictionaries to be a syncope of its Gaelic form Latharna, as is the parallel Larne, of northern Ireland. Whether the –th- originated as a phoneme or as a non-phonetic graphem
Loch is the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Scots word for a lake or for a sea inlet. It is cognate with the Manx lough, Cornish logh, one of the Welsh words for lake, llwch. In English English and Hiberno-English, the anglicised spelling lough is found in place names; some lochs could be called firths, estuaries, straits or bays. Sea-inlet lochs are called sea lochs or sea loughs. Many loughs are connected to stories of lake-bursts; this name for a body of water is Insular Celtic in origin and is applied to most lakes in Scotland and to many sea inlets in the west and north of Scotland. The word is Indo-European in origin. Lowland Scots orthography, like Scottish Gaelic and Irish, represents /x/ with ch, so the word was borrowed with identical spelling. English borrowed the word separately from a number of loughs in the previous Cumbric language areas of Northumbria and Cumbria. Earlier forms of English included the sound /x/ as gh. However, by the time Scotland and England joined under a single parliament, English had lost the /x/ sound.
This form was therefore used. The Scots convention of using ch remained, hence the modern Scottish English loch. In the Insular Celtic languages, the representation of, is lu in Old Welsh and llw in Middle Welsh such as in today's Welsh placenames Llanllwchaiarn, Llyn Cwm Llwch, Maesllwch; the Goidelic lo being taken into Scottish Gaelic by the gradual replacement of much Brittonic orthography with Goidelic orthography in Scotland. Many of the loughs in Northern England have previously been called "meres" such as the Black Lough in Northumberland. However, reference to the latter as loughs, rather than as lakes, inlets and so on, is unusual; some lochs in Southern Scotland have a Brythonic rather than Goidelic etymology, such as Loch Ryan where the Gaelic loch has replaced a Cumbric equivalent of Welsh llwch. The same is the case for water bodies in Northern England named with'Low' or'Lough' or otherwise it represents a borrowing of the Brythonic word into the Northumbrian dialect of Old English.
Although there is no strict size definition, a small loch is known as a lochan. The most famous Scottish loch is Loch Ness, although there are other large examples such as Loch Awe, Loch Lomond and Loch Tay. Examples of sea lochs in Scotland include Loch Long, Loch Fyne, Loch Linnhe, Loch Eriboll; some new reservoirs for hydroelectric schemes have been given names faithful to the names for natural bodies of water – for example, the Loch Sloy scheme, Lochs Laggan and Treig. Other expanses are called reservoirs, e.g. Blackwater Reservoir above Kinlochleven. Scotland has few bodies of water called lakes; the Lake of Menteith, an Anglicisation of the Scots Laich o Menteith meaning a "low-lying bit of land in Menteith", is applied to the loch there because of the similarity of the sounds of the words laich and lake. Until the 19th century the body of water was known as the Loch of Menteith; the Lake of the Hirsel, Pressmennan Lake and Lake Louise are man-made bodies of water in Scotland known as lakes.
The word "loch" is sometimes used as a shibboleth to identify natives of England, because the fricative sound is used in Scotland whereas most English people pronounce the word like "lock". As "loch" is a common Gaelic word, it is found as the root of several Manx place names; the United States naval port of Pearl Harbor, on the south coast of the main Hawaiian island of Oahu, is one of a complex of sea inlets. Several are named as lochs, including South East Loch, Merry Loch, East Loch, Middle Loch and West Loch. Loch Raven Reservoir is a reservoir in Maryland. Brenton Loch in the Falkland Islands is a sea loch, near East Falkland. In the Scottish settlement of Glengarry County in present-day Eastern Ontario, there is a lake called Loch Garry. Loch Garry was named by those who settled in the area, Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, after the well-known loch their clan is from, Loch Garry in Scotland. Lakes named Loch Broom, Big Loch, Greendale Loch, Loch Lomond can be found in Nova Scotia, along with Loch Leven in Newfoundland, Loch Leven in Saskatchewan.
List of lochs of Scotland List of loughs of Ireland List of English loughs Ria Lake-burst
Corran is a former fishing village, situated on Corran Point, on the west side of the Corran Narrows of Loch Linnhe, in Lochaber, Scotland. There are three small settlements set apart from the main cluster of houses: North Corran and Sallachan; the Highland Council Corran Ferry runs to Corran from eastern shore of the Narrows
Loch Creran is a sea loch in Argyll, on the west coast of Scotland. It is about 10 kilometres long from its head at Invercreran to its mouth on the Lynn of Lorne, part of Loch Linnhe; the loch separates the areas of Benderloch to Appin to the north. The island of Eriska lies at the mouth of the loch; the loch is bridged by the A828 road. The village of Barcaldine lies on the south shore of the loch. At the head of Loch Creran lies the Glasdrum Wood National Nature Reserve, an internationally important atlantic oakwood managed by Scottish Natural Heritage, classified as both a Special Area of Conservation and a Site of Special Scientific Interest; this predominantly ash and oak woodland is home to butterflies like the rare chequered skipper, as well as being frequented by otters
Fort William, Highland
Fort William is a town in the Scottish Highlands, located on the eastern shore of Loch Linnhe. As of the 2011 Census, Fort William had a population of 10,459, making it the second largest settlement in the Highland council area, the largest town - only the city of Inverness has a larger population. Fort William is a major tourist centre, with Glen Coe just to the south, Aonach Mòr to the east and Glenfinnan to the west, on the Road to the Isles, it is a centre for hillwalking and climbing due to its proximity to Ben Nevis and many other Munro mountains. It is known for its nearby downhill mountain bike track, it is the start/end of both the Great Glen Way. Around 726 people can speak Gaelic; the earliest recorded settlement on the site is a Cromwellian wooden fort built in 1654 as a base for English troops to "pacify" Clan Cameron after the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The post-Glorious Revolution fort was named Fort William after William of Orange who ordered that it be built to control the Highland clans.
The settlement that grew around it was called Maryburgh, after his wife Mary II of England. This settlement was renamed Gordonsburgh, Duncansburgh before being renamed Fort William, this time after Prince William, Duke of Cumberland. Given these origins, there have been various suggestions over the years to rename the town; the origin of the Gaelic name for Fort William, An Gearasdan is not recorded but could be a loanword from the English garrison and entered common usage some time after the royal garrison was established during the reign of William of Orange or after the earlier Cromwellian fort, or from the French derived word "garrison" as at the earlier garrison at Inverlochy by the Scoto-Norman Clan Comyn. This area of Lochaber was Clan Cameron country, there were a number of Cameron settlements in the area. Before the building of the fort, Inverlochy was the main settlement in the area and was where two battles took place- the first Battle of Inverlochy in 1431 and the second Battle of Inverlochy in 1645.
The town grew in size as a settlement when the fort was constructed to control the population after Oliver Cromwell's invasion during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, to suppress the Jacobite uprisings of the 18th century. In the Jacobite rising of 1745 known as the Forty-Five, Fort William was besieged for two weeks by the Jacobites, from 20 March to 3 April 1746. However, although the Jacobites had captured both of the other forts in the chain of three Great Glen fortifications they failed to take Fort William. During the Second World War, Fort William was the home of HMS St Christopher, a training base for Royal Navy Coastal Forces. More on the history of the town and the region can be found in the West Highland Museum on the High Street. Fort William is the northern end of the West Highland Way, a long distance route which runs 95 miles through the Scottish Highlands to Milngavie, on the outskirts of Glasgow, the start/end point of the Great Glen Way, which runs between Fort William and Inverness.
On 2 June 2006, a fire destroyed McTavish's Restaurant in Fort William High Street along with the two shops which were part of the building. The restaurant had been open since the 1970s and prior to that the building had been Fraser's Cafe since the 1920s. Development work began in 2012 on new hotel accommodation and street-level shops and these opened in 2014. A "Waterfront" development was proposed by the Council, but there was no overwhelming support for this in the town; the development would have included a hotel, some shops and some housing, but it was stated early in 2008 that it was unlikely to be completed before 2020. It was announced in April 2010. Based on the still-extant village of Inverlochy, the town lies at the southern end of the Great Glen, Fort William lies near the head of Loch Linnhe, one of Scotland's longest sea lochs, beside the mouth of the rivers Nevis and Lochy, they join in the intertidal zone and become one river before discharging to the sea. The town and its suburbs are surrounded by picturesque mountains.
It is on the shore of Loch Eil. It is close to Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles, Glen Nevis and the town of Achnaphubuil, is on the opposite shore of the loch; when the railway opened to Fort William on 7 August 1894, the station was given prime position at the south end of the town. The consequence was that the town was separated from the lochside by railway tracks until the 1970s when the present by-pass was built, the station was re-located to the north end; the town is centred on the High Street, pedestrianised in the 1990s. Off this there are several squares. Monzie Square, Station Square, where the long-since demolished railway station used to be, Gordon Square, Cameron Square — known as Town Hall Square. There is Fraser Square, not so square-like since it now opens out into Middle Street but it still houses the Imperial Hotel; the main residential areas of the town are unseen from the A82 main road. Upper Achintore and the Plantation spread steeply uphill from above the high street.
Inverlochy, Claggan, An-Aird, Caol and Corpach o