The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built by Lockheed. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was designed as a troop and cargo transport aircraft; the versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles, including as a gunship, for airborne assault and rescue, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance, aerial refueling, maritime patrol, aerial firefighting. It is now the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. More than 40 variants of the Hercules, including civilian versions marketed as the Lockheed L-100, operate in more than 60 nations; the C-130 entered service with the U. S. in 1956, followed by many other nations. During its years of service, the Hercules family has participated in numerous military and humanitarian aid operations. In 2007, the C-130 became the fifth aircraft to mark 50 years of continuous service with its original primary customer, which for the C-130 is the United States Air Force.
The C-130 Hercules is the longest continuously produced military aircraft at over 60 years, with the updated Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules being produced. The Korean War showed that World War II-era piston-engine transports—Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcars, Douglas C-47 Skytrains and Curtiss C-46 Commandos—were no longer adequate. Thus, on 2 February 1951, the United States Air Force issued a General Operating Requirement for a new transport to Boeing, Fairchild, Martin, Chase Aircraft, North American and Airlifts Inc; the new transport would have a capacity of 92 passengers, 72 combat troops or 64 paratroopers in a cargo compartment, 41 ft long, 9 ft high, 10 ft wide. Unlike transports derived from passenger airliners, it was to be designed as a combat transport with loading from a hinged loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage. A key feature was the introduction of the Allison T56 turboprop powerplant, developed for the C-130; the turboprop offered greater range at propeller-driven speeds compared to pure turbojets, which were faster but consumed more fuel.
They produced much more power for their weight than piston engines. The Hercules resembled a larger four-engine brother to the C-123 Provider with a similar wing and cargo ramp layout that evolved from the Chase XCG-20 Avitruc, which in turn, was first designed and flown as a cargo glider in 1947; the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter had rear ramps, which made it possible to drive vehicles onto the airplane. The ramp on the Hercules was used to airdrop cargo, which included a Low-altitude parachute-extraction system for Sheridan tanks and dropping large improvised "daisy cutter" bombs; the new Lockheed cargo plane design possessed a range of 1,100 nmi, takeoff capability from short and unprepared strips, the ability to fly with one engine shut down. Fairchild, North American and Northrop declined to participate; the remaining five companies tendered a total of ten designs: Lockheed two, Boeing one, Chase three, Douglas three, Airlifts Inc. one. The contest was a close affair between the lighter of the two Lockheed proposals and a four-turboprop Douglas design.
The Lockheed design team was led by Willis Hawkins, starting with a 130-page proposal for the Lockheed L-206. Hall Hibbard, Lockheed vice president and chief engineer, saw the proposal and directed it to Kelly Johnson, who did not care for the low-speed, unarmed aircraft, remarked, "If you sign that letter, you will destroy the Lockheed Company." Both Hibbard and Johnson signed the proposal and the company won the contract for the now-designated Model 82 on 2 July 1951. The first flight of the YC-130 prototype was made on 23 August 1954 from the Lockheed plant in Burbank, California; the aircraft, serial number 53-3397, was the second prototype. The YC-130 was piloted by Stanley Beltz and Roy Wimmer on its 61-minute flight to Edwards Air Force Base. Kelly Johnson flew chase in a Lockheed P2V Neptune. After the two prototypes were completed, production began in Marietta, where over 2,300 C-130s have been built through 2009; the initial production model, the C-130A, was powered by Allison T56-A-9 turboprops with three-blade propellers and equipped with the blunt nose of the prototypes.
Deliveries began in December 1956, continuing until the introduction of the C-130B model in 1959. Some A-models were equipped with skis and re-designated C-130D; as the C-130A became operational with Tactical Air Command, the C-130's lack of range became apparent and additional fuel capacity was added with wing pylon-mounted tanks outboard of the engines. The C-130B model was developed to complement the A-models, delivered, incorporated new features increased fuel capacity in the form of auxiliary tanks built into the center wing section and an AC electrical system. Four-bladed Hamilton Standard propellers replaced the Aeroproducts three-blade propellers that distinguished the earlier A-models; the C-130B had ailerons operated by hydraulic pressure, increased from 2,050 psi to 3,000 psi, as well as uprated engines and four-blade propellers that were standard until the J-model. The B model was intended to have "blown controls", a system which blows high pressure air over the control surfaces in order to improve their
Not to be confused with dramatic theory—theories about theatre and drama. Drama theory is one of the problem structuring methods in operations research, it is based on game theory and adapts the use of games to complex organisational situations, accounting for emotional responses that can provoke irrational reactions and lead the players to redefine the game. In a drama, emotions trigger rationalizations that create changes in the game, so change follows change until either all conflicts are resolved or action becomes necessary; the game as redefined is played. Drama theory was devised by professor Nigel Howard in the early 1990s and, since has been turned to defense, health, industrial relations and commercial applications. Drama theory is an extension of Howard's metagame analysis work developed at the University of Pennsylvania in the late 1960s, presented formally in his book Paradoxes of Rationality, published by MIT Press. Metagame analysis was used to advise on the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks.
A drama unfolds through episodes. The episode is a period of preplay communication between characters who, after communicating, act as players in a game, constructed through the dialogue between them; the action that follows the episode is the playing out of this game. Most drama-theoretic terminology is derived from a theatrical model applied to real life interactions; this is followed by denouement, the action that sets up the next episode. The term drama theory and the use of theatrical terminology is justified by the fact that the theory applies to stage plays and fictional plots as well as to politics, business and community relations, psychology and other kinds of human interaction, it was applied to help with the structuring of The Prisoner's Dilemma, a West End play by David Edgar about the problems of peace-keeping. In the build-up phase of an episode, the characters exchange ideas and opinions in some form or another and try to advocate their preferred position – the game outcome that they are hoping to see realised.
The position each character takes may be influenced by others' positions. Each character presents a fallback or stated intention; this is the action a character says it will implement if current positions and stated intentions do not change. Taken together, the stated intentions form what is called a threatened future if they contradict some character's position; when it is common knowledge among the characters that positions and stated intentions are seen by their presenters as'final', the build-up ends and the parties reach a moment of truth. Here they face dilemmas arising from the fact that their threats or promises are incredible or inadequate. Different dilemmas are possible depending on. If there is an agreement, the possible dilemmas resemble. If there is no agreement, more dilemmas are possible. Drama theory asserts that a character faced with a dilemma feels specific positive or negative emotions that it tries to rationalize by persuading itself and others that the game should be redefined in a way that eliminates the dilemma.
Emotional tension leads to the climax, where characters re-define the moment of truth by finding rationalizations for changing positions, stated intentions, options or the set of characters. There is some experimental evidence to confirm this assertion of drama theory (see P. Murray-Jones, L. Stubbs and N. Howard,'Confrontation and Collaboration Analysis: Experimental and Mathematical Results', presented at the 8th International Command & Control Research and Technology Symposium, June, 2003—from whose site it can be downloaded. Six dilemmas are defined, it is proved that if none of them exist the characters have an agreement that they trust each other to carry out; this is the fundamental theorem of drama theory. Until a resolution meeting these conditions is arrived at, the characters are under emotional pressure to rationalize re-definitions of the game that they will play. Re-definitions inspired by new dilemmas follow each other until with or without a resolution, characters become players in the game they have defined for themselves.
In game-theoretic terms, this is a game with a focal point – i.e. it is a game in which each player has stated its intention to implement a certain strategy. This strategy is its threat if an agreement has not been reached, its promise, if an agreement has been reached. At this point, players decide whether to believe each other, so to predict what others will do in order to decide what to do themselves; the dilemmas that character A may face with respect to another character B at a moment of truth are as follows. A's cooperation dilemm
Erkan Kolçak Köstendil is a Turkish actor and director. He started his career with roles in theater plays, TV series, however, he became known with his role in Ulan Istanbul, he has won awards for his appearance in several short films. Köstendil was born in 1983 in Bursa, he is a graduate of Bursa Atatürk High School. During his high school years, he was a member of the Bursaspor football team, he began his acting career at the Tuncay Özinel Theater, by playing a number of roles in plays such as AuT and Karşı Cinsle Tanışma Sanatı. In 2009, he wrote and directed the series Mukadderat, published online on Facebook. In the same year, he got a role in the action series M. A. T and portrayed the character of "Emre". In 2010, he wrote and directed the short movie Vakit, which received awards at the Sinepark 4th Short Film Festival, Eskişehir Kral Midas Short Film Festival, the 47th International Antalya Film Festival, he wrote the scenario for the feature film Torbacının Esrarı, shot in Amsterdam and Istanbul.
His fourth short film project was Suma, released in 2018 and realized as one of Turkey's good comedy works at the Los Angeles Film Awards. Kalp Düğümü – Craft Theater AuT – İkincikat Theater Karşı Cinsle Tanışma Sanatı – Isparta Virtual Theater Singles2020: "Doyana Doymayana Popkek III" Erkan Kolçak Köstendil on IMDb