The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar referred to as the L-1011 or TriStar, is an American medium-to-long-range, wide-body trijet airliner by Lockheed Corporation. It was the third wide-body airliner to enter commercial operations, after the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10; the airliner has a seating capacity of up to 400 passengers and a range of over 4,000 nautical miles. Its trijet configuration has three Rolls-Royce RB211 engines with one engine under each wing, along with a third engine center-mounted with an S-duct air inlet embedded in the tail and the upper fuselage; the aircraft has an autoland capability, an automated descent control system, available lower deck galley and lounge facilities. The L-1011 TriStar was produced in two fuselage lengths; the original L-1011-1 first flew in November 1970 and entered service with Eastern Air Lines in 1972. The shortened, longer range L-1011-500 first flew in 1978 and entered service with British Airways a year later; the original-length TriStar was produced as the high gross weight L-1011-100, up-rated engine L-1011-200, further upgraded L-1011-250.
Post-production conversions for the L-1011-1 with increased takeoff weights included the L-1011-50 and L-1011-150. The L-1011 TriStar's sales were hampered by two years of delays due to developmental and financial problems at Rolls-Royce, the sole manufacturer of the aircraft's engines. Between 1968 and 1984, Lockheed manufactured a total of 250 TriStars, assembled at the Lockheed plant located at the Palmdale Regional Airport in southern California north of Los Angeles. After production ended, Lockheed withdrew from the commercial aircraft business due to its below-target sales; as of 2020, the L-1011 is the last non-Russian wide-body airliner to enter production, not manufactured by the Airbus and Boeing duopoly or their predecessor companies. In the 1960s, American Airlines approached Lockheed and competitor Douglas with the need for an airliner which could carry 250 passengers on transcontinental routes. Lockheed had not produced civilian airliners since 1961 with the L-188 Electra. In the 1950s the Electra was designed for turboprop propulsion, which Lockheed had used on the C-130 Hercules military transport.
After the Electra overcame vibration problems that caused several crashes early in its career, the market for large airliners would soon shift over to jet airliners such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8. Lockheed won contracts for jet military transports with the C-141 StarLifter, pioneered large jet transports with the large C-5 Galaxy with its high-bypass turbofan engines. Boeing lost the military contract, but its private-venture 747 captured what would become a much larger civilian airliner market for wide-body airliners. Having experienced difficulties with some of their military programs, Lockheed was eager to re-enter the civilian market with a smaller wide-body jet, their response was the L-1011 TriStar. Douglas Aircraft answered American Airlines with the DC-10, which had a similar three-engine configuration and dimensions. Despite their similarities, the L-1011 and DC-10's engineering approach differed greatly. McDonnell, who had taken over Douglas Aircraft, directed DC-10 development on a "very firm budget, cost overruns were unacceptable – at the expense of safety", the conservative approach meant reusing Douglas DC-8 technology.
By contrast, Lockheed would "take the most advanced technology of the day and when that technology was lacking, Lockheed created it" for the L-1011 in order to give it lower noise emissions, improved reliability, higher efficiency over first-generation jet airliners. The TriStar name was selected in a Lockheed employee naming contest for the airliner; the advanced technology that went into the TriStar resulted in a high purchase price. It has been said that "airlines could get a 747 for more, or a DC-10 for a good deal less"; the TriStar's design featured a twin-aisle interior with a maximum of 400 passengers and a three-engine layout. The TriStar was conceived as a "jumbo twin", but a three-engine design was chosen to give the aircraft enough thrust to take off from existing runways. Before the establishment of Extended Operations standards by the FAA in the 1980s, commercial jets with only two engines were not allowed to fly more than 30 minutes away from an airport, making trans-oceanic flights impossible.
The main visible difference between the TriStar and its similar trijet competitor, the McDonnell Douglas DC-10, is the central tail engine configuration: the DC-10's engine is mounted above the fuselage for simplicity of design and more economical construction, while the TriStar's engine is mounted to the rear fuselage and fed through an S-duct for reduced drag and improved stability. Lockheed engineers were able to maintain straight-through engine performance by limiting the curve of the S-duct to less than a quarter of the radius of the engine intake diameter; the S-duct design reduced the total empty aircraft weight. The research undertaken during the design of the L-1011 indicated that losses of using an S-duct were more than compensated for by the above savings. A further major difference between the L-1011 and the DC-10 was Lockheed's selection of the Rolls-Royce RB211 as the only engine for the L-1011; as designed, the RB211 turbofan was an advanced three-spool design with a carbon fiber fan, which would have better efficiency and power-to-weight ratio than any competing engine like the General Electric CF6 that powered the DC-10.
In theory, the triple spool would produce the same or more power as existing double spool engin
Critters Buggin is a Seattle, Washington-based instrumental group which performs in a jazz and African-influenced, eclectic style. The band is composed of Matt Chamberlain, Brad Houser and Mike Dillon. Critters Buggin defies categorization because of their diverse musical styles. Reviews tend to describe their music as a combination of jazz, rock and electronica; when asked to describe their music in 1994 Chamberlain stated that it is "jazzy, rocky.... It has African rhythms, too." Houser stated it is "African, tribal music."While reviewed in terms such as unique and adventurous, a 2008 review in The Seattle Times described them with such diverse terms as unorthodox, tribal, mesmerizing, abrasive and satisfying. The group began with Matt Chamberlain and Skerik who were joined by Brad Houser, thus forming a trio in early 1993. John Bush joined soon afterward, the group gave their first live performance using the "Critters Buggin" name in May 1993 at the Seattle club The Colourbox. Chamberlain and Bush were all from the then-disbanded Edie Brickell & New Bohemians.
Skerik came from another Seattle group, Sadhappy. Their live success was followed by the release of their first album, produced by Stone Gossard of Pearl Jam on his new label Loosegroove; the original Critters Buggin trio continued including Mike Dillon. Chamberlain and Dillon had both played in the locally popular Dallas, Texas band Ten Hands in the 1980s. All except Skerik were part of the Deep Ellum, Texas scene through the early 1990s. By 1998 Dillon had joined Critters Buggin as a fourth member, thus forming the current line-up as of a July 2008 tour. In 2007 Critters Buggin released the DVD, Get the Clackervalve and the Old Clobberd Biscuits Out and Smack the Grand Ham Clapper's Mother, it is a live set filmed and recorded during the Warsaw Summer Jazz Days 1999 performed in The Palace of Culture and Science of Warsaw, Poland. In 2006 Skerik and Houser toured as Critters Buggin Trio. In the 2007 the trio toured as The Dead Kenny G's and were reviewed as uniquely "combining jazz, punk and world music."
In October 2009 they released a debut CD Bewildered Herd. The trio toured with Primus in 2010 and released the CD Operation Long Leash in 2011. 1994 – Guest 1997 – Host 1997 – Monkeypot Merganzer 1998 – Bumpa 1998 – Amoeba 2004 – Stampede 2009 – Live in 95 at the OK Hotel – Seattle 1995 2014 – Muti EP Guest, Monkeypot Merganzer and Bumpa were reissued by Kufala Recordings in 2004. 1996 – Endless Records complication one – various artists "Sweat Box" 2000 – Taxi 2007 – Get the Clackervalve and the Old Clobberd Biscuits Out and Smack the Grand Ham Clapper's Mother Official website Critters Buggin's Myspace page Allmusic: Critters Buggin
There have been 22 head coaches for the East Carolina Pirates. East Carolina started organized football with the nickname Teachers, in 1932; the school changed the nickname to the Pirates on February 26, 1934. East Carolina has played in more than 800 games in a total of 84 seasons, 42 of which are in Division 1-A. In those games, seven coaches have brought the Pirates to bowl games: Jack Boone in 1952 and 1954, Clarence Stasavich in 1963, 1964 and 1965, Pat Dye in 1978, Bill Lewis in 1991, Steve Logan in 1994, 1995, 1999, 2000 and 2001, Skip Holtz in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, Ruffin McNeill in 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014. Five coaches have won conference championships with the Pirates: Jack Boone in 1953, Clarence Stasavich in 1966, Sonny Randle in 1972 and 1973, Pat Dye in 1976, Skip Holtz in 2008 and 2009. Steve Logan is the all-time leader in games coached, years coached, wins, while John Christenbury leads all coaches in winning percentage with 0.867. O. A. Hankner is statistically the worst coach the Pirates have had in terms of winning percentage, with.000.
Of the 22 Pirate coaches, Mike McGee and Pat Dye have been inducted to the College Football Hall of Fame. Two coaches, Clarence Stasavich and Bill Lewis, have received National Coach of the Year honors. Three former players have been head coach for the Pirates: Ed Emory and Ruffin McNeill. In addition, former players have become Pirate assistant coaches, such as Junior Smith and Paul Troth; the current coach is Mike Houston. Statistics correct as of January 2020, after the end of the 2019 -- 20 college football season. East Carolina changed from East Carolina Teachers College to East Carolina College in 1951 and to East Carolina University in 1967. ^ Elected to the College Football Hall of Fame * Spent entire professional head coaching career with Pirates