The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1926 and merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995; the founder, Allan Lockheed, had earlier founded the named but otherwise unrelated Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company, operational from 1912 through 1920. Allan Loughead and his brother Malcolm Loughead had operated an earlier aircraft company, Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company, operational from 1912 to 1920; the company built and operated aircraft for paying passengers on sightseeing tours in California and had developed a prototype for the civil market, but folded in 1920 due to the flood of surplus aircraft deflating the market after World War I. Allan went into the real estate market while Malcolm had meanwhile formed a successful company marketing brake systems for automobiles. In 1926, Allan Lockheed, John Northrop, Kenneth Kay and Fred Keeler secured funding to form the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Hollywood; this new company utilized some of the same technology developed for the Model S-1 to design the Vega Model.
In March 1928, the company relocated to Burbank, by year's end reported sales exceeding one million dollars. From 1926 to 1928 the company produced over 80 aircraft and employed more than 300 workers who by April 1929 were building five aircraft per week. In July 1929, majority shareholder Fred Keeler sold 87% of the Lockheed Aircraft Company to Detroit Aircraft Corporation. In August 1929, Allan Loughead resigned; the Great Depression ruined the aircraft market, Detroit Aircraft went bankrupt. A group of investors headed by brothers Robert and Courtland Gross, Walter Varney, bought the company out of receivership in 1932; the syndicate bought the company for a mere $40,000. Allan Loughead himself had planned to bid for his own company, but had raised only $50,000, which he felt was too small a sum for a serious bid. In 1934, Robert E. Gross was named chairman of the new company, the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, headquartered at what is now the airport in Burbank, California, his brother Courtlandt S. Gross was a co-founder and executive, succeeding Robert as chairman following his death in 1961.
The company was named the Lockheed Corporation in 1977. The first successful construction, built in any number was the Vega first built in 1927, best known for its several first- and record-setting flights by, among others, Amelia Earhart, Wiley Post, George Hubert Wilkins. In the 1930s, Lockheed spent $139,400 to develop the Model 10 Electra, a small twin-engined transport; the company sold 40 in the first year of production. Amelia Earhart and her navigator, Fred Noonan, flew it in their failed attempt to circumnavigate the world in 1937. Subsequent designs, the Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior and the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra expanded their market; the Lockheed Model 14 formed the basis for the Hudson bomber, supplied to both the British Royal Air Force and the United States military before and during World War II. Its primary role was submarine hunting; the Model 14 Super Electra were sold abroad, more than 100 were license-built in Japan for use by the Imperial Japanese Army. At the beginning of World War II, Lockheed – under the guidance of Clarence Johnson, considered one of the best-known American aircraft designers – answered a specification for an interceptor by submitting the P-38 Lightning fighter aircraft, a twin-engined, twin-boom design.
The P-38 was the only American fighter aircraft in production throughout American involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to Victory over Japan Day. It filled ground-attack, air-to-air, strategic bombing roles in all theaters of the war in which the United States operated; the P-38 was responsible for shooting down more Japanese aircraft than any other U. S. Army Air Forces type during the war; the Lockheed Vega factory was located next to Burbank's Union Airport which it had purchased in 1940. During the war, the entire area was camouflaged to fool enemy aerial reconnaissance; the factory was hidden beneath a huge burlap tarpaulin painted to depict a peaceful semi-rural neighborhood, replete with rubber automobiles. Hundreds of fake trees, shrubs and fire hydrants were positioned to give a three-dimensional appearance; the trees and shrubs were created from chicken wire treated with an adhesive and covered with feathers to provide a leafy texture. Lockheed ranked tenth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts.
All told and its subsidiary Vega produced 19,278 aircraft during World War II, representing six percent of war production, including 2,600 Venturas, 2,750 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers, 2,900 Hudson bombers, 9,000 Lightnings. During World War II, Lockheed, in cooperation with Trans-World Airlines, had developed the L-049 Constellation, a radical new airliner capable of flying 43 passengers between New York and London at a speed of 300 mph in 13 hours. Once the Constellation went into production, the military received the first production models; the Constellations' performance set new standards which transformed the civilian transportation market. Its signature tri-tail was the result of many initial customers not
C band (IEEE)
The C band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers for a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 gigahertz. The C band is used for many satellite communications transmissions, some Wi-Fi devices, some cordless telephones as well as some surveillance and weather radar systems; the communications C band was the first frequency band, allocated for commercial telecommunications via satellites. The same frequencies were in use for terrestrial microwave radio relay chains. Nearly all C-band communication satellites use the band of frequencies from 3.7 to 4.2 GHz for their downlinks, the band of frequencies from 5.925 to 6.425 GHz for their uplinks. Note that by using the band from 3.7 to 4.0 GHz, this C band overlaps somewhat into the IEEE S band for radars. The C-band communication satellites have 24 radio transponders spaced 20 MHz apart, but with the adjacent transponders on opposite polarizations. Hence, the transponders on the same polarization are always 40 MHz apart.
Of this 40 MHz, each transponder utilizes about 36 MHz. One use of the C band is for satellite communication, whether for full-time satellite television networks or raw satellite feeds, although subscription programming exists; this use contrasts with direct-broadcast satellite, a closed system used to deliver subscription programming to small satellite dishes that are connected with proprietary receiving equipment. The satellite communications portion of the C band is associated with television receive-only satellite reception systems called "big dish" systems, since small receiving antennas are not optimal for C-band systems. Typical antenna sizes on C-band capable systems ranges from 7.5 to 12 feet on consumer satellite dishes, although larger ones can be used. For satellite communications, the microwave frequencies of the C band perform better under adverse weather conditions in comparison with the Ku band, microwave frequencies used by other communication satellites. Rain fade – the collective name for the negative effects of adverse weather conditions on transmission – is a consequence of precipitation and moisture in the air.
The C band includes the 5.8 GHz ISM band between 5.725 - 5.875 GHz, used for medical and industrial heating applications and many unlicensed short range microwave communication systems, such as cordless phones, baby monitors, keyless entry systems for vehicles. The C-band frequencies of 5.4 GHz band are used for IEEE 802.11a Wi-Fi wireless computer networks. In response to a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking of July 2018 from the US Federal Communications Commission to make the 3.7 to 4.2 GHz spectrum available for next-generation terrestrial fixed and mobile broadband services, in September 2018 the C-Band Alliance was established by the four satellite operators, Intelsat, SES, Eutelsat and Telesat that provide the majority of C-band satellite services in the US, including media distribution reaching 100 million US households. The consortium's proposal to the FCC is to act as a facilitator for the clearing and repurposing of a 200 MHz portion of C-band spectrum to accelerate the deployment of next generation 5G services while protecting incumbent users and their content distribution and data networks in the US from potential interference.
Slight variations in the assignments of C-band frequencies have been approved for use in various parts of the world, depending on their locations in the three ITU radio regions. Note that one region includes all of Europe and Africa, plus all of Russia; this latter region is the most populous one, since it includes China, Pakistan and Southeast Asia. The Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union allow amateur radio operations in the frequency range 5.650 to 5.925 GHz, amateur satellite operations are allowed in the ranges 5.830 to 5.850 GHz for down-links and 5.650 to 5.670 GHz for up-links. This is known as the 5-centimeter band by amateurs and the C band by AMSAT. Particle accelerators may be powered by C-band RF sources; the frequencies are standardized at 5.996 GHz or 5.712 GHz, the second harmonic of S band. The VSAT Installation Manual Video Presentation shows examples of the arrangement of the Feed for c-band polarization requirements VSAT Installation Manual with explanation of c-band polarization requirements for a VSAT
A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller. In its simplest form a turboprop consists of an intake, combustor, a propelling nozzle. Air is compressed by the compressor. Fuel is added to the compressed air in the combustor, where the fuel-air mixture combusts; the hot combustion gases expand through the turbine. Some of the power generated by the turbine is used to drive the compressor; the rest is transmitted through the reduction gearing to the propeller. Further expansion of the gases occurs in the propelling nozzle, where the gases exhaust to atmospheric pressure; the propelling nozzle provides a small proportion of the thrust generated by a turboprop. In contrast to a turbojet, the engine's exhaust gases do not contain enough energy to create significant thrust, since all of the engine's power is used to drive the propeller. Exhaust thrust in a turboprop is sacrificed in favour of shaft power, obtained by extracting additional power from turbine expansion. Owing to the additional expansion in the turbine system, the residual energy in the exhaust jet is low.
The exhaust jet produces around or less than 10% of the total thrust. A higher proportion of the thrust comes from less at higher speeds. Turboprops can have bypass ratios up to 50-100 although the propulsion airflow is less defined for propellers than for fans; the propeller is coupled to the turbine through a reduction gear that converts the high RPM/low torque output to low RPM/high torque. The propeller itself is a constant speed type similar to that used with larger reciprocating aircraft engines. Unlike the small diameter fans used in turbofan jet engines, the propeller has a large diameter that lets it accelerate a large volume of air; this permits a lower airstream velocity for a given amount of thrust. As it is more efficient at low speeds to accelerate a large amount of air by a small degree than a small amount of air by a large degree, a low disc loading increases the aircraft's energy efficiency, this reduces the fuel use. Propellers lose efficiency as aircraft speed increases, so turboprops are not used on high-speed aircraft above Mach 0.6-0.7.
However, propfan engines, which are similar to turboprop engines, can cruise at flight speeds approaching Mach 0.75. To increase propeller efficiency, a mechanism can be used to alter their pitch relative to the airspeed. A variable-pitch propeller called a controllable-pitch propeller, can be used to generate negative thrust while decelerating on the runway. Additionally, in the event of an engine failure, the pitch can be adjusted to a vaning pitch, thus minimizing the drag of the non-functioning propeller. While most modern turbojet and turbofan engines use axial-flow compressors, turboprop engines contain at least one stage of centrifugal compression. Centrifugal compressors have the advantage of being simple and lightweight, at the expense of a streamlined shape. While the power turbine may be integral with the gas generator section, many turboprops today feature a free power turbine on a separate coaxial shaft; this enables the propeller to rotate independent of compressor speed. Residual thrust on a turboshaft is avoided by further expansion in the turbine system and/or truncating and turning the exhaust 180 degrees, to produce two opposing jets.
Apart from the above, there is little difference between a turboprop and a turboshaft. Alan Arnold Griffith had published a paper on turbine design in 1926. Subsequent work at the Royal Aircraft Establishment investigated axial turbine designs that could be used to supply power to a shaft and thence a propeller. From 1929, Frank Whittle began work on centrifugal turbine designs that would deliver pure jet thrust; the world's first turboprop was designed by the Hungarian mechanical engineer György Jendrassik. Jendrassik published a turboprop idea in 1928, on 12 March 1929 he patented his invention. In 1938, he built a small-scale experimental gas turbine; the larger Jendrassik Cs-1, with a predicted output of 1,000 bhp, was produced and tested at the Ganz Works in Budapest between 1937 and 1941. It was of axial-flow design with 15 compressor and 7 turbine stages, annular combustion chamber and many other modern features. First run in 1940, combustion problems limited its output to 400 bhp. In 1941,the engine was abandoned due to war, the factory was turned over to conventional engine production.
The world's first turboprop engine that went into mass production was designed by a German engineer, Max Adolf Mueller, in 1942. The first mention of turboprop engines in the general public press was in the February 1944 issue of the British aviation publication Flight, which included a detailed cutaway drawing of what a possible future turboprop engine could look like; the drawing was close to what the future Rolls-Royce Trent would look like. The first British turboprop engine was the Rolls-Royce RB.50 Trent, a converted Derwent II fitted with reduction gear and a Rotol 7 ft 11 in five-bladed propeller. Two Trents were fitted to Gloster Meteor EE227 — the sole "Trent-Meteor" — which thus became the world's first turboprop-powered aircraft, albeit a test-bed not intended for production, it first flew on 20 September 1945. From their experience with the Trent, Rolls-Royce developed the Rolls-Royce Clyde, the first turboprop engine to be type certificated for military and civil use, the Dart, which became one of the most reliable turboprop engines built.
Dart production continued for more than fifty years. The Dart-powered Vickers Vi
Fleet Readiness Center Southeast
Fleet Readiness Center Southeast is an American Naval aviation maintenance and overhaul facility located on Naval Air Station Jacksonville with a detachment on Naval Station Mayport. FRCSE works on the rework of engines and ground support equipment, plus other support functions vital to the Fleet. Aircraft FRCSE works on include F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornet, Air Force and Navy H-60 helicopter variants and P-3C Orions. FRCSE works with several organizations such as the Defense Logistics Agency to combat delays in the supply chain. In 2017, FRCSE held a change of command welcoming a new commanding officer, Capt. Trent Demoss and a new executive officer, Col. Frederick Schenk. In 2018, FRCSE passed a inspection with a high score of 98.6 out of 100, a grand achievement for a naval facility. FRCSE is the largest industrial employer in Jacksonville metropolitan area and Southeastern Georgia. FRCSE employs 3,000 civilian employees, 1,000 contractors and 1,000 military personnel from the Navy and Marine Corps.
Rear Admiral Timothy Matthews Rear Admiral Paul Sohl Captain Robert Caldwell Fleet Readiness Center East Fleet Readiness Center Mid-Atlantic Fleet Readiness Center Northwest Fleet Readiness Center Southwest Fleet Readiness Center West Fleet Readiness Center Western Pacific
Gonzo known as The Great Gonzo and Gonzo the Great, is a Muppet character known for his eccentric passion for stunt performance. Aside from his trademark enthusiasm for performance art, another defining trait of Gonzo is the ambiguity of his species, which has become a running gag in the franchise. Gonzo has been considered to be of various origins, including a Frackle, in his debut appearance on The Great Santa Claus Switch. Developed and performed by Dave Goelz, Gonzo made his first appearance in the 1970 special The Great Santa Claus Switch, as the "Cigar Box Frackle". A minor figure in The Muppet Show, he soon evolved into one of the franchise's primary characters. Gonzo has appeared in every Muppet film, including The Muppet Christmas Carol, where he portrayed author Charles Dickens and developed a double act with Rizzo the Rat; the prototype of Gonzo appeared in The Great Santa Claus Switch, "as a generic gruff baddie". Jim Henson selected this Frackle as the basis for Gonzo, gave the character to puppeteer Dave Goelz.
Gonzo was created as a character with low self-esteem, as written by Jerry Juhl, with Goelz acknowledging he put himself into that interpretation. With Jim Henson's approval, they reworked the eyes to allow the character to convey more excitement, a "zany, bombastic appreciation for life". Gonzo has several memorable performances such as his 1979 song from The Muppet Movie, "I'm Going to Go Back There Someday", he became known for his stunts as acts within The Muppet Show and beyond, with the famous quote "I shall now eat a rubber tire to the music of The Flight of the Bumblebee...music, maestro!"In 1992, he played the part of Charles Dickens in The Muppet Christmas Carol, as director Brian Henson said Gonzo was the most improbable Muppet to do so. Here, he developed a double act with Rizzo the Rat and breaking the fourth wall, with Rizzo challenging Gonzo's claims to be Dickens; the Gonzo and Rizzo partnership was continued in Muppet Treasure Island and Muppets from Space. Along with Kermit and Rizzo, Gonzo gave an audio commentary for the Muppets from Space DVD.
In The Muppets, it was revealed that he had become a powerful plumbing magnate since the Muppets separated. In the 2015 television series The Muppets, Gonzo is a major character and the head writer of Miss Piggy's late night talk show, Up Late with Miss Piggy. Gonzo is not a puppet version of a recognizable animal, he has an awkward, non animal-like appearance, which includes purple-blue fur, purple feathers on his head, bug-eyes, a long, hooked nose, referred to as a "beak". In The Muppet Show and The Muppet Movie, he performed as a performance artist, stunt double and daredevil under the name "The Great Gonzo". Gonzo is good friends with all of the Muppets, but performed a double act with Rizzo the Rat since The Muppet Christmas Carol. Gonzo has a long-standing romantic relationship with Camilla the Chicken, whom he first courted in the Leslie Uggams episode of The Muppet Show, directed Camilla and the other chickens in 2008 YouTube videos. A running gag related to Gonzo is. Gonzo's self-identity is a "whatever".
In The Muppet Movie, while having his inner conversation, says "And a thing, whatever Gonzo is. He's a little like a turkey", to which his inner self replied "but not much". In the film The Great Muppet Caper, he is shipped to England in a crate labeled "Whatever". In A Muppet Family Christmas, when Gonzo states to the Christmas Turkey that Camilla is his girlfriend, the Christmas Turkey says "You're not a bird!" In the Muppet Treasure Island CD-ROM Game and Rizzo the Rat land in a bucket of molasses, following the dialogue of a carriage driver saying "It's raining rats and... whatevers". In The Muppets' Wizard of Oz, Gonzo played a Tin Man-ish character known as the "Tin Thing". In Jim Henson's Muppet Babies, Gonzo was referred to, most by Baby Piggy, as a "weirdo" or "blue weirdo". In Muppets from Space, Gonzo has a starring role. In the film he is revealed to be an alien, his alien family comes to Earth with a big party for him and before their departure they ask him to return to space with them.
Gonzo sadly says farewell to the Muppets but he soon realizes that he would be abandoning his longtime friends who have been like his family all along and declines the aliens' offer. Though performed by Dave Goelz, he has been voiced in animated form by Hal Rayle in Little Muppet Monsters. Brett O'Quinn performed Gonzo in Muppets Ahoy!, a 2006 Disney Cruise Line show. An infant-aged version of Gonzo appeared as a regular character in the animated spin-off television series Muppet Babies, voiced by Russi Taylor and Laurie O'Brien, alongside Kermit, Miss Piggy, other central Muppet Show figures. Baby Gonzo is one of the cartoon characters featured in Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue. Gonzo was featured on the #28 Havoline Ford of Ricky Rudd in the 2002 Tropicana 400 in an advertising campaign in which he and his fellow Muppets were featured on a select few NASCAR Nextel Cup Series race cars. Gonzo appeared alongside his fellow Muppets on the Halloween 2011 episode of WWE Raw. Gonzo was announced as the Grand marshal for the Auto Club 400 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race at Auto Club Speedway in Fontana, Ca. to give the famous command of "Drivers, Start your engines".
He fulfilled his duty on March 23, 2014. Gonzo is the namesake to the CT-142 Bombardier Dash 8 used by the Canadian Armed Forces for Air Combat Systems Officer training due to the blue paint job and elongated nose housing a specialized radar. A similar flying
Kermit the Frog
Kermit the Frog is a Muppet character and Jim Henson's most well-known creation. Introduced in 1955, Kermit serves as the straight man protagonist of numerous Muppet productions, most notably Sesame Street and The Muppet Show, as well as in other television series, films and public service announcements through the years. Henson performed Kermit until his death in 1990. Kermit is performed by Matt Vogel, he was voiced by Frank Welker in Muppet Babies and in other animation projects, is voiced by Matt Danner in the 2018 reboot of Muppet Babies. Kermit performed the hit singles "Bein' Green" in 1970 and "The Rainbow Connection" in 1979 for The Muppet Movie, the first feature-length film featuring the Muppets; the latter song reached No. 25 on the Billboard Hot 100. Kermit's iconic look and voice have been recognizable worldwide since, in 2006, the character was credited as the author of Before You Leap: A Frog's Eye View of Life's Greatest Lessons, an "autobiography" told from the perspective of the character himself.
The earliest trace of Kermit first appeared in 1955 on Friends. This prototype Kermit was created from a discarded spring coat belonging to Henson's mother and two ping pong ball halves for eyes. Kermit was a lizard-like creature, he subsequently made a number of television appearances before his status. His collar was added at the time to make him seem more frog-like and to conceal the seam between his head and body; the origin of Kermit's name is a subject of some debate. It is claimed that Kermit was named after Henson's childhood friend Kermit Scott, from Leland, Mississippi. However, Karen Falk, head archivist and board of directors member for the Jim Henson Legacy organization, denies this claim on the Jim Henson Company's website: While Jim Henson did have a childhood acquaintance named Kermit, it was not an uncommon name at the time, Jim always said that the Frog was NOT named after this child from his elementary school. Joy DiMenna, the only daughter of Kermit Kalman Cohen who worked as a sound engineer at WBAL-TV during Jim Henson's time with Sam and Friends, recalls that the puppet was named after her father.
According to Kermit Cohen's obituary, as well as DiMenna and Lenny Levin, a colleague of Mr. Cohen's at WBAL: The late puppeteer had been the host of a show, "Sam and Friends," at WRC-TV in Washington when he was invited to tour WBAL's studios. Both were NBC affiliates and WBAL carried the show, Mr. Levin said. Mr. Henson was introduced to members including Mr. Cohen. "When he heard his name, Jim turned around, snapped his fingers and said to his wife,'That's what we call the frog – Kermit.' Another common belief is that Kermit was named for Kermit Love, who worked with Henson in designing and constructing Muppets on Sesame Street but Love's association with Henson did not begin until well after Kermit's creation and naming, he always denied any connection between his name and that of the character. As Sesame Street is localized for some different markets that speak languages other than English, Kermit is renamed. In Portugal, he is called Cocas, o Sapo, in Brazil, his name is similar: Caco, o Sapo.
In most of Hispanic America, his name is la rana René. In the Arabic version, he is known as Kamel, a common Arabic male name that means "perfect". In Hungary, he is called Breki. Jim Henson originated the character in 1955 on his local television series and Friends. Brian Henson described his father's performance as Kermit as "coming out of his own personality—was a wry intelligence, a little bit of a naughtiness, but Kermit always loved everyone around and loved a good prank." He continued to perform the character until his death in 1990. Henson's last known performance as Kermit was for an appearance on The Arsenio Hall Show to promote The Muppets at Walt Disney World. Henson died twelve days after that appearance. Following Henson's death, veteran Muppet performer Steve Whitmire was named Kermit's new performer. In 2017, Whitmire seemed to imply in a blog post that Jim Henson had asked him to assume the role before he died, though Jim's daughter Cheryl Henson claimed Brian had selected him after Jim's death.
Whitmire's first public performance as Kermit was at the end of the television special The Muppets Celebrate Jim Henson in 1990. He remained Kermit's principal performer until 2016. Disney announced that Matt Vogel would be taking over as the performer and voice for Kermit on July 10, 2017. Whitmire revealed that he had not chosen to voluntarily leave the role, but rather, had been recast by Muppet Studios in October 2016. In an interview with The Hollywood Reporter in July 2017, Whitmire elaborated he was fired for two reasons: long-term creative disagreements over Kermit's characterization and prolonged labor union negotiations that delayed his involvement in Muppet-related productions. For a brief demonstration at MuppetFest, Muppet performer John Kennedy performed Kermit opposite Whitmire's performance of young Kermit. Kennedy performed Kermit for Muppets Ahoy!, a 2006 Disney Cruise Line stage show. Muppet performer Artie Esposito performed Kermit in 2009 for a few personal appearances. Voice actor Frank Welker provided the voice of Baby Kermit on the animated Saturday morning cartoon, Muppet Babies.
He provided the voice of an a
A barber's pole is a type of sign used by barbers to signify the place or shop where they perform their craft. The trade sign is, by a tradition dating back to the Middle Ages, a staff or pole with a helix of colored stripes; the pole may be stationary or may revolve with the aid of an electric motor. A "barber's pole" with a helical stripe is a familiar sight, is used as a secondary metaphor to describe objects in many other contexts. For example, if the shaft or tower of a lighthouse has been painted with a helical stripe as a daymark, the lighthouse could be described as having been painted in "barber's pole" colors. Borders may be marked and warnings highlighted. During medieval times, barbers performed surgery on customers, as well as tooth extractions; the original pole had a brass wash basin at the bottom. The pole itself represents the staff that the patient gripped during the procedure to encourage blood flow. At the Council of Tours in 1163, the clergy was banned from the practice of surgery.
From physicians were separated from the surgeons and barbers. The role of the barbers was defined by the College de Saint-Côme et Saint-Damien, established by Jean Pitard in Paris circa 1210, as academic surgeons of the long robe and barber surgeons of the short robe. After the formation of the United Barber Surgeon's Company in England, a statute required the barber to use a red and white pole and the surgeon to use a red pole. In France, surgeons used a red pole with a basin attached to identify their offices. Blue appears on poles in the United States as a homage to its national colors. Another, more fanciful interpretation of these barber pole colors is that red represents arterial blood, blue is symbolic of venous blood, white depicts the bandage. Prior to 1950, there were four manufacturers of barber poles in the United States. In 1950, William Marvy of St. Paul, started manufacturing barber poles. Marvy made his 50,000th barber pole in 1967, and, by 2010, over 82,000 had been produced; the William Marvy Company is now the sole manufacturer of barber poles in North America, sells only 500 per year.
In recent years, the sale of spinning barber poles has dropped since few barber shops are opening, many jurisdictions prohibit moving signs. Koken of St. Louis, manufactured barber equipment such as chairs and assorted poles in the 19th century; as early as 1905, use of the poles was reported to be "diminishing" in the United States. In Forest Grove, the "World's Tallest Barber Shop Pole" measures 72 feet; the consistent use of this symbol for advertising was analogous to an apothecary's show globe, a tobacconist's cigar store Indian and a pawn broker's three gold balls. As early as the Roman Empire, continuing through the Renaissance into Industrialization a "barber-surgeon" performed tooth extraction, leeching, enemas, etc. However, today's barber poles represent little more than being a barber shop that cuts hair and does shaves. Barber poles have become a topic of controversy in the hairstyling business. In some states, such as Michigan in March 2012, legislation has emerged proposing that barber poles should only be permitted outside barbershops, but not traditional beauty salons.
Barbers and cosmetologists have engaged in several legal battles claiming the right to use the barber pole symbol to indicate to potential customers that the business offers haircutting services. Barbers claim that they are entitled to exclusive rights to use the barber pole because of the tradition tied to the craft, whereas cosmetologists think that they are capable of cutting men's hair. In South Korea, barber's poles are used both for brothels. Brothels disguised as barbershops, referred to as 이발소 or 미용실, are more to use two poles next to each other spinning in opposite directions, though the use of a single pole for the same reason is quite common. Actual barbershops, or 미용실, are more to be hair salons. A spinning barber pole creates a visual illusion, in which the stripes appear to be traveling up or down the length of the pole, rather than around it; the Swan portion of M17, the Omega Nebula in the Sagittarius nebulosity is said to resemble a barber's pole. Barber pole-like structures have been observed at the cellular level.
The effects and causes are controversial, are subject to intense research. Matthew Walker's knot is a decorative knot. Sinosauropteryx is the first genus of non-avian dinosaur found with the fossilized impressions of feathers, as well as the first non-avian dinosaur where coloration has been determined, it was a close relative of Compsognathus. It was the first non-avialan dinosaur genus discovered from the famous Jehol Biota of Liaoning Province. Zhang found "that the filaments running down its back and tail may have made the dinosaur look like an orange-and-white-striped barber pole; such a vibrant pattern suggest that'feathers first arose as agents for color display,' Benton says." Haemo