The Brisbane River is the longest river in South East Queensland and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay. John Oxley, the first European to explore the river, named it after the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Thomas Brisbane in 1823; the penal colony of Moreton Bay adopted the same name becoming the present city of Brisbane. Early travellers along the waterway admired the natural beauty, abundant fish and rich vegetation along its banks. From 1862 the Brisbane River has been dredged for navigation purposes; the river served as an important carriageway between Brisbane and Ipswich before a railway linking the towns was built in 1875. By the late 1920s, water quality in the river had deteriorated; the river travels 344 km from Mount Stanley. The river is dammed by the Wivenhoe Dam, forming the main water supply for Brisbane; the waterway is a habitat for Brisbane River cod and bull sharks. The largest ship built on the river was the Robert Miller; the 66,000 tonne vessel became un-moored in the 1974 Brisbane flood.
While not the highest experienced along the river since European settlement, this flood was the most damaging. Major floods occurred in January 2011 and multiple times during 1893. Extensive port facilities have been constructed on the Fisherman Islands, now known as the Port of Brisbane. There are 16 major bridges; the Clem Jones Tunnel, opened in 2010, is the river's first underground crossing for road transport. The CityCat ferry service collects and delivers passengers along the inner-city reaches of the river. Brisbane River's source is located in the Great Dividing Range, east of Kingaroy, it makes its way south, past Mount Stanley, townships including Moore and Toogoolawah before being joined by the Stanley River, just south of Somerset Dam. The river runs from there into Lake Wivenhoe, created by the Wivenhoe Dam. Beyond the dam, the river meanders eastward, meeting the Bremer River near Ipswich making its way through Brisbane's western suburbs, including Jindalee and Toowong; the river is traversed by CityCats and other ferries in Brisbane, as it winds its way through the city centre.
Water from the highest point in the catchment has fallen from Mount Langley in the Conondale Range, 868 m above sea level. The Brisbane River flows past wharves including Pinkenba Wharf and Portside Wharf, past Bulwer Island and Luggage Point through the Port of Brisbane and into southern Bramble Bay an embayment of Moreton Bay. On the southern side of the river, opposite Gardens Point, are the Kangaroo Point Cliffs; the Kangaroo Point Cliffs were created by a quarrying operation that, according to Allan Cunninghams' Field Book, was underway prior to 1829 when he observed a "stone wharf used for landing the blocks of stone ferried across the river for the construction of buildings in the settlement". This was in the vicinity of Edward Street ferry terminal; the volcanic rock Ignimbrite which formed the cliffs was deposited in the Triassic period about 220 million years ago. They form the banks of the Brisbane River. A number of the reaches of the Brisbane River are named, including the following listed below, together with their location relative to tributaries of the river and river crossings: The following major tributaries flow into the Brisbane River from the north.
On the southside Bulimba Creek, Norman Creek, Oxley Creek, Bremer River and Lockyer Creek waterways enter the Brisbane River. The following smaller creeks flow into the river. Before European settlement, the Brisbane River was spiritually important and a vital food source for the Aboriginal people of the Turrbal nation through fishing in the tidal sections downstream, with fishing and firestick farming in the upper reaches where there was freshwater, depending on the season; the language group common to most of the area was the Yugarabul language group. Four European navigators, namely Captain Cook, Matthew Flinders, John Bingle and William Edwardson, all visited Moreton Bay but failed to discover the river; the exploration by Flinders took place during his expedition from Port Jackson north to Hervey Bay in 1799. He spent a total of 15 days in the area, touching down at Woody Point and several other spots, but failed to discover the mouth of the river although there were suspicions of its existence.
This is consistent with accounts of many other rivers along the east coast of Australia, which could not be found by seaward exploration but were discovered by inland travellers. On 21 March 1823, four ticket-of-leave convicts sailing south from Sydney on a timber getting mission to Illawarra, Thomas Pamphlett, John Finnegan, Richard Parsons and John Thompson were blown north by a storm, they went 21 days without water, continuing north in the belief they had been blown south, during which time Thompson died. They landed on Moreton Island on 16 April and made it to the mainland on the south of the Brisbane River, they began trekking north in order to return to Sydney, still believing themselves to be somewhere south of Jervis Bay. Subsequently, they became the first known Europeans to discover the river, stumbling across it somewhere near the entrance, they walked upstream along its banks for nearly a month before making their first crossing at'Canoe Reach', the junction of Oxley Creek. It was here they stole a small canoe left by the
Agriculture in Australia
Australia is a major agricultural producer and exporter, with over 325,300 employed in Agriculture and fishing as of February 2015. Agriculture and its related sectors earn $155 billion-a-year for a 12% share of GDP. Farmers and graziers own 135,997 farms. 64% of all farms across Australia belong to the state, with a further 23% that are still owned by indigenous groups or tribes. Across the country there is a mix of irrigation and dry-land farming. Australia leads the world with 35 million hectares certified organic, 8.8% of Australia's agricultural land. The CSIRO, the federal government agency for scientific research in Australia, has forecast that climate change will cause decreased precipitation over much of Australia and that this will exacerbate existing challenges to water availability and quality for agriculture. There are three main zones: the high rainfall zone of a narrow coastal zone. An indicator of the viability of agriculture in the state of South Australia is whether the land is within Goyder's Line.
Australia produces a large variety of primary products for export and domestic consumption. The forecast top ten agricultural products by value are listed for the year 2006-07, with production figures from previous years. Cereals and grain legumes are produced on a large scale in Australia for human consumption and livestock feed. Wheat is the cereal with the greatest production in terms of area and value to the Australian economy. Sugarcane, grown in tropical Australia, is an important crop. Listed below is crop production by kilotonnes for the largest crops: Australia produces a wide variety of fruit and vegetables; the largest crops include oranges, bananas, potatoes and tomatoes. Tropical fruits, including bananas and pineapples, fare well in Queensland and the Northern Territory. Australia is one of the few countries; this industry, centred in Tasmania, is subject to strict controls. The horticulture industry has traditionally provided Australians with all their fresh fruit and vegetable needs, with a smaller export industry.
However, loosened border controls and increasing importers have threatened local industries. Consumer research has shown that Australians prefer local produce. However, there is no effective country-of-origin labelling and consumers assume all fresh vegetables and fruit must be Australian. In 2005 McDonald's Australia Ltd announced it would no longer source all its potatoes for fries from Tasmanian producers and announced a new deal with New Zealand suppliers. Subsequently and Potato Growers Australia launched a political campaign advocating protectionism; this campaign included a tractor convoy moving from Tasmania to the mainland and a road trip throughout country Victoria and New South Wales culminating at Canberra, the national capital. Australia has a large wine industry, the value of wine exports surpassed A$2.3 billion in 2002-2003. Wine regions include the Barossa Valley in South Australia, Sunraysia in Victoria, Margaret River in Western Australia and the Hunter Valley in New South Wales.
The key wine varieties grown in Australia are Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. Although the Australian wine industry enjoyed a large period of growth during the 1990s, over planting and over supply have led to a large drop in the value of wine, forcing some wine makers those on contracts to large wine producing companies, out of business; the future for some Australian wine producers is now uncertain. The beef industry is the largest agricultural enterprise in Australia, it is the second largest beef exporter, behind Brazil, in the world. All states and territories of Australia support cattle breeding in a wide range of climates. Cattle production is a major industry; the Australian beef industry is dependent on export markets, with over 60% of Australian beef production exported to the United States and Japan. The industry gained an advantage after the discovery of BSE in Canada and the United States, as Australia is free of the disease. In contrast to breeding systems in other parts of the world, Australian cattle are reared on pasture as the principal source of feed.
In southern Australia beef cattle are reared on smaller properties as part of a mixed farming or grazing operation, but some properties do specialise in producing cattle. The southern calves are reared on pasture and sold as weaners, yearlings or as steers at about two years old or older. Artificial insemination and embryo transfer are more used in stud cattle breeding in Australia, but may be used in other herds. In the Top End, sub-tropical areas and in arid inland regions cattle are bred on native pastures on expansive cattle stations. Anna Creek Station in South Australia, Australia is the world's largest working cattle station; the North Australian Pastoral Company
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Rail transport in Queensland
The Queensland rail network, the first in the world to adopt 1,067 mm narrow gauge for a main line, now the second largest narrow gauge network in the world, consists of: the North Coast Line extending 1,680 kilometres from Brisbane to Rockhampton, Townsville & Cairns Four east–west lines connecting to the NCL: the Western line from Brisbane to Toowoomba & Charleville the Central Western line from Rockhampton to Longreach & Winton the Great Northern Railway from Townsville to Mount Isa the Tablelands line from Cairns to Atherton & Forsayth Four export coal networks: Moura to Gladstone Blackwater to Gladstone utilising the Central Western and NCL lines Goonyella to Hay Point Newlands to Abbot Point the original narrow gauge Southern line that provided a rail connection to Sydney, extending from Toowoomba to the New South Wales border at Wallangarra, plus the South Western line west from Warwick to Thallon. Passenger services are provided by: Long distance trains from: Brisbane to Cairns Townsville to Mount Isa Brisbane to Rockhampton and Longreach Brisbane to Charleville Brisbane to Sydney by the standard gauge XPT the Brisbane-centric TransLink network providing services: south to Beenleigh and Varsity Lakes on the Gold Coast north to Ferny Grove, Kippa Ring, Caboolture & Gympie.
The TransLink network consists of 300 route km and 151 stations. Construction of the Queensland rail network began in 1864 with the first section of the Main Line railway from Ipswich to Grandchester being built; this was the first narrow gauge main line constructed in the world and is now the second largest narrow gauge railway network in the world. At its maximum extent in 1932, the system totalled. In 1925 QR employed ~18,000 people, 713 locomotives, 930 passenger carriages, ~16,000 goods wagons, hauled ~five million tons of goods and ~30 million passengers, made a return on capital of 3.2% before depreciation. Three significant electrification programs have been undertaken in Queensland which include the Brisbane suburban network, the Blackwater and Goonyella coal networks, the Caboolture to Gladstone section of the North Coast line. On 2 June 2009 the Queensland Government announced the'Renewing Queensland Plan', with Queensland Rail's commercial activities to be separated from the Government's core passenger service responsibilities.
The commercial activities were formed into a new company called QR National Limited. The new structure was announced by the Queensland Government on 2 December 2009, took place from 1 July 2010; the nascent Queensland Railways was persuaded that the way to reduce the cost of railway construction was to use a narrower gauge than the standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. A prototype existed in Norway, but Queensland became the first rail operator in the world to adopt narrow gauge for a main line; the proposed 3 ft 6 in gauge railway involved a 5 long tons axle load and sharp curves of 5 chains radius on the long climb to Toowoomba at about 610 metres above sea level. The maximum gradient was 1 in 50 uncompensated, which combined with a 5 chains radius curve gives an equivalent grade of 1 in 41. Although the proposed railway could only manage a top speed of 20 mph, claimed to be sufficient for a hundred years. One of main advantages of a narrow gauge railway is that the earthworks required during construction do not have to be as extensive.
It was estimated that the cost of this standard of railway would be 25% of the cost of a standard gauge line built to the minimum standard considered possible with that gauge at the time. As the colony of Queensland had a non-indigenous population of ~30,000 at the time the decision was made, it is understandable. Standard gauge branch lines were constructed in NSW with 5 chains radius curves and had the same low maximum speed; the choice of the non-standard 3 ft 6 in gauge was and still is controversial, the choice was approved narrowly by parliament. Thus the die was cast for a large narrow-gauge system, copied by three other Australian states as well as a number of other countries. A hundred and fifty years Queensland is still sparsely populated, but many trains hauling coal are some of the longest and heaviest in the world, with Aurizon trialing coal trains of 25,000 tonne gross load that are ~4.5 km long. QR had one rack railway, with grades as steep as 1 in 16.5, on the branch to Mount Morgan.
It was bypassed by a conventional line in 1951 with grades of 1 in 50. The bypass closed in 1987; the rack system was the same type used by the Mount Lyell Railway in Tasmania. The government owned Queensland Rail has been the main rail operator in Queensland; the exception has been the standard gauge link from New South Wales into Brisbane. When opened in 1930 it was operationally a part of the Ne
Golden Circle (company)
Golden Circle is a subsidiary of US-based Kraft Heinz, based in Brisbane, Queensland. Its main operations are food processing. Golden Circle was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2010, for its significant contribution to the economy of Queensland through the processing of food products notably fruit and vegetables. Golden Circle began operations in 1947 after construction of the main canning factory at Northgate was completed; the new facility was opened on 28 October 1947 by the Premier of Queensland, the Hon Edward Hanlon in the presence of 1500 people including 500 Sunshine Coast fruit growers who arrived on a special train. The company was called'Queensland Tropical Fruit Products', with'Golden Circle' used as their brand name. Golden Circle was part of the Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing in Queensland. In 1964, under the leadership of Bernard Flewell-Smith and Percival Savage, the cannery was established as a separate business, it was split off from the COD by an amendment to the Fruit Marketing Organisation Acts.
The company processed and canned pineapples and produced fruit jams. Over the years, production has expanded to include other canned fruit and vegetables, fruit cordials, carbonated beverages and baby food; as of 2009, Golden Circle ceased to be an Australian Owned Company. The board and shareholders of GC agreed and sold all of their shares for 313% more than they were trading at prior to the offer from US Corporation, Heinz. Golden Circle was one of few remaining Australian Food Companies being sold by Australian farmers to International Companies. Australian farmers supply more than 180,000 tonnes of fruit and vegetables annually to the company for processing; the fruit crops, of which pineapple is the largest, come from the Sunshine Coast hinterland, Maryborough and northern Queensland. Vegetables are sourced from the Lockyer Valley west of Brisbane. Crops that are not grown in Queensland are supplied from interstate. Golden Circle operates a A$20m food hall enabling a move into the development of new products such as baby food and a Tetra Pak plant that produces more than 42 million litres of fruit juices and drinks annually.
Golden Circle employs a large number of people, which varies seasonally between 700 and 1,700. In addition to its main processing operation in Brisbane, Golden Circle owns the Original Juice Co. plant at Mill Park, on Melbourne's northern outskirts, a fresh fruit packing operation in Griffith, New South Wales. Golden Circle manufactures more than 800 products including shelf stable fruit and vegetables, fruit juices, soft drinks, jams and baby food. Pineapple products now account for only 24% of the company's total product range; the main production facility is at a northern suburb of Brisbane. Sales offices are located in every Australian state as well as New Zealand. Australia is the principal market for Golden Circle products, but they are exported to New Zealand and other Pacific countries. On 26 September 2007, Coca-Cola Amatil announced it was making a conditional takeover bid for 100% of the companies shares. On 6 October 2008, Heinz launched a Golden Circle takeover bid. Phillip Cave advised that the take over bid of $1.65 per share was "attractive" for all shareholders given the current difficult economic conditions.
The Heinz takeover bid was finalised on 19 December 2008. In May 2011 Golden Circle announced it would move beetroot production offshore to New Zealand affecting 160 Golden Circle jobs at the Northgate Plant. HEINZ Australia said it would instead invest more than $20 million at Northgate to upgrade its beverage manufacturing facilities. Official website
The Lockyer Creek is a creek located in South East Queensland, Australia. A tributary of the Brisbane River, the creek is a major drainage system in the Lockyer Valley. Rising on the eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range, the creek flows north-easterly for more than 100 kilometres before it reaches its confluence with the Brisbane River north-northeast of Lowood, downstream from the Wivenhoe Dam; the creek is named after Edmund Lockyer. Draining parts of the western Scenic Rim, the creek's headwaters are in the Main Range National Park, a small sub-section of the Great Dividing Range, its tributaries drain the slopes east of areas to the north of Gatton. The total stream length of the Lockyer Creek network is 6,056 kilometres; the total catchment area is 3,032 km2, covers nearly one quarter of the total catchment area of the Brisbane River. O'Reillys Weir is located about 1 kilometre upstream from the creek's confluence with the Brisbane River. 5 kilometres upstream from the junction of Lockyer Creek and the Brisbane River is the Wivenhoe Dam.
Tributaries flowing into Lockyer Creek include Flagstone Creek, Sandy Creek, Alice Creek, Laidley Creek, Tenthill Creek, Murphys Creek and Ma Ma Creek. Lower areas of the catchment have been cleared for intensive agriculture. Upper parts of the catchment remain forested protected within Lockyer National Park known as White Mountain State Forest. Bushfires, soil protection, water quality and flood management are the main resource management issues for the waterway; the creek is degraded. The poor conditions have resulted in unstable stream banks and gully erosion from the removal of riparian vegetation. There are a total of nine major private and public water storages within this drainage system, including Atkinson Dam, Bill Gunn Dam and Lake Clarendon; the Lockyer Creek valley had been one of the driest catchments in Queensland during the recent droughts in Australia. During the 2011 Queensland floods, on 10 and 11 January the creek experienced severe flash flooding from overnight and daytime heavy rain in a catchment of about 2,000 square kilometres.
During the floods the creek reached 18 metres deep, a record, higher than what was experienced during the 1974 Brisbane flood. The Bureau of Meteorology recorded a rise of 8 metres in 23 minutes during the flash flood but dismissed the reading as a fault, it was estimated that 4,000 tonnes or 4,000 megalitres of water per second flowed through Lockyer Creek, leading to the use of descriptive phrases such as "wall of water", or "inland tsunami". Water rose 9 feet above the 1893 flood level recorded at the Lockyer Creek Railway bridge. A report by GHD Group for the Brisbane City Council suggested that flood mitigating dams on Lockyer Creek and Bremer River could be a useful measure for flood proofing Brisbane; the Lockyer Creek Bridge at Bageli Park, designed by William Pagan, is one of the largest of its type in Queensland and one of Australia's first reinforced concrete arch rail bridges. The bridge, built in 1910/1911, features three spans, each supported by two arches, appeared on a stamp, part of a series featuring landmark bridges.
A model of the bridge was featured in the April 2011 edition of the Australian Model Railway Magazine. The bridge is still used for heavy Brisbane bound coal and grain traffic. Another single arch bridge on the same line, but over a side gully, with the same name, is closer to Gatton and was built in 1903. Further downstream in the district of Clarendon, an earlier railway structure built of timber piles with a deck of iron trusses, is as spectacular; this bridge is no longer used by rail traffic. Lockyer Creek has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Toowoomba – Helidon Line: Lockyer Creek Railway Bridge Toowoomba – Helidon Line: Lockyer Creek Railway Bridge Brisbane Valley railway line: Lockyer Creek Railway Bridge List of rivers of Queensland Lockyer Creek catchment map. Healthy Waterways. August 2005