Freelan Oscar Stanley
Freelan Oscar Stanley was an American inventor, entrepreneur and architect. He made his fortune in the manufacture of photographic plates but he is best remembered as the co-founder, along with his twin brother Francis Edgar Stanley, of the Stanley Motor Carriage Company which built steam-powered automobiles until 1920, he built and operated the Stanley Hotel in Estes Park, Colorado. Freelan Oscar Stanley and his identical twin brother Francis Edgar were born on June 1, 1849, in Kingfield, Maine, they were the third and second of the eight children of Solomon P. Stanley II and Apphia Kezar Stanley. Although their family was not wealthy, education was valued and knowledge of science and music were encouraged from a young age, their younger sister Chansonetta Stanley Emmons went on to achieve significant recognition in her own right as a photographer. Their elder brother Isaac Newton Stanley was named for the eminent English scientist while their younger brothers received the names of Solomon Liberty Stanley and Bayard Taylor Stanley Their younger brothers who died in infancy were named John Calvin Stanley and Ulysses Grant Stanley.
It has been suggested that the names Francis Edgar and Freelan Oscar were drawn from the pages of Sir Walter Scott although Edgar appears to be the only one of their names shared with a character from his works. Scott's Marmion had special significance to the Stanley brothers, uniting their love of poetry and the arts with pride in their Scottish ancestry. "On, Stanley, on!" A battle cry quoted in this poem became the motto of the Stanley Dry Plate Company featured on their packaging above a logo of a knight on horseback. In 1859, At the age of ten and Francis started their first business together refining and selling maple sugar; the object of their hard-earned money was woolen cloth for new school suits and a copy of Benjamin Greenleaf's National Arithmetic in which book they worked every equation from cover to cover. At eleven, their great-uncle, Liberty Stanley, who had raised their father as his own son, taught them the art of violin making. By the age of twelve, Freelan had completed three instruments.
He would continue to make them throughout his life creating many concert-quality pieces still prized today by collectors and musicians. In 1863, in the midst of the American Civil War, the brothers were witness to the Kingfield Rebellion, a protest against the unpopular Enrollment Act and the only anti-Union rebellion to occur in the State of Maine. In 1860, at the age of twenty the brothers began their collegiate education at Western State Normal School with the intention of becoming educators. Francis Edgar soon found that academic schooling was not to his liking and left to pursue a career as a portrait artist. Freelan continued his education at Hebron Academy from 1871 to 1873 and Bowdoin College in Brunswick from 1873 to 1874 where he was in the same class as Arctic explorer Admiral Robert Peary, he never completed his degree, due to his participation in the so-called Drill Rebellion. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Bowdoin alumnus, former professor, hero of Gettysburg, had become president of the college in 1871 and instituted mandatory military drills for all students.
Although Stanley was exempt from the drill as a member of the college band, he was nonetheless opposed to it and acted in solidarity with his peers. In November 1873, the students petitioned the Board of Governors to abolish it. In May 1874, having been unsuccessful in their petition, three-quarters of the student body refused to participate. Chamberlain gave the protesters the ultimatum of compliance or expulsion. Stanley was one of three students. Despite his expulsion, Freelan Oscar Stanley was granted an honorary degree from Bowdoin in 1919 at the age of 70; the drills were repealed after Chamberlain's resignation in 1883. Following his time at Bowdoin, Stanley accepted a position as headmaster of the high school in Mechanic Falls, Maine where he met Flora Jane Record Tileston, she was a pianist of some competency. They were married in 1876. In 1881, Stanley was struck with Tuberculosis, his younger brother Solomon Liberty was carried off by the disease the same year at the age of 27. Freelan believed his survival depended upon a less sedentary life and so he decided upon a career in manufacturing, opening the Stanley Practical Drawing Set factory.
His new business was ruined in a fire which destroyed the whole of his investment only a year in 1882. After leaving school, Francis Edgar Stanley opened a portrait studio, his first technique was "crayon" or charcoal which he supplemented with his "Improvement to the Atomizer," a forerunner of the modern air brush which he patented in 1876. In 1882, Francis began experimenting with photography about which he became passionate. Following the tragic conflagration of his brother's factory, Francis suggested that the two work together to create a new photographic product. By 1885, the Stanley brothers had established the Stanley Dry Plate Company in Maine; the first primitive dry photo plate was invented by the English physician Richard Leach Maddox in 1871. Charles Bennett discovered important improvements upon the original formula but, ten years most photographers were still using the wet plate collodion process. By perfecting their
A tonneau in current automotive terminology is an area of a car or truck open at the top. It can be either a cargo space. A tonneau cover describes a hard or soft cover used to protect unoccupied passenger seats in a convertible or roadster, or the cargo bed in a pickup truck. Hard tonneau covers open by a folding mechanism while soft covers open by rolling up; the tonneau cover conceals and/or covers cargo. When the cover is pulled out, it keeps items out of the sun and provides extra security by keeping personal items out of sight. A tonneau was an open rear passenger compartment, rounded like a barrel, on an automobile and, by extension, a body style incorporating such a compartment; the word is barrel. Early tonneaus had a rear-facing hinged door, but single and dual side doors were soon introduced; the first US side-door tonneau was made by Peerless, others followed. When the street was muddy or dirty the car could be backed up to the curb so tonneau passengers could exit directly onto the sidewalk.
Early open-bodied touring-type automobiles used. As early as the 1930s, lakes racers, searching for that extra competitive edge, pulled a page directly from early automobile construction and skinned the cockpits of their roadsters and streamliners with removable canvas; the skins covered gaping cockpits that would otherwise create undue drag. Tonneau covers are available for open sports cars such as the Porsche Boxster, MG, Austin-Healey; these covers made of natural or artificial leather, cover the entire passenger compartment, are zippered so the driver's seat can be uncovered while the rest of the interior remains covered. Tonneau covers may be used in lieu of soft convertible tops; as air courses over the windshield at speed, it creates turbulence as it cascades into and bounces out of the cockpit. This condition is called buffeting, can be annoying. A tonneau cover reduces buffeting at all speeds. Heat produced by a heater leaves as that turbulence exchanges the cockpit's warmer air for cooler ambient air.
A tonneau cover is capable of both retaining heat and shielding a driver from UV exposure. Tonneau covers are used in utility vehicles and pickup trucks to cover and secure the truck bed and come in a variety of styles; the most common style is the roll-up tonneau made from cloth or vinyl, which uses a rib-like structure to support the fabric and keep it taut. A snap-based system is used, but has become less common due to truck owners not wanting to install the snaps on their vehicle as they require drilling or permanent adhesive. Roll-up Tonneaus are opened by rolling the cover up toward the cab of the truck. Hard roll-up tonneau covers are more firm, they are made of a wall of individual aluminum slats, covered with soft vinyl. In the unrolled position, these aluminum slats form a hard aluminum shell, which not only covers the cargo inside the bed, but may support loads up 400 pounds on top of it. Another style of truck bed tonneau cover is a retractable unit, mounted at the front and sides of the bed and rolls up or retracts from the tailgate towards the cab.
The retractable tonneau is made of vinyl, plastic or aluminum. Retractable tonneaus are more secure than soft tonneau covers, since they lock and are made from a harder composition, but they take more time to install and are designed for semi-permanent installation. Fiberglass, hard plastic or aluminum tonneau covers are common; some may be painted to match the truck, are solid in construction, can be locked. These covers are heavy and require gas struts to assist in opening and closing, they operate much like a vehicle's hood opening from the tailgate end of the bed. Some have multiple compartments that open front to back, back to front, side to side, or rise vertically. Fiberglass, hard plastic or aluminum tonneau covers are sometimes installed as a factory option on new vehicles. Many sellers claim that tonneau covers improve gas mileage because they make the truck more streamlined. However, air currents create a wake inside the pickup bed. A tonneau cover interferes with this wake, scientific tests have shown little to no improvement in mileage by using a tonneau cover traveling at less than 70 mph.
A similar effect is seen when the tailgate is down and the mileage goes down. "Tonneau case" is used to describe a type of watch case, with rounded, bulging sides resembling a barrel
Touring car and tourer are both terms for open cars. "Touring car" is a style of open car built in the United States. The style was popular from the early 1900s to the 1920s; the cars used for touring car racing in various series since the 1960s are unrelated to these early touring cars, despite sharing the same name. "Tourer" is used in British English for any open car. The term "all-weather tourer" was used to describe convertibles. A popular version of the tourer was the torpedo, with the hood/bonnet line at the car's waistline giving the car a straight line from front to back. "Touring car" was applied in the U. S. to open cars that seat four or more people and has direct entrance to the tonneau, although it has been described as seating five or more people. Touring cars may have two or four doors, the drivetrain layouts of early touring cars was either front engined or mid-engined; when the top was folded down, it formed a bulky mass known as the "fan" behind the back seat: "fan covers" were made to protect the top and its wooden ribs while in the down position.
Some touring cars were available with side curtains to protect occupants from wind and weather by snapping or zipping them into place. The touring car body style was popular in the early 20th century, being a larger alternative to the two-seat runabout and the roadster. By the mid-1910s, the touring car body had evolved into several types, including the four-door touring car, equipped with a convertible top. Most of Model T's produced by Ford between 1908 and 1927 were four and three-door models touring cars, accounting for 6,519,643 cars sold out of the 15,000,000 estimated Model T's built; this accounted for 44% of all Model T's sold over the model's eighteen-plus year life span, making it the most popular body style. The popularity of the touring car began to wane in the 1920s when cars with enclosed passenger compartments became more affordable, began to out-sell the open cars. Tourer is used for open cars; the belt lines of 1930s tourers were lowered at the front doors to suggest a more sporting character.
All-weather tourer are cars with wind-up side-windows. The torpedo was a style of 5-seat tourers built from 1908 until the mid-1930s; the design consists of a hood/bonnet line raised to be level with the car's waistline, resulting in a straight beltline from front to back. Barchetta – an Italian style of roadster or spyder developed for racing cars after World War II Phaeton body – similar to a touring car, but lighter and more sporting Runabout – a light, open two-seat car, similar to a roadster but with emphasis on economy instead of performance
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the Union Internationale Motonautique governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale governs air sports. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom. Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.
After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became established. Motorsports became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, their appropriate organisations. Motor racing is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other; the Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former ` Formula' series include Formula Two.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, organized by the owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing; the series was conceived in 2012, the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. The series is sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains; the series has gained significant traction in recent years. A series originated on June 1909 in Portland, Oregon at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles, its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 40 different drivers; the current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season.
Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American'stock car'. Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, specialised racing types; the premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area.
An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but gained interest from all over the country; as oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, including part of A1A; the highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500 nicknamed'The Great American Race', held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Off-Road Racing is a group
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber, an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine; the force is applied to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy; the first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto. The term internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as described.
Firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars and boats. An ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.
In 1791, John Barber developed the gas turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. In 1794, Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, the first to use liquid fuel, built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In 1807, French engineers Nicéphore and Claude Niépce ran a prototype internal combustion engine, using controlled dust explosions, the Pyréolophore; this engine powered a boat on France. The same year, the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by an electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In 1854 in the UK, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci tried to patent "Obtaining motive power by the explosion of gases", although the application did not progress to the granted stage. In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.
In 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine. In 1886, Karl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed compression ignition engine. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" is any machine. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines". In boating an internal combustion engine, installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives.
Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles and motorcycles. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines. Powered aircraft uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive some of the large electric generators, they are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the co
John Brisben Walker
John Brisben Walker was a magazine publisher and automobile entrepreneur in the United States. In his years, he was a resident of Jefferson County, Colorado. Walker was born on September 10, 1847 at his parents' country house on the Monongahela River, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1889 he purchased Cosmopolitan Magazine, leading it to marked growth before selling it to William Randolph Hearst in 1905; the 1905 sale price has been variously reported as $400,000 and $1,000,000. He led it through its early successes, he donated 40 acres in Denver to the Jesuits in 1887. The Jesuits built. John Walker built a home in 1909 atop Mt. Falcon; the house was struck by lightning and was ruined in 1918. He attempted to build a summer white house for the President around 1911; when his attempts to raise money to continue the building failed, the project was abandoned. He died on July 1931 in Brooklyn, New York City, he was married three times. Freelan Oscar Stanley & Francis Edgar Stanley Stanley Motor Carriage Company Mobile Company of America
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap