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Lodi, Lombardy

Lodi is a city and comune in Lombardy, northern Italy, on on the western bank of the River Adda. It is the capital of the province of Lodi. Lodi was a Celtic village, it was in an important position. Lodi became, its first bishop, Saint Bassianus is the patron saint of the town. A free commune around 1000, it fiercely resisted the Milanese, who destroyed it in 1111; the old town corresponds to the modern Lodi Vecchio. Frederick Barbarossa rebuilt it on its current location in 1158. From 1220, the Lodigiani spent decades in constructing a system of miles of artificial rivers and channels, it was created to give water to the countryside, turning arid areas into one of the region's important agricultural areas. From the 14th century Lodi was ruled by the Visconti family. In 1413, the antipope John XXIII launched the bull by which he convened the Council of Constance from the Duomo of Lodi; the council marked the end of the Great Schism. In 1454, representatives from all the regional states of Italy met in Lodi to sign the treaty known as the peace of Lodi, by which they intended to pursue Italian unification.

This peace lasted 40 years. The town was ruled by the Sforza family, France and Austria. In 1786 it became the eponymous capital of a province that between 1815 and 1859 would have included Crema. On 10 May 1796, in the first major battle of his career as a general, the young Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Austrians aka the 1526-1804 Habsburg Monarchy in the Battle of Lodi. In the second half of the 19th century, Lodi began to expand outside the city walls, boosted by economic expansion and the construction of railway lines that followed the unification of Italy. Piazza della Vittoria, listed by the Italian Touring Club among the most beautiful squares in Italy. Featuring porticoes on all its four sides, it includes the Basilica della Vergine Assunta and the Broletto. Piazza Broletto, with a Verona marble baptismal font dating to the 14th century. Beata Vergine Incoronata, church in style of Lombard Renaissance. San Francesco, a Gothic-style church built in 1280-1307. San Lorenzo, a church with frescoes by Callisto Piazza.

Santa Maria Maddalena, a Baroque church. The original Romanesque structure was replaced in the 18th century; the interior has frescoes by a Deposition attributed to Robert de Longe. Sant'Agnese, church in Lombard Gothic style, it includes the Galliani Polyptych by Albertino Piazza, has, on the façade, a rose window decorated with polychrome majolica. San Filippo, Rococo-style church Palazzo Vescovile, of medieval origin but rebuilt in the 18th century. San Cristoforo, church designed by Pellegrino Tibaldi. Visconti Castle, a medieval castle now destroyed. Palazzo Mozzanica Torre di Lodi, a modern building high 70 meters about, under renovation, it is located in the Business District, it is the tallest building in the city. Biblioteca Laudense located in Palazzo San Filippo, adjacent to church In 1864 Tiziano Zalli founded the Banca Popolare di Lodi, the first Italian cooperative bank. In 1945, the Italian petrol company Agip, directed by Enrico Mattei, started extracting methane from its fields, Lodi was the first Italian town with a regular domestic gas service.

In Lodi there is the headquarters of Zucchetti, in Lodi Tower. Zucchetti is a company specialized in Information Technology. In the city is situated the headquarters of'Erbolario'; the Officine Meccaniche Lodigiane were located in the city. See it:Lodi; the production of ceramic in the Lodi area reached its artistic peak in the 18th century, with the production of fine, tin-glazed maiolica. The main factories were those of Coppellotti and Rossetti; the best ceramics of the Coppellotti factory date from the period 1735-1740. Some are in monochromatic turquoise and are decorated with arabesques and geometric-floral compositions arranged in a radial pattern. Other ceramics represent local life and scenes, such as fruit, landscapes, peasants, music players, with dogs or birds; the Rossetti factory was active in Lodi between 1729 and 1736. Most of the Rossetti ceramics are in monochromatic turquoise and have decorations inspired by Roman art revisited in a Baroque style, such as pillars, capitals, shells, stylized leaves garlands and satyrs.

Some ceramics feature landscapes in the center, with views of cities and castles, lakes and birds. The Ferretti factory was active in Lodi in the 18th century until the beginning of the 19th century. Ferretti ceramics are famous for the decoration with naturalistic flowers, with bright and lively colours. Most these were wild flowers, such as forget-me-not, Centaurea cyanus, campanula and dog rose. Ferretti painted other kind of decorations, such as Oriental figures, fruits and still lifes. A large exposition of Lodi ceramics could be visited in The Museo Civico di Lodi until its closure in 2011, when all its content was moved to long term storage waiting for relocation. Constance, Germany Lodi, United States Omegna, Italy. Fontainebleau, France. Agnelli, Giovanni. Lodi

Jiang Qian

Jiang Qian, courtesy name Yiyuan, art name Yangfu, was an influential Chinese scholar and educator. In his early years, Jiang studied at the Ziyang Academy in Huizhou and Wenzheng Academy in Nanjing. In 1902 he helped Zhang Jian to found Tongzhou Normal School, the first Chinese normal school, became the school's president. In 1914, he was appointed the president of Nanking Higher Normal School, on the site of former Liangjiang Higher Normal School. Nanking Higher Normal School turned to be National Southeastern University and renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. In 1918 when taken ill, he nominated the provost Kuo Ping-Wen to be the acting president. A year in 1919, he quit the post of school president

Sandwich loaf

A sandwich loaf is a stacked party entrée that looks like a cake. While rare today, the food was quite popular during the mid 20th century in the United States. To create a sandwich loaf, bread is spread with layers of filling. Common fillings include egg salad, chicken salad, ham salad, tuna salad, Cheez Whiz, but other fillings are possible, including peanut butter and jelly and mock egg salad made from tofu. In a simple sandwich loaf, the fillings may all be the same, but in more complex creations each layer is different. White bread is used to create a sandwich loaf, but whole wheat is used. Sometimes white and whole wheat are used in alternating layers to create a ribbon effect. Common garnishes are olives, parsley and carrot curls; the loaf is eaten with a fork. Sandwich loaf was mentioned as early as 1935: " giving the fork a chance for active play, the sandwich loaf made its appearance; this loaf, as you all must know by now, is a delicate triple-layered affair generously frosted with creamy cheese.

---"'Breadless Sandwich' is Latest Innovation," Dorothea Duncan, Washington Post, January 27, 1935 Sandwich Loaf is still common enough to be served in restaurants near the US/Mexico border where the dish is called sandwhichon. This variation is garnished with pineapple, pickled jalapenos and pecans, visually resembles a traditional tree leches cake. Dagwood sandwich, a tall stacked sandwich Sandwich Smörgåstårta Dressed herring List of American sandwiches List of sandwiches Casey, Kathy. Retro Food Fiascos: A Collection of Curious Concoctions. Portland: Collectors Press, 2004. Crocker, Betty. Betty Crocker's Picture Cook Book. Facsimile ed. Minneapolis: Macmillan USA and General Mills, 1998. Doubleday and Company inc; the Pillsbury Cookbook. New York: Doubleday, 1989. Lovegren, Sylvia. Fashionable Food: Seven Decades of Food Fads. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Betty Crocker recipe for sandwich loaf

Apathy (rapper)

Chad Bromley, better known by his stage name Apathy, is a rapper and producer from Willimantic, Connecticut. His first major release was his debut album, his second album Wanna Snuggle? was released in 2009 and his third studio album Honkey Kong was released in 2011, both to critical acclaim. His fourth studio album, Connecticut Casual was released on June 3, 2014 and reached #41 in the R&B/Hip Hop Albums charts. Apathy is known for his frequent collaborations with other MCs and groups such as Demigodz, Celph Titled, Doe Rakers, Jedi Mind Tricks, Army of the Pharaohs, Styles of Beyond, the Get Busy Committee. In 2001 Bromley joined Demigodz a local rap collective that included Celph Titled, 7L & Esoteric, EL Fudge, Louis Logic and others. In the period 2000 to 2002 he released a number of solo singles that included “Compatible”, “Just Begun”, “School”, “Ain’t Nuttin’ Nice" released through Bronx Science Records. Bromley made his album debut when he appeared on the Jedi Mind Tricks album The Psycho Social in 1997.

He featured on the tracks "The Three Immortals", "Omnicron" and "The Apostle's Creed". By mid-1997, the Demigodz collective fractured and Apathy together with producer Open Mic self-released the Sureshot Affair EP in 1998, he continued to collaborate under the Demigodz moniker and released The Godz Must Be Crazy EP in 2002 on Ill Boogie Records. The two-disc It's the Bootleg, Muthafuckas! Vol. 1 was released in 2003 and collected the earlier Demigodz material, while in 2004 Where's Your Album?!! brought together some of the released solo releases. Both appeared on the Demigodz label. After this second EP, Bromley signed on to Atlantic Records, but left the label in 2009 due to creative disagreements; as a solo artist now, Bromley released the album, Eastern Philosophy, in March 2006 through Babygrande Records. Apathy became a member of Army of the Pharaohs, formed by Vinnie Paz alongside other underground rap artists, he was featured on their debut album. In January 2007, Apathy released Baptism by Fire.

In 2009, Get Busy Committee was formed in Los Angeles, California, by longtime friends Ryu and Scoop DeVille. All production was done by Scoop DeVille and Apathy, while vocals are given by everyone in the group, their debut album, Uzi Does It, was released for pre-sale download on October 27, 2009 at, available on iTunes and other outlets on November 10. As of 2012, Get Busy Committee is on hiatus, or "dead" as they refer to it, the group members focus on their solo careers, he released his second studio album, Wanna Snuggle? in 2009. It was released on Demigodz Records; the album features guest appearances from Phonte of Little Brother, B-Real of Cypress Hill, Celph Titled, other members of the Demigodz. His third solo album, Honkey Kong was released on August 23, 2011 on Dirty Version Records, along with the Primate Mindstate EP as a bonus disk; the album features guest contributions by Celph Titled, Vinnie Paz, Ill Bill, Blacastan, Mad Lion, General Steele, Crypt the Warchild, Motive and Reef the Lost Cauze.

Producers for Honkey Kong such as DJ Premier and Vanderslice contribute to a limited number of beats on this album, though the majority of the production is handled by Apathy himself. During 2011, Apathy and Celph Titled started producing a second duo album, called Will Sing for Vengeance, they worked on their solo careers. In November 2011, Apathy uploaded on to YouTube a new song called "Demigodz Is Back", this song featured Apathy and Celph Titled and was produced by Apathy; this song marked the return of Demigodz. On May 10, 2012, the pair announced in an interview with that they were working on a new Demigodz album, titled Killmatic. Apathy stated, "We got a gang of shit in the works, so we always work on multiple, multiple things but we don’t announce things until we’re positive and definite that they’re coming out. So, the Demigodz album should be coming in the early-2013." Celph said that the album would contain all six members, "Which is: Apathy, Celph Titled, Esoteric and Blacastan."

In 2012, Apathy released the double CD It's the Bootleg, Muthafuckas! Volume 3: Fire Walk With Me as the third installment to the It's the Bootleg, Muthafuckas! series, as well as "The Alien Tongue," a collection of his earliest demos and recordings. The bootleg double CD included collaborations with Nas, Xzibit, DJ Premier, Royce da 5'9", Vinnie Paz, Ill Bill, B-Real, among others. On January 14, 2013, Apathy confirmed that Killmatic would be released on March 5. Along with that, he confirmed the official album art. Four days Apathy, through his YouTube account, released the first single for Killmatic titled "Demigodz Is Back". In July 2013, through his Twitter account, Apathy announced he was working on a new EP with Harry Fraud, titled Connecticut Casual. Apathy stated on Facebook that the EP would be available for free download, it is due to be released April, 2014. On November 30, 2013, Vinnie Paz revealed that two new Army Of The Pharaohs albums would be released in 2014; the first album. Apathy is confirmed to be on both the upcoming albums, new members including Demigodz member Blacastan and Zilla from Houston, Texas are said to be joining the group.

On June 30, 2015 Apathy dropped two projects: an EP called Weekend At The Cape and the fourth installment of his popular "It's the Bootleg, Muthafuckas!" Compilation series calle

Csárdás (Liszt)

The three csárdás that Franz Liszt wrote in 1881–82 and 1884 are solo piano pieces based on the Hungarian dance form of the same name. Liszt treats the dance form itself much less than he did much earlier with the verbunkos in the Hungarian Rhapsodies, the material itself remains more Hungarian than gypsy in thematic material, their spare lines, angular rhythms and advanced harmonies show these pieces to be direct ancestors of the compositions of Béla Bartók. Because of these attributes, the csárdás are considered by Liszt scholars among the more interesting of the composer's late output. One potential pitfall in discussing these works is labeling them as atonal on the basis of hearing strange sonorities at the surface of the music; the Csárdás macabre, for instance, is solidly based on compositional procedures consistent with Liszt's earlier style. The music focuses on variant forms of the mediant with concomitant contrast of sharp and flat key areas—in this case F major, F-sharp minor and G-flat major.

This is the best-known of the three csárdás. The piece is written in a miniature sonata form, with the opening in parallel octaves before the famous bare fifths section, without precedent in Liszt's output. Still more intriguing is the second-subject stage of the structure. Both theories have their advocates; the composer did not indicate what he meant, though he did write on the manuscript after he had finished it, "May one write or listen to such a thing?" A favorite question of some critics is whether the fifth of the opening bar is a flattened supertonic appoggiatura or as an actual tonic. Such tonal ambiguities become common in Liszt's late works. Less known than either of the other dances, this csárdás is a short Allegro beginning as though it would be in A minor, it passes to A major ends but unsettled on F-sharp minor after much sequential modulation. This csárdás begins with a repeated F-sharp taking up where the first dance left off, before an ostinato accompaniment begins. An F-sharp major triad in the left hand is contrasted with a falling phrase beginning with an A natural in the right hand.

The piece on the whole is written in B minor-major, with major and minor chords being struck a device Liszt came to use with increasing frequency. Before the coda, the theme is transformed in B major in repeated octaves; some critics consider this work more interesting musically than its more famous cousin, the Csárdás macabre. The piece is, for lack of a better term, obsessed with a four-note motif presented at the beginning of the piece, the work's tonal excursions into the mediant and submediant place the music procedurally somewhere between Schumann and Mahler; the first recordings of these two Csárdás was by France Clidat in her traversal of Liszt's works for Decca. Baker, James M. ed. Hamilton, Kenneth, "A survey of the late piano works," The Cambridge Companion to Liszt. ISBN 0-521-64462-3. Howard, Notes for Hyperion CDA66811/2, Liszt: Dances and Marches, Leslie Howard, piano. Ed. Walker, Franz Liszt: The Man and His Music. ISBN 0-8008-2990-5 Ogdon, John, "Solo Piano Music" Walker, Alan, "Liszt and the Twentieth Century" Walker, Franz Liszt, Volume 3: The Final Years, 1861-1886.

ISBN 0-394-52540-X


Marienrachdorf is an Ortsgemeinde – a community belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde – in the Westerwaldkreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Marienrachdorf lies 4 km northwest of Selters; the community belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of a kind of collective municipality. In 1190, Marienrachdorf had its first documentary mention as Rachdorf. In 1972, in the course of municipal restructuring, the Verbandsgemeinde of Selters was founded, to which Marienrachdorf belongs; the council is made up of 12 council members, as well as the honorary and presiding mayor, who were elected in a majority vote in a municipal election on 13 June 2004. Apportionment of seats on Council: Kirchenchor Cäcilia Musikverein 1977 Marienrachdorf e. V. Angelsportverein Marienrachdorf Gymnastikverein Sportverein Marienrachdorf e. V. 1921 Dartclub Florida Northwest of the community runs Bundesstraße 413, leading from Bendorf to Hachenburg. The nearest Autobahn interchange is Dierdorf on the A 3; the nearest InterCityExpress stop is the railway station at Montabaur on the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line.

Marienrachdorf Verbandsgemeinde of Selters