The Muscogee known as the Mvskoke and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke is their autonym, their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Most of the original population of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their native lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory; some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers.
The great majority of Seminoles were later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches and tribes, except one, are all related variants called Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible; the Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids; some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than colonial European-American cities.
Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century; the Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were based on an 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh resisted European-American encroachment.
Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War. Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks; the result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory; the Muscogee Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex; the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 AD; the early historic Muscogee were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee and Alabama. They may have been related to the Tama of central Georgia. Oral traditions passed down by the ancestors of the Creeks have alleged that their nation migrated eastward from places West of the Mississippi River settling on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River.
It was here that they waged war with other bands of Native American Indians, as the Savannas, Wapoos, Yamafees, Icofans
Oklahoma City shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The county seat of Oklahoma County, the city ranks 27th among United States cities in population; the population grew following the 2010 Census, with the population estimated to have increased to 643,648 as of July 2017. As of 2015, the Oklahoma City metropolitan area had a population of 1,358,452, the Oklahoma City-Shawnee Combined Statistical Area had a population of 1,459,758 residents, making it Oklahoma's largest metropolitan area. Oklahoma City's city limits extend into Canadian and Pottawatomie counties, though much of those areas outside the core Oklahoma County area are suburban or rural; the city ranks as the ninth-largest city in the United States by total area when including consolidated city-counties. Lying in the Great Plains region, Oklahoma City has one of the world's largest livestock markets. Oil, natural gas, petroleum products and related industries are the largest sector of the local economy.
The city is in the middle of an active oil field and oil derricks dot the capitol grounds. The federal government employs large numbers of workers at Tinker Air Force Base and the United States Department of Transportation's Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center. Oklahoma City is on the I-35 Corridor, one of the primary travel corridors south into neighboring Texas and Mexico and north towards Wichita and Kansas City. Located in the state's Frontier Country region, the city's northeast section lies in an ecological region known as the Cross Timbers; the city was founded during the Land Run of 1889 and grew to a population of over 10,000 within hours of its founding. The city was the scene of the April 19, 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, in which 168 people died, it was the deadliest terror attack in the history of the United States until the attacks of September 11, 2001, remains the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in U. S. history. Since the time weather records have been kept, Oklahoma City has been struck by thirteen strong tornadoes.
Since 2008, Oklahoma City has been home to the National Basketball Association's Oklahoma City Thunder, who play their home basketball games at the Chesapeake Energy Arena. Oklahoma City was settled on April 22, 1889, when the area known as the "Unassigned Lands" was opened for settlement in an event known as "The Land Run"; some 10,000 homesteaders settled the area. The town grew quickly. Early leaders of the development of the city included Anton Classen, John Shartel, Henry Overholser and James W. Maney. By the time Oklahoma was admitted to the Union in 1907, Oklahoma City had surpassed Guthrie, the territorial capital, as the new state's population center and commercial hub. Soon after, the capital was moved from Guthrie to Oklahoma City. Oklahoma City was a major stop on Route 66 during the early part of the 20th century. Before World War II, Oklahoma City developed major stockyards, attracting jobs and revenue in Chicago and Omaha, Nebraska. With the 1928 discovery of oil within the city limits, Oklahoma City became a major center of oil production.
Post-war growth accompanied the construction of the Interstate Highway System, which made Oklahoma City a major interchange as the convergence of I-35, I-40, I-44. It was aided by federal development of Tinker Air Force Base. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported city's population as 8.6 % 90.7 % white. Patience Latting was elected Mayor of Oklahoma City in 1971. Latting was the first woman to serve as mayor of a U. S. city with over 350,000 residents. Like many other American cities, center city population declined in the 1970s and 1980s as families followed newly constructed highways to move to newer housing in nearby suburbs. Urban renewal projects in the 1970s, including the Pei Plan, removed older structures but failed to spark much new development, leaving the city dotted with vacant lots used for parking. A notable exception was the city's construction of the Myriad Gardens and Crystal Bridge, a botanical garden and modernistic conservatory in the heart of downtown. Architecturally significant historic buildings lost to clearances were the Criterion Theater, the Baum Building, the Hales Building, the Biltmore Hotel.
In 1993, the city passed a massive redevelopment package known as the Metropolitan Area Projects, intended to rebuild the city's core with civic projects to establish more activities and life to downtown. The city added a new baseball park. Water taxis transport passengers within the district, adding activity along the canal. MAPS has become one of the most successful public-private partnerships undertaken in the U. S. exceeding $3 billion in private investment as of 2010. As a result of MAPS, the population living in downtown housing has exponentially increased, together with demand for additional residential and retail amenities, such as grocery and shops. Since the MAPS projects' completion, the downtown area has seen continued
Payne County, Oklahoma
Payne County is a county in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 77,350, its county seat is Stillwater. The county was created in 1890 as part of Oklahoma Territory and is named for Capt. David L. Payne, a leader of the "Boomers". Payne County comprises OK Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county lies northeast of the Oklahoma City metropolitan area though many consider it an extension of the Oklahoma City metro area due to commuter patterns and other indicators. This county was established and named as the Sixth County by the Oklahoma Organic Act of 1890, it included land settled during the Land Run of 1889. The Organic Act settled a dispute between the towns of Stillwater and Perkins over which should be the county seat. Eastern Oklahoma Railway built two lines in Payne County between 1900 and 1902 immediately leased them to the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway; the historic civil townships of the county were abolished by 1930. In 2010, the Keystone-Cushing Pipeline was constructed into Payne County.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 697 square miles, of which 685 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. Payne County is covered by rolling plains within the Sandstone Hills physiographic region, but with the western part of the county in the Red Bed plains; the county has two significant reservoirs: Carl Blackwell Lake. The Cimarron River and Stillwater Creek drain most of the county. KSWO - Stillwater Regional Airport, Commercial service to Dallas via American Airlines KCUH - Cushing Municipal Airport Noble County Pawnee County Creek County Lincoln County Logan County As of the census of 2000, there were 68,190 people, 26,680 households, 15,314 families residing in the county; the population density was 99 people per square mile. There were 29,326 housing units at an average density of 43 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.33% White, 3.63% Black or African American, 4.58% Native American, 3.00% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.77% from other races, 3.64% from two or more races.
2.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 26,680 households out of which 25.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.60% were married couples living together, 8.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.60% were non-families. 30.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.60% under the age of 18, 25.90% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 17.60% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,733, the median income for a family was $40,823. Males had a median income of $31,132 versus $21,113 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,983.
About 10.80% of families and 20.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.00% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over. Agriculture was the basis of the county economy for more than fifty years; the primary crops were cotton and wheat. World War II caused hundreds of students at Oklahoma M to leave school for military service. To offset this loss to the local economy and college leaders, to lobby military leaders and Oklahoma Senator, Mike Monroney, to have the school designated as a war training center; this resulted in the establishment of twelve training programs for the Navy, with nearly 40,000 people. The wartime experience showed local political leaders that it would be essential to diversify the county's economic base, they formed an Industrial Foundation to attract industrial jobs. This effort accelerated an increase in population. Educational entities located in Payne County include: Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education Oklahoma State University-Stillwater Northern Oklahoma College The following sites in Payne County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Other landmarks include: Allen Williamson Bridge - Memorial bridge near Ripley, named after the Oklahoma Representative Allen Williamson.
Payne County Government's website Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
Guthrie is a city and county seat in Logan County, United States, a part of the Oklahoma City Metroplex. The population was 10,191 at the 2010 census, a 2.7 percent increase from the 9,925 at the 2000 census. First known as a railroad station stop, after the Land Run of 1889, Guthrie gained 10,000 new residents who began to develop the town, it was improved and was designated as the territorial capital, in 1907 as the first state capital of Oklahoma. In 1910 state voters chose the larger Oklahoma City as the new capital in a special election. Guthrie is nationally significant for its collection of late 19th and early 20th century commercial architecture; the Guthrie Historic District includes more than 2,000 buildings and is designated as a National Historic Landmark. Historic tourism is important to the city, its Victorian architecture provides a backdrop for Wild West and territorial-style entertainment, carriage tours, replica trolley cars, specialty shops, art galleries. Guthrie was established in 1887 as a railroad station called Deer Creek on the Southern Kansas Railway running from the Kansas–Oklahoma border to Purcell.
The name was changed to Guthrie, named for jurist John Guthrie of Topeka, Kansas. A post office was established on April 4, 1889. In 1889 some fifty thousand potential settlers gathered at the edges of the Unassigned Lands in hopes of staking a claim to a plot. At noon on April 22, 1889, cannons resounded at a 2-million acre section of Indian Territory, launching president Benjamin Harrison's "Hoss Race" or Land Run of 1889. People ran for both towns. During the next six hours, about 10,000 people settled in what became the capital of the new Territory of Oklahoma. Within months, Guthrie was developed as a modern brick and stone "Queen of the Prairie" with municipal water, electricity, a mass transit system, underground parking garages for horses and carriages. Hobart Johnstone Whitley known as HJ and the'Father of Hollywood,' was the first president of the Guthrie Chamber of Commerce. Whitley built the first brick block building in the territory for his National Trust Company, he was asked by the local people to be the first Governor of Oklahoma.
Whitley traveled to Washington, D. C. where he persuaded the U. S. Congress to allow Guthrie to be the new capital of the future state of Oklahoma; this was specified in the 1906 Oklahoma Enabling Act, which established certain requirements for the new state constitution. By 1907, when Guthrie became the state capital, it looked like a well-established Eastern city. Guthrie prospered as the administrative center of the territory, but it was eclipsed in economic influence by Oklahoma City early in the 20th century. Oklahoma City had become a major junction for several railroads and had attracted a major industry in the form of meat packing. Oklahoma City business leaders began campaigning soon after statehood to make Oklahoma City the new state capital, in 1910 a special election was held to determine the location of the state capital. 96,488 votes were cast for Oklahoma City. Governor Charles N. Haskell, in Tulsa on the day of the election, ordered his secretary W. B. Anthony to have Oklahoma Secretary of State Bill Cross obtain the state seal and transport it to Oklahoma City, despite having been served a restraining order by Logan County Sheriff John Mahoney blocking the transfer.
Anthony obtained written authorization from Cross, retrieved the seal from the Logan County courthouse, delivered it to Oklahoma City. After the capital was transferred, Guthrie lost much of its government-related business and numerous residents, it began to dwindle in size and soon lost its status as Oklahoma's second-largest city to Muskogee later to Tulsa. A challenge to the new state capital was heard in the Oklahoma Supreme Court; the center district of Guthrie was designated a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service in 1999, in recognition of the city's importance to state history, as well as its rich architecture. As a result of Guthrie's early loss of prominence, it has a well-preserved Victorian enclave. Whereas growth and inattentive urban planning caused other Oklahoma towns such as Oklahoma City to destroy much of their early downtown architecture, much of the entire central business and residential district of Guthrie is intact; the National Finals Steer Roping Rodeo is held in Guthrie.
On six occasions, the Texas rodeo promoter Dan Taylor was chute director for the competition in Guthrie. Historical tourism has become a significant industry for the town. Guthrie is the largest urban Historic district in Oklahoma, containing 2,169 buildings, 1,400 acres and 400 city blocks. Guthrie is a "Certified City. Guthrie has two lakes to Liberty Lake and Guthrie Lake, its museums include the Oklahoma Territorial Museum, the Guthrie Scottish Rite Masonic Temple. Guthrie claims to be the "Bed and Breakfast capital of Oklahoma"; the city hosts the Oklahoma International Bluegrass Festival. Guthrie has the Pollard Theatre Company. With an emphasis on creative story-telling to illuminate the shared human experience, the Pollard produces six or more plays and musicals annually, enlisting artists across the United States; the annual holiday favorite is A Territorial Christmas Carol. Guthrie is served by the Guthrie News-Leader newspaper
Oklahoma State Highway 51
State Highway 51, abbreviated to SH-51 or OK-51, is a major state highway in Oklahoma. It runs for 333 miles east -- west across the state to Arkansas, it is the third-longest state highway in the system. SH-51 begins at the Texas line concurrent with US-60 just east of Texas, it remains concurrent for 61 miles until it reaches US-270 / US-281 / SH-3 at Oklahoma. At Seiling, SH-51 joins with those three highways for nine miles before splitting off on its own. 11 miles after splitting off, Highway 51 meets SH-58 in Canton. It continues east, crossing the North Canadian River and meeting SH-51A before turning northeast toward Okeene, where it intersects SH-8. SH-51 will go for 24 miles before intersecting another highway. In Hennessey SH-51 meets U. S. Highway 81 before continuing eastward. 17 miles it meets SH-74 north of Crescent. 11 miles to the east, it shares a brief concurrency with US-77. After crossing I-35, SH-51 becomes a multilane highway and a major corridor linking I-35 to Stillwater, the home of Oklahoma State University.
Along this 13-mile stretch is an intersection with State Highway 86. When Highway 51 reaches Stillwater, it meets US-177. Continuing east from Stillwater, the road returns to a two-lane highway after sharing a one-mile concurrency with SH-108 and intersects with SH-18 eight miles later. Four miles east of this, it passes through Yale, Oklahoma before crossing SH-99, it becomes a multilane highway again after a brief concurrency with SH-48. It passes through the small towns of Lotsee on its way toward the Tulsa area. In Sand Springs, SH-51 crosses the Arkansas River with SH-97 before merging onto the Sand Springs Expressway; when this freeway ends at I-244 near downtown Tulsa, Highway 51 merges onto I-244 southbound only to exit one mile where it overlaps US-64/US-75. This freeway is Interstate 444, but the interstate designation is not shown on signs. After one more mile, SH-51 leaves the interstate with US-64 and becomes the Broken Arrow Expressway, a freeway running northwest-southeast through Tulsa, known as "The BA" by locals and local media.
US-64 leaves the freeway as a concurrency with US-169 southbound. SH-51 will exit the freeway and become a four-lane highway toward Coweta; the mainline freeway becomes the Muskogee Turnpike. At Coweta, SH-51 turns back east after heading southeast through the Tulsa area. After crossing the Muskogee Turnpike again and bridging the Verdigris River the highway soon enters Wagoner, where it junctions with US-69. Returning once again to a 2-lane road, Highway 51 crosses the town of Hulbert. 11 miles it passes through Tahlequah, where it has a brief concurrency with US-62/SH-10. After spitting with these highways, it heads southeast toward Stilwell, overlapping US-59 for a mile on the way. After leaving Stilwell it provides access to Adair State Park, crosses the Arkansas line becoming Highway 244, which connects to Highway 59. SH-51 was commissioned on June 1, 1927 as a connector from Stilwell to Eldon at SH-27. By 1928, it had been extended to Tulsa. On June 15, 1933, it was extended to the east to the Arkansas state line, where it became AR-45.
ODOT extended SH-51 west to Perry. On March 18, 1935, the section from Stillwater to Perry was rescinded and SH-51 was extended to SH-8 at Okeene, it was extended to Seiling on October 18, 1938. On March 23, 1943, it was extended to the Texas state line by a concurrency with US-60; the Broken Arrow Expressway was built in the early 1960s and opened in 1964. It was not, however named the Broken Arrow Expressway until July 6, 1999 by H. B. 1455. The steel truss bridge carrying SH-51 across Stillwater Creek west of Stillwater, once considered the gateway into the city, was removed on March 25, 2008. In a first for the state of Oklahoma, the bridge built in 1936, was sold to Payne County for $200,000 and transferred to a county road east of Stillwater, where it was installed over Council Creek. Like many in the Oklahoma state highway system, SH-51 has short spurs branching from it that bear the "51" number with a lettered suffix: SH-51A runs from SH-58 northeast of Canton to SH-8 near Roman Nose State Park.
It is the longest suffixed highway in the system. SH-51B connects Coweta to US-69 north of Muskogee, it goes through the towns of Tullahassee. SH-51C connected SH-51 west of Stillwater to Carl Blackwell Lake until it was decommissioned in 2005. SH-51D connected SH-51 south of Sand Springs with I-244 in Tulsa, running along Avery Drive and W. 21st Street. It is no longer shown. In 2004, ODOT completed SH-51 Spur, running for 3 miles as part of a loop through northwest Tahlequah, serving Tahlequah Municipal Airport, ending at State Highway 82, it is the newest Oklahoma state highway. SH-51 at Roadklahoma
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803; the concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation; the term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the American Revolutionary War. Indian Territory came to refer to an unorganized territory whose general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834, was the successor to the remainder of the Missouri Territory after Missouri received statehood; the borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States.
The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an Indian Territory. Indian Territory known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. Therefore, it was not a traditional territory for the tribes settled upon it; the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. The territory was located in the Central United States. While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. Treaties with the tribes restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; the region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War.
After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States. These re-written treaties included provisions for a territorial legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to; the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory; the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory. The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reserve, a British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that set aside land for use by the Native American people.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, land was ceded to the United States; the British administration reduced the land area of the Indian Reserve – the United States further reduced it after the American Revolutionary War – until it included only lands west of the Mississippi River. At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with British who were loyal to the British Empire, but they had a less-developed relationship with the Empire's colonists-turned-rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, they defeated the Indian Western Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and imposed the Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of present-day Indiana, the lands that include present-day Chicago and Detroit, to the United States federal government.
The period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, not an unorganized territory, as the areas were established by treaty. In 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase France's claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase. However, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to Congress; the 3rd article stated, in part: the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights and immunities of citizens of the United States. Which committed the US government to "the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission" of the territory as multiple states, "postponed its incorporation into the Union t
Sac and Fox Nation
The Sac and Fox Nation is the largest of three federally recognized tribes of Sauk and Meskwaki Native American peoples. From the Lake Huron and Lake Michigan area, they were forcibly relocated to Oklahoma in the 1870s and are predominantly Sauk; the two other Sac and Fox tribes are the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa and the Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska. The Sac and Fox tribes have been allied, continue to be in the present day, they speak similar Algonquian languages, which are sometimes considered to be two dialects of the same language, rather than separate languages. Thakiwaki and Sa ki wa ki mean "people coming forth from the water"; the Sac and Fox Nation is headquartered in Stroud and their tribal jurisdictional area covers Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Their Principal Chief is Kay Rhoads. Five elected officials, each elected for a four-year term, govern the tribe. Elections are held in odd-numbered years in August. Of the 3,794 enrolled tribal members, 2,557 live in Oklahoma.
Membership to the tribe requires a minimum 1/8 blood quantum. The tribe's housing authority is located in Oklahoma, they issue their own tribal vehicle tags and operate eleven smoke shops and two casinos, the Sac and Fox Nation Casino Shawnee and the Sac and Fox Nation Casino Stroud. The Stroud casino features a live entertainment venue; the Sac or Thakiwaki lived near Lake Michigan at the time of European contact. In 1832 they participated in the Black Hawk War against the United States. Military leader Black Hawk remains a cultural hero today. After the war, the tribe relocated several times from Illinois to Iowa and Indian Territory in the 1870s, their current lands were part of the larger, historical Sac and Fox Reservation of 1867-1891, 480,000 acres. These tribal land holdings were broken into individual allotments under the Dawes Act, to encourage the Indians to assimilate to European-American cultural ways, with a June 12, 1890 agreement with the Cherokee Commission. Under the Curtis Act of 1893, the tribal government and its institutions were dismantled.
The tribe was known as the Sac and Fox Tribe of Indians of the Mississippi River. In 1937, they organized as a federally recognized tribe under the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1934, they allowed tribal membership to everyone listed on the tribal Dawes Rolls and their descendants, as long as individuals had a minimum blood quantum of one-eighth Sac and Fox blood. In 1983, the tribal government established its own system for registering vehicles and issuing license plates for tribal members; the state of Oklahoma tried to collect registration fees anyway and the tribe sued. The US Supreme Court ruled in the tribe's favor on May 17, 1993, in Oklahoma Tax Commission v. Sac & Fox Nation allowing other tribes to follow suit. May 17 is now celebrated by the Sac and Fox Nation as "Victory Day."On May 16, 1989 a tribal representative group that included Elmer Manatowa, Principal Chief, Truman Carter, William Rice, Attorney General, James L. Welsh III, Director of Real Estate and Curtis Cunard, Petroleum Consultant, testified before the One Hundred First Congress, Special Committee on Investigations of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United State Senate.
The testimony examined the federal government's management of water and natural resources of the Sac and Fox Nation, the extensive surface damages and permanent contamination of the tribal drinking water destroyed by waterflooding techniques and the injection well process used by the oil companies. Testimony from the group revealed the lack of federal oversight and trust management responsibilities including fraudulent real estate appraisals as evidenced by Mr. Welsh's testimony; this historic testimony by the tribe's representatives, their internal investigations, revealed the extensive mismanagement of the BIA and the lack of trust responsibilities that led to significant trust management changes and historic legal settlements for the Sac and Fox Nation and its tribal members. Saginaw Grant, actor known for his roles in Breaking Bad and The Lone Ranger. Jim Thorpe, athlete who won gold medals in the decathlon and pentathlon at the 1912 Stockholm Olympics. Lake Osakis Meskwaki Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska Sac and Fox Reservation Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa Sac and Fox Nation, official website