Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is described as Mediterranean, the city has been promoted as the "American Riviera"; as of 2014, the city had an estimated population of 91,196, up from 88,410 in 2010, making it the second most populous city in the county after Santa Maria. The contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch and others, has an approximate population of 220,000; the population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895. In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, technology, health care, agriculture and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for 35% of local employment.
Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of higher learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, Santa Barbara Aviation provides jet charter aircraft and train service is provided by Amtrak the Pacific Surfliner which runs from San Diego to San Luis Obispo). U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, which contains several remote wilderness areas. Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence includes a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara County coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man, found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. An estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area. The present-day area of Santa Barbara City College was the village of Mispu. Portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name "Santa Barbara" to the channel and to one of the Channel Islands. A land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited around 1769, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town "Laguna de la Concepcion". Cabrillo's earlier name, however, is the one; the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other powers such as England and Russia, to convert the natives to Christianity. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio of Santa Barbara.
The Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4, 1786. It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans, it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the slow work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity, building a village for them on the Mission grounds; the Chumash laborers built a connection between the canyon creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam and an aqueduct. During the following decades, many of the natives died of diseases such as smallpox, against which they had no natural immunity; the most dramatic event of the Spanish period was the powerful 1812 earthquake, tsunami, with an estimated magnitude of 7.1, which destroyed the Mission as well as the rest of the town. The Mission was rebuilt by 1820 after the earthquake. Following the earthquake, the Mission fathers chose to rebuild in a grander manner, it is this construction that survives to the present day, the best-preserved of the California Missions, still functioning as an active church by the Franciscans.
After the Mexican government secularized the missions in the 1830s, the baptismal and burial records of other missions were transferred to Santa Barbara, now found in the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library. C-SPAN has produced a program on the mission archive-library; the Spanish period ended in 1822 with the end of the Mexican War of Independence, which terminated 300 years of colonial rule. The flag of Mexico went up the flagpole at the Presidio, but only for 24 years. Santa Barbara street names reflect this time period as well; the names de le Guerra and Carrillo come from citizens of the town of this time. They were instrumental in building up the town, so they were honored by having streets after them. After the forced secularization of the Missions in 1833
Ladysmith is a city and the county seat of Rusk County, United States. The population was 3,414 at the 2010 census; the city was founded in 1885 at the intersection of the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad with the Flambeau River, it was named "Flambeau Falls" after the Ojibwa name for the area Gakaabikijiwanan. Robert Corbett, a logging and lumbering entrepreneur, a strong influence on the city in its early years, renamed it "Corbett" "Warner" in 1891, Ladysmith on July 1, 1900, after the bride of Charles R. Smith, head of the Menasha Wooden Ware Co; the Flambeau Copper Mine was operated by Kennecott from 1993 to 1997. This was a rich volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposit, so rich that the ore was shipped directly to the smelter. Flambeau has since been permanently closed and the site reclaimed. On September 2, 2002, a tornado rated at F3 strength destroyed much of Ladysmith's downtown area. Overall damage was estimated at $20 million. Ladysmith is located at 45°27′50″N 91°6′0″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.59 square miles, of which 4.21 square miles is land and 0.38 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 8 and Wisconsin Highway 27 are the main routes in the community. Ladysmith is along the Flambeau River; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,414 people, 1,527 households, 806 families residing in the city. The population density was 810.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,667 housing units at an average density of 396.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 0.6% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 1,527 households of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.1% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.2% were non-families. 41.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the city was 43.8 years. 22.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 54.4 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,932 people, 1,570 households, 916 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,008.9 people per square mile. There were 1,660 housing units at an average density of 425.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.31% White, 1.48% African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.48% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 0.10% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.76% of the population. There were 1,570 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.6% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 13.4% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 21.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,274, the median income for a family was $40,526. Males had a median income of $26,725 versus $20,826 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,499. About 7.2% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. Rusk County Airport serves Ladysmith; the Rusk County Transit Commission provides transportation within Rusk County. Ladysmith is served by the Ladysmith School District, which administers Ladysmith High School and Ladysmith Elementary School. Ladysmith is home to private schools Our Lady of Sorrows, a Catholic grade school, North Cedar Academy, a high school.
Ladysmith was the home of Mount Senario College, which closed in 2002. In the 2006-2007 school year, part of the former campus was operated as Concordia Preparatory School, a private Christian high school; that institution faced financial problems and closed. Silver Lake College of Manitowoc, Wisconsin began offering courses at Mount Senario, renamed "Mount Senario Education Center", beginning September, 2009. City of Ladysmith Ladysmith Chamber of Commerce Ladysmith, Wisconsin is at coordinates 45°27′50″N 91°6′0″W. Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1902 1909 1914
San Luis Obispo County, California
San Luis Obispo County the County of San Luis Obispo, is a county located in the southern region of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 269,637; the county seat is San Luis Obispo. San Luis Obispo County comprises the San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is located along the Pacific Ocean in Central California, between Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area. Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa in 1772 and the Mission is today an active part of downtown San Luis Obispo; the small size of the county's communities, scattered along the beaches, coastal hills, mountains of the Santa Lucia range, provides a wide variety of coastal and inland hill ecologies to support many kinds of fishing and tourist activities. The mainstays of the economy are California Polytechnic State University with its 20,000 students and agriculture. San Luis Obispo County is the third largest producer of wine in California, surpassed only by Sonoma and Napa Counties.
Wine grapes are the second largest agricultural crop in the county, the wine production they support creates a direct economic impact and a growing wine country vacation industry. The town of San Simeon is located at the foot of the ridge where newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst built Hearst Castle. Other coastal towns include Cambria, Morro Bay, Los Osos -Baywood Park; these cities and villages are located northwest of San Luis Obispo city, Avila Beach and the Five Cities Region to the south which were originally: Arroyo Grande, Grover Beach, Fair Oaks and Halcyon. Today, the Five Cities Region consists of Pismo Beach, Grover Beach and Oceano the area from Pismo Beach to Oceano. Nipomo, just south of the Five Cities, borders northern Santa Barbara County. Inland, the cities of Paso Robles and Atascadero lie along the Salinas River, near the Paso Robles wine region. San Luis Obispo lies north of the Five Cities region; the prehistory of San Luis Obispo County is influenced by the Chumash people who had significant settlement here at least as early as the Millingstone Horizon thousands of years before the present age.
Important settlements existed, in many coastal areas such as Morro Bay and Los Osos. Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was founded on September 1, 1772 in the area, now the city of San Luis Obispo; the namesake of the mission and county is Saint Louis of Toulouse, the young bishop of Toulouse in 1297. San Luis Obispo County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood; the Salinas River Valley, a region that figures in several Steinbeck novels, stretches north from San Luis Obispo County. The remote California Valley near Soda Lake is the region most untouched by modernity. Travels through this area and the hills east of highway 101 during wildflower season are beautiful and can be incorporated with wine tasting at local vineyards. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,616 square miles, of which 3,299 square miles is land and 317 square miles is water. Carrizo Plain National Monument Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge Los Padres National Forest Piedras Blancas State Marine Reserve and Marine Conservation Area Cambria State Marine Conservation Area White Rock State Marine Conservation Area Morro Bay State Marine Recreational Management Area and Morro Bay State Marine Reserve Point Buchon State Marine Reserve and Marine Conservation Area The 2010 United States Census reported that San Luis Obispo County had a population of 269,637.
The racial makeup of San Luis Obispo County was 222,756 White, 5,550 African American, 2,536 Native American, 8,507 Asian, 389 Pacific Islander, 19,786 from other races, 10,113 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 55,973 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 246,681 residents, 92,739 households, 58,611 families in the county. The population density was 75 people per square mile. There were 102,275 housing units at an average density of 31 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.6% White, 2.0% Black or African American, 1.0% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.2% from other races, 3.4% from two or more races. 16.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.9% were of German, 11.4% English, 9.7% Irish, 6.1% American and 5.7% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 85.7% spoke English and 10.7% Spanish as their first language. There were 92,739 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.40% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.8% were non-families.
26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 13.6% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 105.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over
Christopher "Chris" Mitchum is an American film actor and businessman. He was born in Los Angeles, the second son of film star Robert Mitchum and Dorothy Mitchum, he is the younger brother of actor James Mitchum. Mitchum appeared in more than 60 films in 14 countries, he appeared with John Wayne in the motion pictures Chisum, Rio Lobo, Big Jake. He was cited by Box Office magazine as one of the top five stars of the future and the recipient of Photoplay's Gold Medal Award for 1972, he won both The Golden Reel, Best Actor award. He has been a member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1978, he was the Screen Actors Guild national first vice president, in 1987–89 and a member of the SAG board of directors, in 1983–89. He is the father of Bentley Mitchum, Carrie Mitchum, Jennifer Mitchum, Kian Mitchum and the grandfather of Cappy Van Dien, Grace Van Dien, Allexanne Mitchum, Carrington Mitchum, Wyatt Mitchum Cardone. Mitchum has resided in the Santa Barbara, California area since 1984.
He ran unsuccessfully for the California State Assembly in 1998 and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24th Congressional District, in 2012 and 2014. Mitchum has run once for the California State Assembly, twice for the U. S. House of Representatives. Since January 1, 2011, under California law, candidates are voter-nominated for state and federal offices. In 1998, Mitchum was the Republican nominee in the general election for the California State Assembly in the 35th district, which included portions of Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, where he served on the Republican Central Committee, his opponents were Natural Law Party candidate Eric Dahl. Mitchum came in second behind Jackson with 44.5 percent of the vote to Jackson's 53 percent. In 2012, Mitchum ran for the U. S. House of Representatives as a Republican candidate in California's 24th district, challenging incumbent Democrat Congresswoman Lois Capps. In the June 5, 2012 primary, he came in third, behind Republican Abel Maldonado and Capps, ahead of Independent candidate Matt Boutté.
In 2014, Mitchum ran again for the U. S. congressional seat held by Representative Capps. He won the June 3, 2014, coming in second behind Capps with 15.8 percent of the vote, narrowly defeating Republican Justin Fareed by over 600 votes. In the November 4 general election, Mitchum received 48.1 percent of the vote to Capps's 51.9 percent, in the closest race of Capps's entire congressional career. Despite the close margin by which Mitchum lost to Capps, as well as the announcement that Capps would retire in 2016, Mitchum declined a third run for the same seat again, instead endorsed Assemblyman Katcho Achadjian for the race to succeed Capps. Mitchum has served on several organizations'boards of directors and has been a fundraiser for a number of charities. Hollywood Benefit Horse Show, advisory board, 1996–present ZONA SECA, Board of Director, 2011–present Community Outreach for Prevention and Education chairman and honorary chairman, 1998–present Liberty Program—gang-member rehabilitation program—board member, Santa Barbara, 1999–2001 Criminal Advisory Board for Fighting Back, Santa Barbara, 1999–2004 Public Policy Advisory Board for Fighting Back, Santa Barbara, 1999–2004 Board of directors, Police Activities League, Santa Barbara, 1999–2001 Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention Commission, for the governor's Office, State of California, OCJP January 1999 Autistic Treatment Center "Roundup of Autism": Honorary Advisory Council: 1994–2002 North American Riding for the Handicapped Association Advisory Board: 1992–96 Santa Barbara International Film Festival: Honorary Board 1988–92 Santa Barbara International Film Festival, board of directors: one-year term, 1987 Santa Barbara Civic Light Opera: founding chairman of the "Star Circle" fund-raiser, 1989 Chris Mitchum For Congress Politicit.com: Chris Mitchum Profile Christopher Mitchum on IMDb Interview with Chris Mitchum, March 14, 2015, Belleville News-Democrat
Yoga is a group of physical and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. Yoga is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophical traditions. There is a broad variety of yoga schools and goals in Hinduism and Jainism; the term "yoga" in the Western world denotes a modern form of Hatha yoga, consisting of the postures called asanas. The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions; the chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Upanishads. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the first half of the 1st millennium CE, but only gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged around the 11th century with origins in tantra. Yoga gurus from India introduced yoga to the West, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th century with his adaptation of yoga tradition, excluding asanas. In the 1980s, a different form of modern yoga, with an increasing number of asanas and few other practices, became popular as a system of exercise across the Western world.
Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise. One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, is related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy. Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of modern yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia and heart disease; the results of these studies have been inconclusive. On December 1, 2016, yoga was listed by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage; the Sanskrit noun योग yoga is derived from the root yuj "to attach, harness, yoke". The word yoga is cognate with English "yoke"; the spiritual sense of the word yoga first arises in Epic Sanskrit, in the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, is associated with the philosophical system presented in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, with the chief aim of "uniting" the human spirit with the Divine. The term kriyāyoga has a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras, designating the "practical" aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the "union with the supreme" due to performance of duties in everyday life.
According to Pāṇini, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. In the context of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the root yuj samādhau is considered by traditional commentators as the correct etymology. In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi. According to Dasgupta, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini; the term yoga has been defined in various ways in the many different Indian philosophical and religious traditions. The ultimate goal of Yoga is moksha, although the exact definition of what form this takes depends on the philosophical or theological system with which it is conjugated. According to Jacobsen, Yoga has five principal meanings: a disciplined method for attaining a goal. According to David Gordon White, from the 5th century CE onward, the core principles of "yoga" were more or less in place, variations of these principles developed in various forms over time: a meditative means of discovering dysfunctional perception and cognition, as well as overcoming it for release from suffering, inner peace and salvation.
White clarifies that the last principle relates to legendary goals of "yogi practice", different from practical goals of "yoga practice," as they are viewed in South Asian thought and practice since the beginning of the Common Era, in the various Hindu and Jain philosophical schools. The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization and pre-Vedic Eastern states of India, the Vedic period (1500–5
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor