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Lois Lane

Lois Lane is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, she first appeared in Action Comics #1. Lois is an award-winning journalist for the Metropolis newspaper the Daily Planet and the primary love interest of the superhero Superman and his alter-ego, Clark Kent. In DC continuity, she is his wife and the mother of their son, Jon Kent, the current Superboy in the DC Universe. Lois' physical appearance was based on Joanne Carter, a model hired by Joe Shuster. For her character, Jerry Siegel was inspired by actress Glenda Farrell's portrayal of the fictional reporter Torchy Blane in a series of films. Siegel took her name from actress Lola Lane, she was influenced by the real-life journalist Nellie Bly. Depictions of the character have varied spanning the comics and other media adaptations; the original Golden Age version of Lois Lane, as well as versions of her from the 1970s onwards, portrays Lois as a dauntless journalist and intellectually equal to Superman.

During the Silver Age of Comics, she was the star of Superman's Girl Friend, Lois Lane, a comic book series that had a light and humorous tone. Beginning in 2015, she is the protagonist in the young adult novel series, Lois Lane, by writer Gwenda Bond. Lois is among the best-known female comic book characters, she has appeared in various media adaptations. Actress Noel Neill first portrayed Lois Lane in the 1940s Superman film series and reprised her role in the 1950s television series Adventures of Superman, replacing Phyllis Coates from season two. Margot Kidder played the character in four Superman films in the 1970s and 1980s, Kate Bosworth in the 2006 film Superman Returns, Amy Adams in the DC Extended Universe. In the 1990s television series, she was portrayed by Teri Hatcher in Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman and Erica Durance in the 2000s series, Smallville. Most Elizabeth Tulloch appeared as Lois in the Arrowverse television shows. Actresses who have voiced Lois in animated adaptations include Joan Alexander in the Fleischer Superman animated film series and Dana Delany in Superman: The Animated Series, among others.

Writer Jerry Siegel first conceived Lois Lane in 1934, when Siegel and Joe Shuster were still developing Superman. One of the major influence on Lois' characterization was actress Glenda Farrell and her portrayal of the fictional reporter Torchy Blane in a series of Warner Bros. films. The Torchy Blane movies were popular second features during the 1930s. On the conception of Lois Lane, Siegel stated in the 1988 Time magazine: My wife Joanne was Joe's original art model for Superman's girlfriend Lois Lane back in the 1930s. Our heroine was, of course. What inspired me in the creation was Glenda Farrell, the movie star who portrayed Torchy Blane, a gutsy, beautiful headline-hunting reporter, in a series of exciting motion pictures; because the name of the actress Lola Lane appealed to me, I called my character Lois Lane. Strangely, the characterization of Lois is amazingly like the real-life personality of my lovely wife. Artist Joe Shuster based Lois' physical appearance on a model named Joanne Carter.

Carter had placed an ad in the Cleveland Plain Dealer newspaper in the Situation Wanted column, advertising herself as a model. Shuster hired her as the model for Lois Lane. Shuster's depiction of Lois was modeled on facial features. "To me she was Lois Lane. She was a great inspiration for me, though, she encouraged me, she was enthusiastic about the strip. Shuster said about Joanne Carter. Joanne Carter married co-creator Jerry Siegel in 1948. On working with Joe Shuster for Lois Lane, Carter said in the 1983 Nemo magazine interview: "Joe was redrawing the strip, it was going to be more realistic, rather than cartoony. I used to model for him every Saturday, he made so many stock drawings. We became such good friends by that time we decided we would always stay friends." Lois Lane made her debut in Action Comics #1 the first published Superman story. She was one of the first female comic book characters appearing in the superhero comics. Lois is the daughter of Ella and Sam Lane, in earlier comics, her parents were farmers in a town called Pittsdale.

The modern comics depicts Lois as a former Army brat, born at Ramstein Air Base with Lois having been trained by her father, a US Army General, in areas such as hand-to-hand combat and the use of firearms. She has her sister Lucy Lane. Lois is a journalist for the Daily Planet, one of the best investigative reporters and the best at the newspaper she works at. In some stories, she has been shown obtaining superpowers and becoming a superhero, some of her superhero identities are Superwoman and Red Tornado of Earth 2. Aspects of Lois' personality have varied over the years, depending on the comic book writers handling of the character and American social attitudes toward women at the time. In most incarnations, she is shown to be an independent person, smart and strong-willed, her physical appearance has varied over the years, depending either on contemporary fashion or media adaptations. In the 1990s, when the television series Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman began airing Lois received a haircut that made her look more like actress Teri Hatcher, her eyes were violet to match her character on Superman: The Animated Series.

From the late 1980s through the 1990s she was depicted with auburn hair in the comic books. In the 1940s, Lois had a newspaper comic strip, Lois Lane, Girl Reporter, a direct spin-

Acidithiobacillus

Acidithiobacillus is a genus of the Acidithiobacillia in the "Proteobacteria". Like all "Proteobacteria", Acidithiobacillus spp. are Gram-negative. Some members of this genus were classified as Thiobacillus spp. before they were reclassified in 2000. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans can be isolated from iron-sulfur minerals such as pyrite deposits, oxidising iron and sulfur as energy sources to support autotrophic growth and producing ferric iron and sulfuric acid. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produces sulfuric acid. Both of these species are used in the biohydrometallurgy industry in methods called bioleaching and biomining, whereby metals are extracted from their ores through bacterial oxidation, they are important generators of acid mine drainage, a major environmental problem around the world in mining. Acidithiobacillus are acidophilic obligate autotrophs that use elementary sulfur and ferrous iron as electron donors, they assimilate carbon from carbon dioxide using the transaldolase variant of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle.

The genus comprises motile, rod-shaped cells that can be isolated from low pH environments including low pH microenvironments on otherwise neutral mineral grains. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has emerged as an economically significant bacterium in the field of biohydrometallurgy, in the leaching of sulfide ores since its discovery in 1950 by Colmer and Hinkle; the discovery of A. ferrooxidans led to the development of “biohydrometallurgy”, which deals with all aspects of microbial mediated extraction of metals from minerals or solid wastes and acid mine drainage. A. ferrooxidans has been proven as a potent leaching organism, for dissolution of metals from low-grade sulfide ores. The attention has been focused upon the treatment of mineral concentrates, as well as complex sulfide ores using batch or continuous-flow reactors. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is found in acid mine drainage and mine tailings; the oxidation of ferrous iron and reduced sulfur oxyanions, metal sulfides and elementary sulfur results in the production of ferric sulfate in sulfuric acid, this in turn causes the solubilization of metals and other compounds.

As a result, A. ferrooxidans may be of interest for bioremediation processes. Acidithiobacillus spp. occur as single cells or in pairs or chains, depending on growth conditions. Motile species have been described, as well as nonmotile ones. Motile strains have a single flagellum with the exception of A. albertensis, which has a tuft of polar flagellae and a glycocalyx. Nitrogen fixation is an important ecological function carried out by some species in this genus, as is growth using molecular hydrogen as a source of energy - neither property are found in every species. Ferric iron can be used by some species as a terminal electron acceptor; the order Acidithiobacillales were members of the Gammaproteobacteria, with considerable debate regarding their position and that they could fall within the Betaproteobacteria, but the situation was resolved by whole-genome alignment studies and both genera have been reclassified to the new class Acidithiobacillia. Talvivaara mine Thiobacillus Thermithiobacillus Acidophiles in acid mine drainage Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 Genome Page Thiobacillus sp.

Type strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase

Livingstone Falls

Livingstone Falls — named for the explorer David Livingstone — are a succession of enormous rapids on the lower course of the Congo River in west equatorial Africa, downstream from Malebo Pool in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Livingstone Falls consist of a series of rapids dropping 900 feet in 220 miles, they start end in Matadi in Bas-Congo. The Congo River has the second largest flow rate in the world after the Amazon, which has no falls or rapids; the lowest rapids of Livingstone Falls, are the world's largest waterfall in terms of flow rate — provided one accepts these rapids as being a waterfall. An interesting aspect of the 220-mile long Livingstone Falls is the width of the channel; the channel is narrow: in several stretches the channel width is less than 300 metres and for the majority of the length the channel is less than 800 metres wide. This is an extraordinarily narrow channel since the river flow rate exceeds 42,000 cubic metres per second. Investigations in 2008 and 2009 showed.

The powerful rapids separate fish populations from one another, causing new species to evolve in close proximity to one another. Although he explored the upper Congo, Livingstone never travelled to this part of the river and the Falls were named in his honour by Henry Morton Stanley. Stanley described the falls as "..the wildest stretch of river that I have seen. Take a strip of sea blown over by a hurricane, four miles in length and half a mile in breadth, a pretty accurate conception of its leaping waves may be obtained; some of the troughs were 100 yards in length, from one to the other the mad river plunged. There was first a rush down into the bottom of an immense trough, by its sheer force, the enormous volume would lift itself upward steeply until, gathering itself into a ridge, it hurled itself 20 or 30 feet straight upward, before rolling down into another trough. If I looked up or down along this angry scene, every interval of 50 or 100 yards of it was marked by wave-towers - their collapse into foam and spray, the mad clash of watery hills, bounding mounds and heaving billows, while the base of either bank, consisting of a long line of piled boulders of massive size, was buried in the tempestuous surf.

The roar was deafening. I can only compare it to the thunder of an express train through a rock tunnel."Since the falls, which start with the Yellala Falls just above Matadi, are a barrier to navigation on the lower part of the river, the Matadi-Kinshasa Railway was constructed to by-pass them. On an expedition known as'Africa-Raft', Philippe de Dieuleveult and six members of his party disappeared during a descent of these rapids around Inga Falls on August 6, 1985. Inga Falls on Congo River is a group of rapids in the latter portion of the Livingstone Falls, 177 miles after the Malebo Pool; the Congo falls about 96 metres within this set of cataracts. The mean annual flow rate at Inga Falls is about 42,000 cubic metres per second. Given this flow rate and the 96 metre fall, it is possible to calculate that the Inga Falls alone has a power potential of 40 GW. In 2014, Inga Falls was the site of two large hydro-electric power plants and is being considered for a much larger hydro-electric power generating station known as Grand Inga.

The Grand Inga project, if completed, would be the largest hydro-electric power generating facility on Earth. The current project scope calls for the use of a flow rate 26,400 cubic metres per second at a net head of 150 metres; this hydro-electric generator would be more than double the current world record holder, the Three Gorges facility on the Yangtze River in China. List of waterfalls by flow rate