Minority Report (film)
Minority Report is a 2002 American neo-noir science fiction action film directed by Steven Spielberg and loosely based on the short story "The Minority Report" by Philip K. Dick, it is set in Washington, D. C. and Northern Virginia in the year 2054, where PreCrime, a specialized police department, apprehends criminals based on foreknowledge provided by three psychics called "precogs". The cast includes Tom Cruise as Chief of PreCrime John Anderton, Colin Farrell as Department of Justice agent Danny Witwer, Samantha Morton as the senior precog Agatha, Max von Sydow as Anderton's superior Lamar Burgess; the film combines elements of tech noir, whodunit and science fiction genres, as well as a traditional chase film, as the main protagonist is accused of a crime he has not committed and becomes a fugitive. Spielberg has characterized the story as "fifty percent character and fifty percent complicated storytelling with layers and layers of murder mystery and plot"; the film's central theme is the question of free will versus determinism.
It examines whether free will can exist if the future is known in advance. Other themes include the role of preventive government in protecting its citizenry, the role of media in a future state where technological advancements make its presence nearly boundless, the potential legality of an infallible prosecutor, Spielberg's repeated theme of broken families; the film was first optioned in 1992, as a sequel to another Dick adaptation, Total Recall, started its development in 1997, after a script by Jon Cohen reached Spielberg and Cruise. Production suffered many delays due to Cruise's Mission: Impossible 2 and Spielberg's A. I. running over schedule starting in March 2001. During pre-production, Spielberg consulted numerous scientists in an attempt to present a more plausible future world than that seen in other science fiction films, some of the technology designs in the film have proven prescient. Minority Report has a unique visual style, it uses high contrast to create dark shadows, much like a film noir picture.
The film's overlit shots feature desaturated colors which were achieved by bleach-bypassing the film's negative in post-production. Minority Report was nominated for several awards, it received an Academy Award nomination for Best Sound Editing, eleven Saturn Award nominations, including Best Actor, Best Supporting Actor, Saturn Award for Best Music, winning Best Science Fiction Film, Best Direction, Best Writing, Best Supporting Actress. The film earned over $358 million worldwide against an overall budget of $142 million. Over four million DVDs were sold in its first few months of home release. In April 2054, Washington, DC's the prototype PreCrime police department stops murderers before they act, reducing the murder rate to zero. Murders are predicted using three mutated humans, called "Precogs", who "previsualize" crimes by receiving visions of the future. Would-be murderers are imprisoned in a benevolent virtual reality; the Federal government is on the verge of adopting the controversial program nation-wide.
Since the disappearance of his son Sean, PreCrime Captain John Anderton has both separated from his wife Lara and become a drug addict. While United States Department of Justice agent Danny Witwer is auditing the program, the Precogs generate a new prediction, stating Anderton will murder a man he does not know named Leo Crow in 36 hours. Anderton flees the area. Anderton seeks the advice of the creator of PreCrime technology, she reveals that sometimes, one of the Precogs Agatha, has a different vision than the other two, a "minority report" of a possible alternate future. Anderton resolves to recover the minority report to prove his innocence. Anderton goes to a black market doctor for a risky eye transplant so as to avoid the citywide optical recognition system, he returns to PreCrime and kidnaps Agatha, shutting down the system, as the Precogs operate as a group mind. Anderton takes Agatha to a hacker to extract the minority report of Leo Crow. Anderton and Agatha go to Crow's hotel room as the 36-hour time nears, finding numerous photos of children, including Sean's.
Crow arrives and Anderton prepares to kill him, accusing him of being a serial child killer. Agatha talks Anderton out of shooting Crow by telling him that he has the ability to choose his future now that he is aware of it. Crow, begs to be killed, having been hired by an unknown entity to plant the photos and be killed in exchange for his family's financial well being. Crow pushes the trigger, killing himself. Anderton and Agatha flee to Lara's house outside the city for refuge. There they learn. Lively was murdered. Anderton realizes he is being targeted for knowing about Lively's existence and her connection to Agatha. Witwer, studying Crow's death, suspects, he examines the footage of Lively's murder and finds there were two attempts on her life, the first having been stopped by PreCrime but the second, occurring seconds having succeeded. Witwer reports this to the director and founder of PreCrime, Lamar Burgess, but Burgess responds by killing Witwer using Anderton's gun. With the Precogs still offline, the murder is not detected.
Lara calls Burgess to reveal that Anderton is with her, he is captured, accused of both murders, fitted with the brain device th
True Blood is an American dark fantasy horror television series produced and created by Alan Ball and based on The Southern Vampire Mysteries, a series of novels by Charlaine Harris. The series revolves around Sookie Stackhouse, a telepathic waitress living in the rural town of Bon Temps, Louisiana. Two years after the invention of a synthetic blood branded “Tru Blood,” vampires are able to "come out of the coffin" and allow their presence to be known to mankind. Now they are struggling for equal rights and assimilation, while anti-vampire organizations begin to gain power. Sookie's world is turned upside down when she falls in love with 173-year-old vampire Bill Compton and for the first time must navigate the trials and terrors of intimacy and relationships; the show was broadcast on the premium cable network HBO, in the United States, was produced by HBO in association with Ball's production company, Your Face Goes Here Entertainment. The series premiered on September 7, 2008 and concluded on August 24, 2014, comprising seven seasons and 80 episodes.
The first five seasons received positive reviews, both nominations and wins for several awards, including a Golden Globe and an Emmy. The fictional universe depicted in the series is premised on the notion that vampires exist, unbeknownst to the majority of humans until two years before the series premiere, when the creation of synthetic blood by Japanese scientists, which eliminated vampires' need for human blood to survive, allowed vampires to "come out of the coffin" and reveal their existence to the world. E-1 This so-called "Great Revelation" has split vampires into two camps: those who wish to integrate into human society by campaigning for citizenship and equal rights,E-1 and those who think human-vampire co-existence is impossible, because it conflicts with the inherently predatory and violent nature of vampires, it has caused similar divisions amongst non-vampires. Throughout the series, other supernatural creatures are introduced, among them shapeshifters, faeries, a maenad; the series revolves around a telepathic human-faerie hybrid known as a halfling.
Sookie is a waitress at Merlotte's Bar and Grill, owned by Sam Merlotte in the small Louisiana town of Bon Temps. Sam is a shapeshifter. Other characters include Bill Compton, a 173-year-old vampire who has returned to Bon Temps to take up residence in his former home following the death of his last remaining relative; the show explores several contemporary issues such as the struggle for equal rights and violence against minorities and homosexuals, the problems of drug addiction, the power of faith and religion, the control/influence of the media, the quest for identity, the importance of family. Series creator Alan Ball had worked with the cable channel HBO on Six Feet Under, which ran for five seasons. In October 2005, after Six Feet Under wrapped, Ball signed a two-year agreement with HBO to develop and produce original programming for the network. True Blood became the first project under the deal after Ball became acquainted with Charlaine Harris' Southern Vampire Mystery books. One day, while early for a dental appointment, Ball was browsing through a Barnes & Noble bookshop and came across Dead Until Dark, the first installment in Harris' series.
He read the entries that followed and became interested in "bringing vision to television". However, Harris had two other adaptation options for the books, she said she chose to work with him, because " really'got' me. That's. I just felt that he understood what I was doing with the books." The project's hour-long pilot was ordered concurrently with the finalization of the aforementioned development deal, was written and produced by Ball. Cast members Paquin and Trammell were announced in February 2007 and Moyer on in April; the pilot was shot in the early summer of 2007 and was ordered to series in August, at which point Ball had written several more episodes. Production on the series began that fall, with Brook Kerr, who portrayed Tara Thornton in the original pilot, replaced by Rutina Wesley. Two more episodes of the series had been filmed before the 2007-08 Writers Guild of America strike shut down production of the 12-episode first season until February 2008; that September, after only the first two episodes of the series had aired, HBO placed an order for a second season of 12 episodes, with production scheduled to commence in January 2009 for a summer premiere.
True Blood's Emmy-nominated title sequence is composed of portrayals of the show's Deep South setting, runs to "Bad Things" by Jace Everett, although the original featurette was created around the Jennifer Herrema song "RadTimesXpress". Conceptually, the sequence was constructed around the idea of "the whore in the house of prayer" by intermingling contradictory images of sex and religion and displaying them from the point of view of "a supernatural, predatory creature observing human beings from the shadows..." Ideas o
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon", his extant works, including collaborations, consist of 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men known as the King's Men. At age 49, he appears to have retired to Stratford. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; such theories are criticised for failing to adequately note that few records survive of most commoners of the period.
Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres; until about 1608, he wrote tragedies, among them Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he collaborated with other playwrights. Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in 1623, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays; the volume was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Jonson presciently hails Shakespeare in a now-famous quote as "not of an age, but for all time". Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.
His plays remain popular and are studied and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover from Snitterfield, Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer, he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day; this date, which can be traced to a mistake made by an 18th-century scholar, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on the same date in 1616. He was the third of eight children, the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582; the next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times, six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, baptised 26 May 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592; the exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".
Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported; some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area, it is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of
Twister (1996 film)
Twister is a 1996 American epic action disaster film directed by Jan de Bont from a screenplay by Michael Crichton and Anne-Marie Martin. Its executive producers were Walter Parkes, Laurie MacDonald and Gerald R. Molen; the film stars Helen Hunt, Bill Paxton, Jami Gertz and Cary Elwes, depicts a group of storm chasers researching tornadoes during a severe outbreak in Oklahoma. Twister was the second-highest-grossing film of 1996 domestically, with an estimated 54,688,100 tickets sold in the US; the film was met with a mixed critical reception. The film received Academy Award nominations for Best Sound Mixing. In June 1969 Oklahoma, young Jo Thornton and her family are awoken by an approaching F5 tornado; the family seeks refuge in their storm cellar, but the tornado rips the cellar door off, sucking Jo's father to his death while her mother holds Jo back. The next morning, they find their farmhouse was destroyed. In the present day, the National Severe Storms Laboratory is predicting a record outbreak of tornadoes in Oklahoma over a 24 hour period.
An adult Jo, now a meteorologist, is reunited with her estranged husband, Bill Harding, a former weather researcher and storm chaser, who has since become a popular television weather reporter. He has a brand new Dodge Ram pickup truck and is planning to marry reproductive therapist Melissa Reeves, but cannot do so until Jo signs her long overdue divorce papers. Jo has built four identical tornado research devices called DOROTHY, designed by Bill, which contain hundreds of sensors that, if picked up by a tornado, will create revolutionary breakthroughs in meteorology research. Before Jo can finish the paperwork, her team rushes to intercept a nearby forming F1 tornado, forcing Bill and Melissa to chase after her. However, Bill encounters Dr. Jonas Miller, a corporate-funded meteorologist and long-time rival storm chaser; when Bill learns that Jonas has created a device called DOT-3, a blatant copy of DOROTHY, he vows to help Jo deploy DOROTHY before Jonas can deploy DOT-3 and claim credit for the idea.
In an attempt to deploy DOROTHY and get back to his regular life as soon as possible, Bill maneuvers Jo's Jeep Gladiator off-road into a muddy ditch towards the growing tornado. The tornado approaches and they are unable to drive out of the ditch, they are directly in front of the incoming tornado. As they take cover under the bridge, Jo's truck and DOROTHY I are both picked up and destroyed by the tornado. Soon after, a second tornado is spotted in another part of Oklahoma, they continue on in Bill's Dodge with Melissa, forced to tag along in the backseat; however and his team are intercepting the storm cell, which has grown into an F2 tornado. Bill guesses that the tornado will shift towards another direction and chances going in what seems to be the wrong way, but his guess is correct, which enrages Jonas; the team is lead off-road hanging back as the storm cell worsens, Bill, Jo, Melissa have a dangerous encounter with two waterspouts that leaves Melissa traumatized. The rest of the team, however, is ecstatic about the encounter and convince Jo to let them go visit Jo's Aunt Meg in the nearby town of Wakita for food and rest.
The team arrives in Wakita. While there, the team discusses Bill’s past as an alcoholic and they inform Melissa about Jo's backstory, explaining that Jo has since become obsessed with ensuring nobody else suffers the same fate. Jo, realizing she is falling in love with Bill again, isolates herself from the rest of the group and is confronted by Aunt Meg, who tells her that no matter what happens, they will always end up together, they learn an F3 tornado is forming in a neighboring county, forcing them to end dinner prematurely and hit the road once again. As the team attempt to intercept the F3, the tornado is invisible to them as they begin to drive blindly through thick hail, they go up a hill, dubbed "Twister Hill”, try to deploy DOROTHY II, but the tornado forms on top of them and damages their truck, destroying DOROTHY II in the process. Jo has an emotional breakdown over the situation, admitting. While trying to motivate her, Bill accidentally tells her that he's still in love with her, not realizing that Melissa has been listening to their entire conversation over their CB radio.
That night, the team stays in a hotel next to a drive-in cinema. Jo decides to fill out the remaining divorce papers but is soon interrupted when an F4 tornado forms, forcing everybody present to take shelter; the theater, a repair shop, much of the team’s equipment is destroyed. Traumatized by the near-death experiences and recognizing the re-blossoming love between Bill and Jo, Melissa ends her relationship with Bill and makes her own way home; the tornado continues on to Wakita, devastating the town and injuring Aunt Meg while flattening her house. Aunt Meg's injuries are not serious, but she is taken to the hospital and inspires Jo to never give up; the team hears that an F5 is forming close by. Inspecting Aunt Meg's windchimes, Jo has an idea of how to deploy DOROTHY; the next morning, the team sets out to intercept the F5 tornado, which has grown to be over a mile wide. Bill and Jo lay the newly-altered DOROTHY III directly in the F5's path, but it is destroyed by an uprooted tree, which briefly traps them in the tornado's path.
Meanwhile, Jonas attempts to deploy DOT-3 in a similar fashion, ignoring Bill's repeated warnings that his team is too close and that the tornado is shifting direct
Lois Maureen Stapleton was an American actress in film and television. She was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Lonelyhearts and Interiors, before winning for her performance as Emma Goldman in Reds, she was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 1981. Stapleton made her Broadway debut in 1946 in The Playboy of the Western World, went on to win the 1951 Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for The Rose Tattoo and the 1971 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for The Gingerbread Lady, she won an Emmy Award for the television film Among the Paths to Eden and the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Reds. Her other film roles included Bye Bye Birdie, Plaza Suite, The Fan and The Money Pit. Stapleton was born in Troy, New York, the daughter of John P. Stapleton and Irene, grew up in a strict Irish American Catholic family, her father was her parents separated during her childhood. Stapleton moved to New York City at the age of eighteen, did modeling to pay the bills.
She once said that it was her infatuation with the handsome Hollywood actor Joel McCrea which led her into acting. She made her Broadway debut in the production featuring Burgess Meredith of The Playboy of the Western World in 1946; that same year, she played the role of Iras in Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra" in a touring production by actress and producer Katharine Cornell. Stepping in because Anna Magnani refused the role due to her limited English, Stapleton won a Tony Award for her role in Tennessee Williams' The Rose Tattoo in 1951. Stapleton played in other Williams' productions, including Twenty-Seven Wagons Full of Cotton and Orpheus Descending, as well as Lillian Hellman's Toys in the Attic, she won a second Tony Award for Neil Simon's The Gingerbread Lady, written for her, in 1971. Broadway roles included "Birdie" in The Little Foxes opposite Elizabeth Taylor and as a replacement for Jessica Tandy in The Gin Game. Stapleton's film career, though limited, brought her immediate success, with her debut in Lonelyhearts earning a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.
She appeared in the 1963 film version of Bye Bye Birdie, in the role of Mama Mae Peterson, with Dick Van Dyke, Janet Leigh, Paul Lynde and Ann-Margret. Stapleton played the role of Dick Van Dyke's mother though she was only five months and 22 days older than Van Dyke, she was nominated again for an Oscar for Woody Allen's Interiors. She won the Best Supporting Actress Oscar for Reds, directed by Warren Beatty, in which she portrayed the Lithuanian-born anarchist, Emma Goldman. In her acceptance speech, she stated "I would like to thank everyone I've met in my entire life."Stapleton won a 1968 Emmy Award for her performance in Among the Paths of Eden. She was nominated for the television version of All the King's Men, Queen of the Stardust Ballroom, The Gathering, her appearances included Johnny Dangerously and its sequel Cocoon: The Return. She was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 1981, she was an alumna of the famous Actors Studio in New York City, led by Lee Strasberg. She became friends with Marilyn Monroe, only one year younger than Stapleton.
She was impressed with Monroe's talent, always thought it was a shame that Monroe was allowed to play roles beyond the ditzy blonde. By comparison, Stapleton thought herself lucky: "I never had that problem. People looked at me on stage and said,'Jesus, that broad better be able to act.'" One of the most famously remembered scenes at the studio was when Stapleton and Monroe acted in Anna Christie together. She hosted the 19th episode of Season 4 of NBC's Saturday Night Live in 1979. Stapleton's first husband was Max Allentuck, general manager to the producer Kermit Bloomgarden, her second, playwright David Rayfiel, from whom she divorced in 1966, she had a son, a daughter, Katherine, by her first husband. Her daughter, Katherine Allentuck, garnered good reviews for her single movie role, that of "Aggie" in Summer of'42. Stapleton suffered from anxiety and alcoholism for many years and once told an interviewer, "The curtain came down and I went into the vodka." She said that her unhappy childhood contributed to her insecurities.
A lifelong heavy smoker, Stapleton died of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2006 at her home in Lenox, Massachusetts. In 1981 Hudson Valley Community College in Stapleton's childhood city of Troy, New York, dedicated a theater in her name. Maureen was not related to All In the Family star Jean Stapleton. Maureen's biography, A Hell of a Life, was published by Simon & Schuster in 1995. In an interview about Monroe, she claimed that she was Catholic. Maureen Stapleton at the Internet Broadway Database Maureen Stapleton at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Maureen Stapleton on IMDb Maureen Stapleton at Find a Grave Maureen Stapleton at the University of Wisconsin's Actors Studio audio collection
José Vicente Ferrer de Otero y Cintrón, known as José Ferrer, was a Puerto Rican actor and theatre and film director. He was the first Puerto Rican-born actor, as well as the first Hispanic actor, to win an Academy Award. In 1947, Ferrer won the Tony Award for his theatrical performance of Cyrano de Bergerac, in 1952, he won the Distinguished Dramatic Actor Award for The Shrike, the Outstanding Director Award for directing the plays The Shrike, The Fourposter, Stalag 17. Ferrer's contributions to American theatre were recognized in 1981, when he was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. In 1985, he received the National Medal of Arts from Ronald Reagan, becoming the first actor to receive that honor. On April 26, 2012, the United States Postal Service issued a stamp in Ferrer's honor in its Distinguished Americans series. Ferrer was born in San Juan, Puerto Rico, the son of María Providencia Cintrón, from the small coastal town of Yabucoa, Puerto Rico, Rafael Ferrer, an attorney and writer from San Juan.
He was the grandson of Gabriel Ferrer Hernández, a doctor and advocate of Puerto Rican independence from Spain. He had two younger sisters and Leticia; the family moved to New York in 1914. Ferrer studied at the Swiss boarding school Institut Le Rosey. In 1933, Ferrer completed his bachelor's degree in architecture at Princeton University, where he wrote his senior thesis on "French Naturalism and Pardo Bazán". Ferrer was a member of the Princeton Triangle Club and played piano in a band, "José Ferrer and His Pied Pipers". Ferrer studied Romance languages at Columbia University for 1934-35. Ferrer's first professional appearance as an actor was at a "showboat" theater on Long Island in the summer of 1934. In 1935 Ferrer was the stage manager at the Suffern Country Playhouse, operated by Joshua Logan who Ferrer had known at Princeton. Ruth Gordon and Helen Hayes recommended him to Jed Harris. Ferrer made his Broadway debut in 1935 in A Slight Case of Murder, he could be seen in Stick-in-the-Mud and Spring Dance.
Ferrer's first big success was in Brother Rat. In Clover only ran for 3 performances. How to Get Tough About It had a short run, as did Missouri Legend. Mamba's Daughters ran for 163 performances. Ferrer followed it with Key Largo with Paul Muni and directed by Guthrie McClintic, which went for 105 shows and was turned into a film. Ferrer had a huge personal success in the title role of Charley's Aunt in drag, under the direction of Joshua Logan, it went for 233 performances. Ferrer replaced Danny Kaye in the revue Let's Face It!. Ferrer made his debut on Broadway as director with Vickie in which he starred, it only had a short run. He played Iago in Margaret Webster's Broadway production of Othello, which starred Paul Robeson in the title role, Webster as Emilia, Ferrer's wife, Uta Hagen, as Desdemona; that production still holds the record for longest-running repeat performance of a Shakespearean play presented in the United States, going for 296 performances.. Ferrer directed, but did not appear in, Strange Fruit, starring Mel Ferrer.
Among other radio roles, Ferrer starred as detective Philo Vance in a 1945 series of the same name. Ferrer may be best remembered for his performance in the title role of Cyrano de Bergerac, which he first played on Broadway in 1946. Ferrer feared that the production would be a failure in rehearsals, due to the open dislike for the play by director Mel Ferrer, so he called in Joshua Logan to serve as "play doctor" for the production. Logan wrote that he had to eliminate pieces of business which director Ferrer had inserted in his staging; the production became one of the hits of the 1946/47 Broadway season, winning Ferrer the first Best Actor Tony Award for his depiction of the long-nosed poet/swordsman. Ferrer did not appear in, As We Forgive Our Debtors, which ran 5 performances. There was another short run for Volpone which Ferrer played the title role. Ferrer made his film debut in the Technicolor epic Joan of Arc as the weak-willed Dauphin opposite Ingrid Bergman as Joan. Ferrer's performance earned him an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actor.
At the City Centre, he acted in revivals of Angel Street and The Alchemist and directed S. S. Glencairn and The Insect Comedy. Ferrer had another Broadway hit with The Silver Whistle, he performed two shows for The Philco-Goodyear Television Playhouse on TV in 1949: Cyrano, playing the title role, an adaptation of What Makes Sammy Run?, playing Sammy Glick. Ferrer returned to Hollywood to appear in Otto Preminger's Whirlpool, supporting Gene Tierney, Richard Brooks' Crisis, opposite Cary Grant. Ferrer played the title role in Cyrano de Bergerac, directed by Michael Gordon and produced by Stanley Kramer. Ferrer won the Best Actor Oscar; the film was seen although it lost money. Ferrer returned to Broadway for a revival of Twentieth Century which he directed and starred in, opposite Gloria Swanson. Ferrer produced and directed, but did not appear in, Stalag 17, a big hit running for 472 performances. More popular was The Fourposter in which he
Elia Kazan was a Greek-American director, producer and actor, described by The New York Times as "one of the most honored and influential directors in Broadway and Hollywood history". He was born in Constantinople. After attending Williams College and the Yale School of Drama, he acted professionally for eight years joining the Group Theatre in 1932, co-founded the Actors Studio in 1947. With Robert Lewis and Cheryl Crawford, his actors' studio introduced "Method Acting" under the direction of Lee Strasberg. Kazan acted including City for Conquest. Noted for drawing out the best dramatic performances from his actors, he directed 21 actors to Oscar nominations, resulting in nine wins, he directed a string of successful films, including A Streetcar Named Desire, On the Waterfront, East of Eden. During his career, he won two Oscars as Best Director, three Tony Awards, four Golden Globes, he received an Honorary Oscar. His films were concerned with social issues of special concern to him. Kazan writes, "I don't move unless I have some empathy with the basic theme."
His first such "issue" film was Gentleman's Agreement, with Gregory Peck, which dealt with anti-Semitism in America. It received 3 wins, including Kazan's first for Best Director, it was followed by Pinky, one of the first films in mainstream Hollywood to address racial prejudice against black people. In 1954, he directed On the Waterfront, a film about union corruption on the New York harbor waterfront. A Streetcar Named Desire, an adaptation of the stage play which he had directed, received 12 Oscar nominations, winning 4, was Marlon Brando's breakthrough role. In 1955, he directed John Steinbeck's East of Eden. A turning point in Kazan's career came with his testimony as a witness before the House Committee on Un-American Activities in 1952 at the time of the Hollywood blacklist, which brought him strong negative reactions from many liberal friends and colleagues, his testimony helped end the careers of former acting colleagues Morris Carnovsky and Art Smith, along with ending the work of playwright Clifford Odets.
Kazan justified his act by saying he took "only the more tolerable of two alternatives that were either way painful and wrong." Nearly a half-century his anti-Communist testimony continued to cause controversy. When Kazan was awarded an honorary Oscar in 1999, dozens of actors chose not to applaud as 250 demonstrators picketed the event. Kazan influenced the films of the 1950s and 1960s with issue-driven subjects. Director Stanley Kubrick called him, "without question, the best director we have in America, capable of performing miracles with the actors he uses." Film author Ian Freer concludes that "if his achievements are tainted by political controversy, the debt Hollywood—and actors everywhere—owes him is enormous." In 2010, Martin Scorsese co-directed the documentary film A Letter to Elia as a personal tribute to Kazan. Elia Kazan was born in the Fener district of Istanbul, to Cappadocian Greek parents from Kayseri in Anatolia, he arrived with his parents and Athena Kazantzoglou, to the United States on 8 July 1913.
He was named after Elia Kazantzoglou. His maternal grandfather was Isaak Shishmanoglou. Elia's brother, was born in Berlin and became a psychiatrist. Kazan was raised in the Greek Orthodox religion, attended Greek Orthodox services every Sunday, where he had to stand for several hours with his father, his mother did not go to church. When Kazan was about eight years old, the family moved to New Rochelle, New York, his father sent him to a Roman Catholic catechism school because there was no Orthodox church nearby; as a young boy, he was remembered as being shy, his college classmates described him as more of a loner. Much of his early life was portrayed in his autobiographical book, America America, which he made into a film in 1963. In it, he describes his family as "alienated" from both their parents' Greek Orthodox values and from those of mainstream America, his mother's family were cotton merchants who imported cotton from England, sold it wholesale. His father had become a rug merchant after emigrating to the United States, expected that his son would go into the same business.
After attending public schools through high school, Kazan enrolled at Williams College in Massachusetts, where he helped pay his way by waiting tables and washing dishes. He worked as a bartender at various fraternities, but never joined one. While a student at Williams, he earned the nickname "Gadg," for Gadget, because, he said, "I was small and handy to have around." The nickname was taken up by his stage and film stars. In America America he tells how, why, his family left Turkey and moved to America. Kazan notes, he says during an interview that "it's all true: the wealth of the family was put on the back of a donkey, my uncle still a boy, went to Istanbul... to bring the family there to escape the oppressive circumstances... It's true that he lost the money on the way, when he got there he swept rugs in a little store."Kazan notes some of the controversial aspects of what he put in the film. He writes "I used to say to myself when I was making the film that America was a dream of total freedom in all areas."
To make his point, the character who portrays Kazan's uncle Avraam kisses