Nysted is a town in Guldborgsund municipality in Region Sjælland on the southeastern coast of the island of Lolland in south Denmark. The town of Nysted is located on the southern coast of Lolland, the town and harbour originated during the Middle Ages near Aalholm Castle and a Franciscan cloister. The town was a crossroads for commerce and traffic on account of its having the only natural harbour on the south coast of Lolland. During this time Lolland, and especially its southern coast, was vulnerable to attack by Wends, proximity to the castle was a great advantage to the people who lived there, but protection meant that they belonged to the castle. In 1409 they were liberated when Eric of Pomerania gave Nysted merchant town status and this was re-established by King Christian II in 1513. Like other merchant towns the citizens of Nysted joined in on Christian IIs side in the Counts Feud, the castle was overtaken by Count Christoffer, who held it for two years. The towns coastal advantage as a natural harbour disappeared with the advent of the railroad, the massive Aalholm Castle, built ca.
1200, dominates the view from the harbour at Nysted, for over 1,000 years this stronghold has tried to protected the towns citizens. It is one of the oldest, preserved Middle Ages fortresses in Denmark, the castle has been enlarged several times, most recently in 1889. The castle was sold to the Raben-Levetzau family in 1725, who owned the property until 1995 when it was sold privately and it is owned today by the estate of the late Stig Husted Andersen. There is no entrance to the castle itself, but access is available to the park, the Aalholm Automobile Museum is now closed, and all the cars are sold. Until January 1,2007 Nysted was a municipality in the former Storstrøm County, the municipality covered an area of 142 km², and had a total population of 5,417. Its last mayor was Lennart Andersen, a member of the Social Democrats political party, Nysted municipality ceased to exist as the result of Kommunalreformen. It was merged with Nykøbing Falster, Nørre Alslev, Sakskøbing, Stubbekøbing and this created a municipality with an area of 907 km² and a total population of 63,533
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
It covers an area of 903.15 km² and has a total population of 61,007. Its neighboring municipalities are Lolland to the west and Vordingborg to the north and its administrative seat is in the town of Nykøbing Falster. Its mayor as of 2010 is John Brædder from the local party New Guldborgsund, the municipality has the southernmost point in Denmark, Gedser Odde. In Nysted is Aalholm, which is a privately owned castle, fuglsang Art Museum holds notable collection of Danish art from the end of the 18th century until today. In Marielyst on eastern Falster are a summer house area. Guldborgsund municipalitys official website Municipal statistics, NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD aka Kommunedata Municipal mergers and neighbors, Eniro new municipalities map
At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, reducing the number of municipalities from 271 before 1 January 2006, when Ærø Municipality was created, to 98. The reform was implemented in Denmark on January 1,2007, Zealand Region consists of the former counties of Roskilde, Storstrøm, and Vestsjælland. The region is named after the island of Zealand, which it shares with the neighbouring Danish Capital Region, Zealand Region includes the adjacent islands of Lolland, and Møn. Media related to Region Sjælland at Wikimedia Commons
Rail freight transport
Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers. Trains may haul bulk material, intermodal containers, general freight or specialized freight in purpose-designed cars, Rail freight practices and economics vary by country and region. When considered in terms of ton-miles or tonne-kilometers hauled per unit of energy consumed, maximum economies are typically realized with bulk commodities, especially when hauled over long distances. However, shipment by rail is not as flexible as by highway, moving goods by rail often involves transshipment costs, particularly when the shipper or receiver lack direct rail access. These costs may exceed that of operating the train itself, a factor that practices such as containerization aim to minimize. Traditionally, large shippers build factories and warehouses near rail lines and have a section of track on their property called a siding where goods are loaded onto or unloaded from rail cars, other shippers have their goods hauled by wagon or truck to or from a goods station.
When long enough, or based on a schedule, each long distance train is dispatched to another classification yard. At the next classification yard, cars are resorted and those that are destined for stations served by that yard are assigned to local trains for delivery. Others are reassembled into trains heading to classification yards closer to their final destination, a single car might be reclassified or switched in several yards before reaching its final destination, a process that made rail freight slow and increased costs. Many freight rail operators are trying to reduce costs by reducing or eliminating switching in classification yards through techniques such as unit trains. In many countries, railroads have been built to haul one commodity, such as coal or ore, Rail freight uses many types of goods wagon or freight car. Most coal and aggregates are moved in wagons or gondolas or open wagons that can be filled and discharged rapidly. A major disadvantage of rail freight is its lack of flexibility, in part for this reason, rail has lost much of the freight business to road transport.
Many governments are now trying to encourage more freight trains, because of the environmental benefits that it would bring. Compared tо road transport whісh employs thе uѕе оf trucks, rail transportation ensures thаt goods thаt соuld оthеrwіѕе bе transported оn а number оf trucks аrе transported іn а single shipment, thіѕ saves а lot аѕ fаr аѕ cost connected tо thе transportation аrе concerned. In Europe many manufacturing towns developed before the railway, many factories did not have direct rail access. This meant that freight had to be shipped through a station, sent by train. When lorries replaced horses it was economic and faster to make one movement by road
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Nagelsti is a village in Guldborgsund Municipality on the Danish island of Lolland some 4 km southwest of Nykøbing. As of 2015, it has a population of 508, a chestnut tree planted in 1834 stands at the centre of the village. The Nagelsti Dolmen, some 2 km east of the village, the Nagelsti Elektrisitetsværk was opened in 1912. The Priorskov-Flintehorne area between the village and the coast is noted for its wild celery and especially its bird life with ducks, swans, the Skejten nature reserve, located between Nagelsti and Kettinge, features oak trees up to 350 years old. Paintings of Skejten by Olaf Rude now decorate the Folketing debating chamber in Copenhagen
Sugar beet is the Altissima Group of cultivars of the common beet. It is a plant whose root contains a concentration of sucrose. Sugar beets and other cultivars, such as beetroot and chard, are members of Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris and share a common ancestor, the Sea beet. In 2013, France, the United States, however, in 2010–2011, North America, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe did not produce enough sugar from sugar beets to meet overall demand for sugar, and were all net importers of sugar. The US harvested 1,004,600 acres of beets in 2008. In 2009, sugar accounted for 20% of the worlds sugar production. The sugar beet has a conical, fleshy root with a flat crown, the plant consists of the root and a rosette of leaves. Sugar is formed by photosynthesis in the leaves, and is stored in the root. The root of the beet contains 75% water, about 20% sugar, Sugar is the primary value of sugar beet as a cash crop. The pulp, insoluble in water and mainly composed of cellulose, lignin, the byproducts of the sugar beet crop, such as pulp and molasses, add another 10% to the value of the harvest.
Sugar beets grow exclusively in the zone, in contrast to sugarcane. The average weight of sugar beet ranges between 0.5 and 1 kg, Sugar beet foliage has a rich, brilliant green color and grows to a height of about 35 cm. The leaves are numerous and broad and grow in a tuft from the crown of the beet, modern sugar beets date back to mid-18th century Silesia where the king of Prussia subsidised experiments aimed at processes for sugar extraction. In 1747 Andreas Marggraf isolated sugar from beetroots and found them at concentrations of 1. 3–1. 6% and he demonstrated that sugar could be extracted from beets that was the same as that produced from sugarcane. His student, Franz Karl Achard, evaluated 23 varieties of mangelwurzel for sugar content and selected a strain from Halberstadt in modern-day Saxony-Anhalt. Moritz Baron von Koppy and his son further selected from this strain for white, the selection was named Weiße Schlesische Zuckerrübe, meaning white Silesian sugar beet, and boasted about a 6% sugar content.
This selection is the progenitor of all modern sugar beets, a royal decree led to the first factory devoted to sugar extraction from beetroots being opened in Kunern, Silesia in 1801
Frederick IX Bridge
The Frederik IX bridge spans the Guldborgsund strait between the islands of Falster and Lolland in Denmark. It joins the larger part of Nykøbing Falster with the part of the town on Lolland. It is 295m long and 25m wide and was constructed between 1960 and 1962, opening officially on 14 May 1963, the bridge has a central 20m span with two bascules, both on the eastern side of the bridge. One carries four lanes of traffic while the other carries a rail link. The two parts normally operate together, the bridge is manned during the day and opened on request for passing ships, but may only be opened once every half-hour. It is planned for the bridge to be re-equipped for automatic operation, the bascules consist of a long bridge span and a short counterweight section. Each bascule is supported by two bearings, one either side. Two motors, one side of the bridge, turn shafts passing through the centre of the pivot bearings. Further shafts take power to the rear of the counterweights, where there are pinions pressing against a rack mounted in the wall of the counterweight chamber, danish national road 9 Bridge data Frederik den IXs Bro at Structurae History of the bridge
Jutland, known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula, is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and the northern portion of Germany. The names are derived from the Jutes and the Cimbri, jutlands terrain is relatively flat, with open lands, heaths and peat bogs in the west and a more elevated and slightly hilly terrain in the east. Jutland is a peninsula bounded by the North Sea to the west, the Skagerrak to the north and historically, Jutland comprises the regions of South Jutland, West Jutland, East Jutland and North Jutland. There are several subdivisions and regional names, some of which are still occasionally encountered today. They include Nørrejyllland, Sydvestjylland and Slesvig, Jutland was regulated by the Law Code of Jutland. This civic code covered the Jutland Peninsula from the north of the River Eider to Funen as well as the North Jutlandic Island. The Danish part of Jutland is currently divided into three regions, North Denmark Region, Central Denmark Region and Region of Southern Denmark.
These three regions have an area of 29,775 km2, a population of 2,599,104. The northernmost part of Jutland is separated from the mainland by the Limfjord and this area is called the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel-Thy or simply Jutland north of the Limfjord, it is only partly co-terminous with the North Jutland region. Inhabitants of Als would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not necessarily Jutlanders, the Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight. Jutland has historically been one of the three lands of Denmark, the two being Scania and Zealand. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons, many Angles and Jutes migrated from Continental Europe to Great Britain starting in c.450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England and this is thought by some to be related to the invasion of Europe by the Huns from Asia. Saxons and Frisii migrated to the region in the part of the Christian era.
Old Saxony was on referred to as Holstein, during the First World War, the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea west of Jutland was one of the largest naval battles in history. In this pitched battle, the British Royal Navy engaged the Imperial German Navy, the British fleet sustained greater losses, but remained in control of the North Sea, so in strategic terms, most historians regard Jutland either as a British victory or as indecisive. The distinctive Jutish dialects differ substantially from standard Danish, especially West Jutlandic, dialect usage, although in decline, is better preserved in Jutland than in eastern Denmark, and Jutlander speech remains a stereotype among many Copenhageners and eastern Danes. Administratively, Danish Jutland comprises three of Denmarks five regions, namely the Region Nordjylland, Region Midtjylland and the half of Region of Southern Denmark