Condesa or La Condesa is a district in the Cuauhtémoc Borough of Mexico City, south of the Zona Rosa and 4 to 5 km west of the Zócalo, the citys main square. It consists of three colonias or officially recognized neighborhoods, Colonia Condesa, Colonia Hipódromo and Colonia Hipódromo Condesa, the area is considered to be fashionable and popular with younger businesspeople, artists and intellectuals. It features a number of international restaurants and nightclubs, despite the fact that it is mostly residential. Condesa and neighboring Colonia Roma were together designated as a Barrio Mágico Turístico by the city in 2011, the Condesa as a whole, consisting of the three colonias, is bordered by, Av. Michoacán Colonia Hipódromo Condesa lies west of Av, by the 19th century and early 20th century, the process of subdividing this land was already begun although Colonia Condesa proper would not be established until the very early 20th century. Condesa is considered to be one of the most fashionable, especially among young businesspeople, artists and its character has been compared to that of SoHo in New York and the Latin Quarter in Paris.
Its avenues are wide and lined with trees and it is mostly residential but filled with restaurants, cafés, boutiques and art galleries. Most of the bars and cafes are concentrated along Amsterdam and Michoacán avenues, while the area has been residential for over 100 years, its “Bohemian” character has only been in existence since late 1980s. While longtime residents complain about noise and other disturbances, most of these residents are young and affluent, with only two of the areas 13 K-8 schools being public. Many residents, especially the ones, call themselves condechis. Condesa has a number of examples of older Art Deco and Art Nouveau architecture, as well as modern designs. Many buildings date back to the 1920s, such is the case of the Condesa DF hotel, housed in a 1928 apartment complex, many of the art deco buildings are by architect Francisco J. Serrano. In addition, some new apartment buildings have built on the sites of former houses. Los Edificios Condesa are often simply called “Los Condesa” and this complex occupies an entire city block bordered by Mazatlán, Agustin Melgar and Juan de la Barrera Streets, divided only by one small private road.
This was the first luxury apartment complex to be built in the neighborhood, construction started in 1911 by English developer George W. Cook, with a total of 170 apartments. La Panadería is an establishment whose name means “the bakery”, they do not sell bread but a noted alternative art space where performance pieces and many temporary exhibits can be seen. Its name comes from a former Jewish bakery that was on the site, the Edificio Basurto is an Art Deco building which is noted for its used of curved and straight lines in its form. It was built on irregularly shaped land which used to be the garden of a man named Basurto, others built the structure but he authorized the use of his name
Mexico City, or City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an alpha global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas and it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities, the 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The Greater Mexico City has a domestic product of US$411 billion in 2011. The city was responsible for generating 15. 8% of Mexicos Gross Domestic Product, as a stand-alone country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America—five times as large as Costa Ricas and about the same size as Perus. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, Mexico City served as the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire.
After independence from Spain was achieved, the district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them, in recent years, the local government has passed a wave of liberal policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage. On January 29,2016, it ceased to be called the Federal District and is now in transition to become the countrys 32nd federal entity, giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, as the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. According to legend, the Mexicas principal god, Huitzilopochtli indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco, when the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean.
After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the native peoples. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest, hoping to rule through him, the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, and they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died, the next king was Cuauhtémoc. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521, for three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island, the Spaniards practically razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order and he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown
First Lady of Mexico
First Lady of Mexico is the unofficial title of the wife of the President of Mexico. The post is highly ceremonial and in fact once caused controversy when it was thought that the First Lady took too much involvement in their husbands post. Angélica Rivera is the wife of current president Enrique Peña Nieto, maría Flores de Lascuráin, spouse of President Pedro Lascuráin, was Mexico and the worlds briefest ever First Lady, since her husband served as president for less than an hour. However, since the title is not official in Mexico, this fact is not actually acknowledged, the first lady is not an elected position, carries no official duties and brings no salary. Nonetheless, she attends many official ceremonies and functions of state either along with or in place of the president, there is a strict taboo against the First Lady holding outside employment while occupying the office. Usually the First Lady takes an important post as head of the Desarrollo Integral de la Familia, this did not occur during the Fox administration when First Lady Marta Sahagún founded the national philanthropic organization Vamos México.
Margarita Zavala, wife of Felipe Calderón, was a deputy from 2003 to 2006 and this is a list of the post-Revolutionary era First Ladies of Mexico. List of heads of state of Mexico Politics of Mexico
Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
The Panama-California Exposition of 1915 in San Diego, highlighting the work of architect Bertram Goodhue, is credited with giving the style national exposure. Embraced principally in California and Florida, the Spanish Colonial Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1915 and 1931, the antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to the Mediterranean Revival architectural style. The possibilities of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style were brought to the attention of architects attending late 19th and they integrated porticoes and colonnades influenced by Beaux Arts classicism as well. By the early years of the 1910s, architects in Florida had begun to work in a Spanish Colonial Revival style, Frederick H. Trimbles Farmers Bank in Vero Beach, completed in 1914, is a fully mature early example of the style. The city of St. Cloud, espoused the style both for homes and commercial structures and has a collection of subtle stucco buildings reminiscent of colonial Mexico.
Many of these were designed by architectural partners Ida Annah Ryan, the major location of design and construction in the Spanish Colonial Revival style was California, especially in the coastal cities. In 1915 the San Diego Panama-California Exposition, with architects Bertram Goodhue and Carleton Winslow Sr. popularized the style in the state and it is best exemplified in the California Quadrangle, built as the grand entrance to that Exposition. In the early 1920s, architect Lilian Jeannette Rice designed the style in the development of the town of Rancho Santa Fe in San Diego County, the city of Santa Barbara adopted the style to give it a unified Spanish character after widespread destruction in the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. Its County Courthouse is an example of the style. Real estate developer Ole Hanson favored the Spanish Colonial Revival style in his founding and development of San Clemente, the Pasadena City Hall, as well as the Sonoma and Beverly Hills City Halls are other notable civic examples in California.
Between 1922 and 1931, architect Robert H. Spurgeon constructed 32 Spanish colonial revival houses in Riverside California, many houses of this style can still be seen in the Colonia Nápoles, Condesa and Lomas de Chapultepec areas of Mexico City. By the time the United States liberated the Philippines from the Spaniards, American architects further developed this style in the Philippines, given the Philippines Spanish heritage, but at the same time modernizing the buildings with American amenities. The best example of the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture and California mission style is the famed Manila Hotel designed by William E. Parsons and built in 1909. Other examples exist throughout the country such as Gota de Leche, Paco Market, the majority of these buildings though were lost through earthquakes and most especially during World War II when the Americans bombed Manila to counter the Japanese. Mediterranean style became popular in places like Sydney suburbs Manly and Bondi in the 1920s and 1930s.
One variant, known as Spanish Mission or Hollywood Spanish, became popular as Australians saw films of, Spanish mission houses began to appear in the wealthier suburbs, the most famous being Boomerang, at Elizabeth Bay. The Plaza Theatre in Sydney is a cinema in the style. In the 1930s, numerous houses in Spanish Revival style were built in Shanghai, although Shanghai was not culturally linked to the Spanish-speaking world, these buildings were probably inspired by Hollywood movies, which were highly influential in the city at the time
Golden Age of Mexican cinema
The Mexican film industry became the center of commercial films in Latin America. The Golden Age began symbolically with the film Vámonos con Pancho Villa, in 1939, during World War II, the film industry in the US and Europe decline, because the materials previously destined for film production now were for the new arms industry. Many countries began to focus on making films about war, leaving the opportunity to Mexico, to commercial films for the Mexican. This cultural environment favored the emergence of a new generation of directors and actors considered to date, icons in Mexico and in Hispanic countries, in 1939 Europe and the United States they participated in the World War II, and the film industries of these regions were severely affected. Europe due to its location and the United States because the used to produce films. In 1942, when German submarines destroyed a Mexican tanker, Mexico joined the Allies in the war against Germany, Mexico won the status of most favored nation. Thus, the Mexican film industry found new sources of materials and equipment, in the early 1940s began the emergence of great Mexican film studios settled in Mexico City, they begin to support the mass production of films.
Among the most important are CLASA Films, FILMEX, Films Mundiales, Cinematográfica Calderón, Películas Rodriguez and Producciones Mier y Brooks, the Mexican cinema continued to perform works of superb quality and began to explore other genres like comedy and musical. In 1943, the film Wild Flower, brought together a team comprising the filmmaker Emilio Fernández, the photographer Gabriel Figueroa. The films María Candelaria and The Pearl, were considered works summit Fernandez and his team, María Candelaria was awarded in 1946 with the Golden Palm in the Cannes Film Festival. The Pearl was awarded the Golden Globe of the American film industry, the Mexican cinema in its Golden Age, mimicked the Star System that prevailed in Hollywood. Among the figures reached the level of idols in the Mexican cinema. Trying to explain the phenomenon Pedro Infante is, at this point and his first films were not aimed toward creating a myth. The result of his meeting with the director Ismael Rodríguez in the film Nosotros los pobres, for many, Infante represented what every Mexican should be, a dutiful son, an unconditional friend, a romantic lover.
In the extensive gallery of stars of Mexican cinema Pedro Infante is the one who could unify public sentiment. His popularity has continued to grow as new generations are added and his figure remains the most important in Mexican cinema. Other of the early mass idols in Mexican cinema was Jorge Negrete, in addition to his role as an actor, Negrete was a prominent singer and one of the leading representatives of Mexican ranchera music. Negrete was one of the highest grossing actors of Latin American Cinema during almost the entire decade of the 1940s and his premature death caused one of the first collective chaos in Mexico
The Mexican peso is the currency of Mexico. Modern peso and dollar currencies have a origin in the 15th–19th century Spanish dollar, most continuing to use its sign. The Mexican peso is the 8th most traded currency in the world, the third most traded currency originating from the Americas, the current ISO4217 code for the peso is MXN, prior to the 1993 revaluation, the code MXP was used. The peso is subdivided into 100 centavos, represented by ¢, as of March 31,2017, the pesos exchange rate was $19.94 per Euro and $18.71 per U. S. dollar. The name was used in reference to pesos oro or pesos plata. The Spanish word peso means weight, the peso was originally the name of the eight-real coins issued in Mexico by Spain. These were the so-called Spanish dollars or pieces of eight in wide circulation in the Americas, in 1863, the first issue was made of coins denominated in centavos, worth one hundredth of the peso. This was followed in 1866 by coins denominated one peso, coins denominated in reales continued to be issued until 1897.
In 1905, the content of the peso was reduced by 49. 3%. However, from 1918 onward, the weight and fineness of all the coins declined, until 1977. On January 1,1993 the Bank of Mexico introduced a new currency, one new peso, or N$1.00, was equal to 1000 of the obsolete MXP pesos. The ISO4217 code, remained unchanged as MXN, thanks to the stability of the Mexican economy and the growth in foreign investment, the Mexican peso is now among the 15 most traded currency units in recent years. The first coins of the currency were 1 centavo pieces minted in 1863. Emperor Maximilian, ruler of the Second Mexican Empire from 1864–1867 and his portrait was on the obverse, with the legend Maximiliano Emperador, the reverse shows the imperial arms and the legends Imperio Mexicano and 1 Peso and the date. They were struck from 1866 to 1867, the New Mexican republic continued to strike the 8 reales piece, but began minting coins denominated in centavos and pesos. In addition to copper 1 centavo coins, silver coins of 5,10,25 and 50 centavos and 1 peso were introduced between 1867 and 1869, gold 1, 2½,5,10 and 20-peso coins were introduced in 1870.
The obverses featured the Mexican eagle and the legend Republica Mexicana, the reverses of the larger coins showed a pair of scales, those of the smaller coins, the denomination. One-peso coins were made from 1865 to 1873, when 8 reales coins resumed production, in 1882, cupro-nickel 1,2 and 5 centavos coins were issued but they were only minted for two years
Zhenli Ye Gon
Zhenli Ye Gon is a Chinese-Mexican businessman currently under suspicion of trafficking pseudoephedrine or ephedrine precursor chemicals into Mexico from Asia. He is the owner and legal representative of Unimed Pharm Chem México and ephedrine products at the time were widely used in over-the-counter cold medications such as Sudafed, but could be used by manufacturers of methamphetamine. Audits conducted by Mexican officials between 2002-06 at Unimed showed no improprieties such as improper diversion of any such chemicals, only 4 of Unimeds 291 imported shipments into Mexico have ever been questioned. Two years later, the U. S. case was dismissed with prejudice by The United States District Court for the District of Columbia, in August 2009. He is claimed to be a member of the Sinaloa Cartel, a charge that Mr. Ye Gon and he became a citizen of Mexico in 2002 and was recognized as a wealthy business owner in Mexico before these allegations of wrongdoing arose. Ye Gon is currently incarcerated in the United States and is fighting extradition to Mexico, Federal agents arrested him in a Wheaton, Maryland restaurant on July 23,2007.
From the date of his arrest, Mr. Ye Gon has always maintained that he is not guilty, with the consent of Mexican officials, this large quantity of pseudoephedrine products was sold in compliance with the Mexican governments directions. During his U. S. proceedings, Mr. Ye Gon, who is not a chemist, that the imported substances were legal chemicals not controlled or restricted under Mexican law. Samples taken from the four challenged shipments by Mexican officials were never turned over to U. S. authorities for independent testing, as Mr. Ye Gons U. S. defense counsel had requested. The U. S. prosecutor reported that the government was told that the samples from the first two intermediate shipments sampled had been used up in the laboratory analysis. The fourth shipment had been seized by Mexican officials in its entirety, questions have been raised by Mr. Ye Gons defense experts about the methodology of the earlier testing of these samples conducted in Mexicos laboratories. During Mr. Ye Gons U. S. prosecution, the lead U.
S, I dont want the Court to think thats what Im saying because Im not saying that. What Im saying is that other kinds of testimony. Mr. Ye Gon was scheduled to go to trial on his U. S. charge in September 2009. On June 22,2009, the U. S. Department of Justice filed a motion to dismiss its case against Mr. Ye Gon, at a hearing on the same day, prosecutors admitted that one of their key witnesses had recanted. His criminal defense attorneys, Manuel J. Retureta, of Retureta & Wassem, PLLC, eduardo Balarezo vigorously litigated this Brady issue before the Honorable Emmet G. Sullivan. As a result of the efforts of Messrs and Balarezo, all charges brought against Mr. Ye Gon by the government of the United States were dismissed with prejudice on August 28,2009. Mexico just snubbed the United States, in March 2010, Mr. Ye Gon retained the services of lawyer Gregory S. Smith
Historic center of Mexico City
The Zocalo is the largest plaza in Latin America. It can hold up to nearly 100,000 people and this section of the capital has just over nine square km and occupies 668 blocks. It contains 9,000 buildings,1,550 of which have been declared of historical importance, Most of these historic buildings were constructed between the 16th and 20th centuries. It is divided into two zones for preservation purposes, zone A encompasses the pre-Hispanic city and its expansion from the Viceroy period until Independence. Zone B covers the areas all other constructions to the end of the 19th century that are considered indispensable to the preservation of the architectural and cultural heritage. This is where the Spaniards began to build what is now modern Mexico City in the 16th century on the ruins of the conquered Tenochtitlan and this has made it a World Heritage Site. What is now the downtown of Mexico City roughly correlates with the ancient Aztec city of Tenochtitlan. During the prehispanic era, the city developed in a fashion, with streets and canals aligned with the cardinal directions.
The calpullis were named Cuepopan, Atzacualco and Zoquipan, which had subdivisions, the intersection of these roads was the center of the city and of the Aztec world. Here were the Templo Mayor, the palaces of the tlatoani or emperors, palaces of nobles such as the House of the Demons, located here were the two most renowned Aztec schools, the Telpuchcalli for secular studies and the Calmecac for priestly training. When the Spaniards arrived, the city had built by Moctezuma Ilhuicamina. After the Spanish conquest, this remained largely intact, mostly due to the efforts of Alonso Garcia Bravo. This reconstruction conserved many of the main thoroughfares such as Tenayuca, renamed Vallejo, renamed México Tacuba, and Tepeyac, now called the Calzada de los Misterios. They kept major divisions of the city adding Christian prefixes to the such as San Juan Moyotla, Santa María Tlaquechiuacan, San Sebastián Atzacualco. In fact, most of the centro historicos is built with the rubble of the destroyed Aztec city, a number of people during this time, all Spaniards, accumulated vast wealth mostly through mining and commerce in the 17th and 18th centuries.
This wealth is reflected in the various mansions scattered in the such as the Palace of Iturbide. This house was built in the 16th century in Arab style, the Zócalo, or main plaza, has been a venue for fine and popular cultural events. Some example of events held here recently are Spencer Tunicks photo shoot, the Ashes and Snow Nomadic museum, the Festival de México is an annual event with programs dedicated to art and academia
Chapultepec, more commonly called the Bosque de Chapultepec in Mexico City, one of the largest city parks in the Western Hemisphere, measuring in total just over 686 hectares. Centered on a formation called Chapultepec Hill, one of the parks main functions is to be an ecological space in the vast megalopolis. It is considered the first and most important of Mexico Citys lungs, the park area has been inhabited and held as special since the Pre-Columbian era, when it became a retreat for Aztec rulers. In the colonial period, Chapultepec Castle would be built here and it would remain such until 1940, when it was moved to another part of the park called Los Pinos. Today, the park is divided into three sections, with the first section being the oldest and most visited and this section contains most of the parks attractions including its zoo, the Museum of Anthropology, the Rufino Tamayo Museum, and more. It receives an estimated 15 million visitors per year and this prompted the need for major rehabilitation efforts which began in 2005 and ended in 2010.
Chapultepec Park is the largest city park in Latin America, measuring in total just over 686 hectares and it is classed as one of the worlds great urban parks, along with Bois de Boulogne in Paris, the Imperial Gardens in Tokyo and Central Park in New York City. The name Chapultepec means at the hill in Nahuatl and refers to a large rock formation that is the center of the current parks first section. The park is divided into three sections, the first and oldest surrounded by fence and shut at night, and the two left open. It contains nine museums, amusement parks, winding paths, commemorative sculptures, Paseo de la Reforma passes most of the park and cuts through a portion on the north side. One of the main functions is to be an ecological space in the vast megalopolis. It is considered the first and most important of Mexico Citys lungs and it is a large unpaved area that allows for aquifer recharge, ameliorates the heat-island effect, and attracts rain. It is a refuge for birds from Canada, the U. S.
and other regions of Mexico, including the red-tailed falcon, the Harris falcon, wild ducks, geese. Anywhere from 38 to 60 species of birds can be found here including some native non migratory species such as the Yucatán canary and a type of heron called the water dog. The park is home to a number of Montezuma cypress, locally called ahuehuete trees, with some hundreds of years old. There are 165 other species, mostly in the third section and it is estimated by city authorities that 100 million pesos are needed annually to maintain the ecology of the park. For Mexico City residents, the park is valued as a cultural, the area has vestiges showing human presence as far back as the Toltecs with a number ruins from the pre-Columbian through to the colonial period. One notable site is the Baths of Moctezuma, which was a systems of tanks, the park received an estimated 15 million visitors each year, and daily visits have exceeded 250,000