City and South London Railway
The City and South London Railway was the first deep-level underground tube railway in the world, and the first major railway to use electric traction. When opened in 1890, the line had six stations and ran for 3.2 miles in a pair of tunnels between the City of London and Stockwell, passing under the River Thames. The diameter of the tunnels restricted the size of the trains, the railway was extended several times north and south, eventually serving 22 stations over a distance of 13.5 miles from Camden Town in north London to Morden in Surrey. Although the C&SLR was well used, low prices and the construction cost of the extensions placed a strain on the companys finances. In 1933, the C&SLR and the rest of the Underground Group was taken into public ownership, its tunnels and stations form the Bank Branch of the Northern line from Camden Town to Kennington and the southern leg of the line from Kennington to Morden. In November 1883, notice was given that a bill was to be presented to Parliament for the construction of the City of London & Southwark Subway.
The railway was to run from Elephant and Castle, in Southwark, south London, the tracks were to be in twin tunnels 10 ft 2 in in diameter, running for a distance of 1.25 miles. The bill received assent as the City of London and Southwark Subway Act,1884 on 28 July 1884. Section 5 of the Act stated, The works authorised by this Act are as follows, with Newington Butts and terminating at King William Street. The subway shall consist of two tubes for separate up and down traffic and shall be approached by means of staircases, in 1886, a further bill was submitted to Parliament to extend the tunnels south from Elephant and Castle to Kennington and Stockwell. The tunnels on this section were of a larger diameter –10 ft 6 in. Before the railway opened, a further bill received assent, granting permission to continue the line south to Clapham Common, the act was published on 25 July 1890 as the City and South London Railway Act,1890, effecting a change of the companys name. Like Greatheads earlier Tower Subway, the CL&SS was intended to be operated by cable haulage with an engine pulling the cable through the tunnels at a steady speed.
Section 5 of the 1884 Act specified that, The traffic of the subway shall be worked by, the system of the Patent Cable Tramway Corporation Limited or by such means other than steam locomotives as the Board of Trade may from time to time approve. However, the length of tunnel permitted by the supplementary acts challenged the practicality of the cable system. It is reported that this problem with the CL&SS contributed to the bankruptcy of the company in 1888. However, electric traction had been considered all along. So, CL&SS chairman Charles Grey Mott decided to switch to electric traction, other cable-operated systems using the Hallidie patents continued to be designed, such as the Glasgow Subway which opened in 1896
Sir Thomas Gresham, Thomas Gresham the Elder, was an English merchant and financier who acted on behalf of King Edward VI and Edwards half-sisters, queens Mary I and Elizabeth I. In 1565 Gresham founded the Royal Exchange in the City of London, the Government sought Greshams advice in all their money difficulties, and frequently employed him in various diplomatic missions. He had no stated salary, but in reward of his services received from King Edward various grants of lands, on the accession of Queen Mary in 1553 Gresham fell out of favour at Court for a short time with Alderman William Dauntsey displacing him. His enterprises made him one of the richest men of his generation in England, in the Rialto there, called Saint Marks, tis but a bauble, if compared to this. The nearest, that which most resembles this, is the great Burse in Antwerp, yet no comparable either in height or wideness, oh my Lord Mayor, this Gresham hath much graced your City of London, his fame will long outlive him. In 1544 he married Anne Ferneley, widow of Sir William Read, by his wife he had an only son who predeceased him.
He had a daughter who married Sir Nathaniel Bacon, half-brother of Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, becoming Anne. Gresham died suddenly, apparently of apoplexy, on 21 November 1579 and was buried at St Helens Church, Gresham College, the first institution of higher learning in London, came to be established in 1597. Greshams Law takes its name from him because he urged Queen Elizabeth to restore the debased currency of England. However, Sir Thomas never formulated anything like Greshams Law, which was the 1857 conception of Henry Dunning Macleod, the Faneuil Hall at Boston, has borrowed this heraldic device. The Gresham coat of arms is blazoned, Argent, a Chevron Erminés between three Mullets pierced Sable, although a beautiful story, it is more likely that the grasshopper is simply a canting heraldic crest playing on the sound grassh- and Gresh-. The Gresham family uses as its motto Fiat Voluntas Tua, Gresham appears as a background figure in a series of fictional mystery novels by the British author Valerie Anand writing under the pen-name of Fiona Buckley.
The fictional heroine of the stories, Ursula Blanchard, lived in Antwerp with her first husband while he worked as one of Greshams agents, Gresham features as the central character of Herbert Strangs book On London River, A Story of the Days of Queen Elizabeth. List of multiple discoveries Titsey Place This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Gresham. The Life and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham by J. W. Burgon Sir Thomas Gresham by F. R. Salter Baynes, john William Burgon, The life and times of Sir Thomas Gresham comp. Chiefly from his correspondence preserved in Her Majestys state-paper office, including notices of many of his contemporaries, published 1839 by R. Jennings in London. John William Burgon The life and times of Sir Thomas Gresham Volume II, the Life and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham Gresham and Antwerp, Gresham College Magna Carta Ancestry, Douglas Richardson
Docklands Light Railway
The Docklands Light Railway is an automated light metro system opened in 1987 to serve the redeveloped Docklands area of London. It reaches north to Stratford, south to Lewisham, west to Tower Gateway and Bank in the City of London financial district, and east to Beckton, London City Airport and Woolwich Arsenal. The system uses minimal staffing on trains and at interchange stations. Similar proposals have made for the Tube. The DLR is operated under a franchise awarded by Transport for London to KeolisAmey Docklands and it was previously run for over 17 years by Serco Docklands, part of the Serco Group. The system is owned by Docklands Light Railway Ltd, part of the London Rail division of Transport for London, in Fiscal Year 2014, the DLR carried 110.2 million passengers. It has been extended several times and further extensions are under consideration, the docks immediately east of Central London began to decline in the early 1960s as cargo became containerised. They had been connected to the railway network via the London and Blackwall Railway.
The opening of the Tilbury container docks, further east in Essex, finally rendered them redundant, as early as 1972, consideration was given to how to redevelop the moribund Docklands. Travis Morgan & Partners were commissioned by the London Docklands Study Team to consider the issue, the Greater London Council formed a Docklands Joint Committee with the Boroughs of Greenwich, Newham and Tower Hamlets in 1974 to undertake the redevelopment of the area. A light railway system was envisaged, terminating either at Tower Hill tube station or at Fenchurch Street, but both options were seen as too expensive. This was intended to be the stage of the Fleet line – which had been renamed the Jubilee line. The government created the London Docklands Development Corporation in July 1981 to coordinate the redevelopment of the Docklands, the need to provide a cheap public transport solution led to it commissioning London Transport to evaluate a number of exclusively light rail options. The core of the route ran alongside the Great Eastern line out of London, three terminus options were proposed at the west end, at Tower Hill and Aldgate East.
The Tower Hill option would have required a low-level interchange to be constructed alongside the existing Underground station, the Minories option, a high-level station virtually on the site of the old Minories railway station, was selected and became the current Tower Gateway DLR terminus. However, it became apparent that there was no capacity on the existing network for integrating the DLR into the Underground. Two southern terminus options were put forward, at Cubitt Town and Tiller Road, on the west side of Millwall Dock, with two possible routes to reach them. The central option required the West India Docks to be infilled or bridged and would run down the middle of the peninsula, the contract for the initial system was awarded to GEC Mowlem in 1984 and the system was constructed from 1985 to 1987 at a cost of £77 million
General Post Office
The General Post Office was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier. Similar General Post Offices were established across the British Empire, in 1969 the GPO was abolished and the assets transferred to The Post Office, changing it from a Department of State to a statutory corporation. For the more recent history of the system in the United Kingdom, see the article Royal Mail. Originally, the GPO was a monopoly covering the despatch of items from a sender to a specific receiver. The postal service was known as the Royal Mail because it was built on the system for royal. In 1661 the office of Postmaster General was created to oversee the GPO, the GPO created a network of post offices where senders could submit items. All post was transferred from the post office of origination to distribution points called sorting stations, initially it was the recipient of the post who paid the fee, and he had the right to refuse to accept the item if he did not wish to pay.
The charge was based on the distance the item had been carried so the GPO had to keep an account for each item. The first general post office in London opened in 1643, just 8 years after King Charles I legalised use of the posts for private correspondence. It was probably on Cloak Lane near Dowgate Hill, coffee houses in the City such as Lloyds and Garraways organised private transport of mail among their patrons. The Royal Mail moved its headquarters to Lombard Street in the City in 1678 to better curtail such practices, when the Central London Railway was built in 1900 its nearby station was named Post Office. Smirkes building was felt to be too small by this time, however, in 1912, the former GPO East was demolished, the current headquarters of BT, a post World War II building, occupies the site of the old Telegraph Office. The theory was used to state control of the mail service into every form of electronic communication possible on the basis that every sender used some form of distribution service.
These distribution services were considered in law as forms of electronic post offices and this applied to telegraph and telephone switching stations. In the mid 19th century several private companies were established in the UK. The responsibility for the electric telegraphs was officially transferred to the GPO on Friday,4 February 1870, overseas telegraphs did not fall within the monopoly. The private telegraph companies that existed were bought out. The new combined telegraph service had 1,058 telegraph offices in towns,6,830,812 telegrams were transmitted in 1869 producing revenue of £550,000
Royal Exchange, London
The Royal Exchange in London was founded in the 16th century by the merchant Thomas Gresham on the suggestion of his factor Richard Clough to act as a centre of commerce for the City of London. The site was provided by the City of London Corporation and the Worshipful Company of Mercers and it is trapezoidal in shape and is flanked by Cornhill and Threadneedle Street, which converge at Bank junction in the heart of the City. The design was inspired by a bourse Gresham had seen in Antwerp and was Britains first specialist commercial building and it has twice been destroyed by fire and subsequently rebuilt. The present building was designed by William Tite in the 1840s, the site was notably occupied by the Lloyds insurance market for nearly 150 years. Today the Royal Exchange contains offices, luxury shops, and restaurants, the steps of the Royal Exchange is the place where Royal Proclamations are read out by either a herald or a crier. The Royal Exchange was officially opened on 23 January 1571 by Queen Elizabeth I who awarded the building its royal title, only the exchange of goods took place until the 17th century.
Stockbrokers were not allowed into the Royal Exchange because of their manners, hence they had to operate from other establishments in the vicinity. Greshams original building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666, a second complex was built on the site, designed by Edward Jarman and opened in 1669, but that burned down, on 10 January 1838. It had been used by the Lloyds insurance market, which was forced to move temporarily to South Sea House following the 1838 fire, the internal works, designed by Edward IAnson in 1837, made use of concrete—an early example of this modern construction method. It features pediment sculptures by Richard Westmacott, and ornamental cast ironwork by Henry Grissells Regents Canal Ironworks and it was opened by Queen Victoria on 28 October 1844 though trading did not commence until 1 January 1845. In June 1844, just before the reopening of the Royal Exchange, the bronze used to cast it was sourced from enemy cannons captured during Wellingtons continental campaigns.
Paul Julius Reuter established the Reuters news agency at No,1, Royal Exchange Buildings in 1851. It moved to Fleet Street, the western end of the building consists of a portico of eight Corinthian columns topped by a pediment containing a tympanum with a sculptured frieze by Richard Westmacott. The central figure represents Commerce, above an inscription from the Bible, The Earth is the Lords, the Latin inscription states that the Exchange was founded in the thirteenth year of Queen Elizabeth, and restored in the seventh of Queen Victoria. Two statues stand in niches in the central courtyard, Charles II a copy of 1792 by John Spiller after Grinling Gibbons statue in the centre of the C17 courtyard, and Queen Elizabeth I by M. L. The Charles II statue survived the fire of 1838 that destroyed the previous Exchange, the Elizabeth I statue was commissioned as she was the monarch who had conferred the status ‘Royal’ on the Exchange. From 1892, twenty-four scenes from Londons history were painted on the walls by artists including Sir Frederick Leighton, Sir Frank Brangwyn.
The murals run as a sequence, at the wars end, the building had survived the Blitz, albeit with some near misses
Londinium was a settlement established on the current site of the City of London around AD43. Its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, in the year 60 or 61, the rebellion of the Iceni under Boudica forced the garrison to abandon the settlement, which was razed. Following the Icenis defeat at the Battle of Watling Street, the city was rebuilt as a planned Roman town, during the decades of the 1st century, Londinium expanded rapidly, becoming Great Britains largest city. By the turn of the century, Londinium had grown to about 60,000 people, almost certainly replacing Camulodunum as the capital and by the 2nd century. Its forum and basilica were one of the largest structures north of the Alps, excavations have discovered evidence of a major fire that destroyed most of the city shortly thereafter, but the city was again rebuilt. By the second half of the 2nd century, Londinium appears to have shrunk in size and population. Although Londinium remained important for the rest of the Roman period, sometime between 190 and 225, the Romans built a defensive wall around the landward side of the city.
Along with Hadrians Wall and the network, this wall was one of the largest construction projects carried out in Roman Britain. The London Wall survived for another 1,600 years and broadly defined the perimeter of the old City of London, the etymology of the name Londinium is unknown. Following Geoffrey of Monmouths pseudohistorical History of the Kings of Britain, it was derived from an eponymous founder named Lud. There is no such a figure ever existed. Instead, the Latin name was based on a native Brittonic placename reconstructed as *Londinion. Morphologically, this points to a structure of two suffixes, -in-jo-, the Roman Londinium was not the immediate source of English London, as i-mutation would have caused the name to have been Lyndon. The list of the 28 Cities of Britain included in the 9th-century History of the Britons precisely notes London in Old Welsh as Cair Lundem or Lundein, the site guarded the Romans bridgehead on the north bank of the Thames and a major road nexus. It centered on Cornhill and the River Walbrook, but expanded west to Ludgate Hill, the Roman city ultimately covered at least the area of the City of London, whose boundaries are largely defined by its former wall.
Londiniums waterfront on the Thames ran from around Ludgate Hill in the west to the present site of the Tower in the east, the northern wall reached Bishopsgate and Cripplegate near the Museum of London, a course now marked by the street London Wall. Cemeteries and suburbs existed outside the city proper, a round temple has been located west of the city, although its dedication remains unclear. Substantial suburbs existed at St Martin-in-the-Fields in Westminster and around the end of the Thames bridge in Southwark
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, sawing, casting, the trade has very often included jewellery-making skills, as well as the very similar skills of the silversmith. Many universities and junior colleges offer goldsmithing, compared to other metals, gold is malleable, rare, and it is the only solid metallic element with a yellow color. It may easily be melted and cast without the problems of oxides and gas that are problematic with other such as bronzes. It is fairly easy to weld, wherein similarly to clay two small pieces may be pounded together to make one larger piece. Gold is classified as a noble metal—because it does not react with most elements and it usually is found in its native form, lasting indefinitely without oxidization and tarnishing. Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported, and the history of these activities is extensive.
Superbly made objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Europe, North America, some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths. Techniques developed by some of those goldsmiths achieved a level that was lost and remained beyond the skills of those who followed. In medieval Europe goldsmiths were organized into guilds and usually were one of the most important, the guild kept records of members and the marks they used on their products. These records, when they survive, are useful to historians. Goldsmiths often acted as bankers, since they dealt in gold and had sufficient security for the storage of valuable items. The Sunar caste is one of the oldest communities in goldsmithing in India, in India, Vishwakarma are the goldsmith caste. The printmaking technique of engraving developed among goldsmiths in Germany around 1430, the notable engravers of the fifteenth century were either goldsmiths, such as Master E. S. or the sons of goldsmiths, such as Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. A goldsmith might have an array of skills and knowledge at their disposal.
Gold, being the most malleable metal of all, offers opportunities for the worker. In todays world a variety of other metals, especially platinum alloys. 24 Carat is pure gold and historically, was known as fine gold, because it is so soft, however,24 Carat gold is rarely used
Fenchurch Street railway station
Fenchurch Street railway station, known as London Fenchurch Street, is a central London railway terminus in the southeastern corner of the City of London. It takes its name from its proximity to Fenchurch Street, a key thoroughfare in the City, the station and all trains are operated by c2c. The station opened in 1841 to serve the L&BR and was rebuilt in 1854 when the LTSR, the ECR operated trains out of Fenchurch Street to relieve congestion at its other London terminus at Bishopsgate. The line from the station was electrified in 1961, and controversially closed for seven weeks in 1994, Fenchurch Street is one of the smallest railway termini in London in terms of platforms, but one of the most intensively operated. It has no interchange with the London Underground. The station frontage is on Fenchurch Place, adjacent to Fenchurch Street in the City of London, the station has two entrances, one on Fenchurch Place and another on Coopers Row, near Tower Hill. It has four platforms arranged on two islands elevated on a viaduct, the station has been Grade II listed since 1972 and the conference venue One America Square is built adjacent to it.
Following privatisation in 1994, the station was run by Network Rail, since 1996, the station has been served by the National Express Groups c2c who have a franchise to run services until 2029. Fenchurch Street is in the central London Travelcard zone 1 like other stations in the city. The nearest is Tower Hill about 0.2 miles to the southeast, London Buses route 40 passes the station. Services from Fenchurch Street run towards East London and south Essex, including Barking, Chafford Hundred Lakeside, Tilbury Town Basildon, Southend Central, the typical off-peak service consists of eight trains per hour, During peak periods services are increased up to 20 tph. Most peak services have 12 cars, although the stations capacity is small compared to other London terminals, it has a high footfall, averaging around 16 million passengers annually. The area around Fenchurch Street is one of the oldest inhabited parts of London, the station was the first to be granted permission by the Corporation of London to be constructed inside the City of London, following several refusals against other railway companies.
The original building, designed by William Tite opened on 20 July 1841, serving the London and Blackwall Railway and it had two platforms connected via a stairway to the booking hall. Steam locomotives did not use the station until 1849 because before this time trains were dragged uphill from Blackwall to Minories, the reverse journey eastwards required a manual push from railway staff. William Marshalls railway bookstall established at the station in 1841 was the first to be opened in the City of London, following the opening of the London and Blackwall Extension Railway on 2 April 1849, services operated from Fenchurch Street to Bow & Bromley. Some were extended to Victoria Park & Bow where an interchange existed with the Eastern Counties Railway from Bishopsgate, the station had two heavily used platforms and a double track line from Stepney onwards. Following a reduced income at Blackwall, LBR shareholders voted to align with the ECR and jointly construct the London, services would split at Stratford, one service to Bishopsgate and the other to Fenchurch Street along the reopened line via Bow & Bromley
Bank of England
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694, it is the second oldest central bank in the world, after the Sveriges Riksbank, and it was established to act as the English Governments banker and is still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom. The Bank was privately owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalised in 1946, in 1998, it became an independent public organisation, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor on behalf of the government, with independence in setting monetary policy. The Banks Monetary Policy Committee has a responsibility for managing monetary policy. The Banks Financial Policy Committee held its first meeting in June 2011 as a macro prudential regulator to oversee regulation of the UKs financial sector, the Banks headquarters have been in Londons main financial district, the City of London, on Threadneedle Street, since 1734.
It is sometimes known by the metonym The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street or The Old Lady, the busy road junction outside is known as Bank junction. Until 2016, the bank provided banking services as a popular privilege for employees. Englands crushing defeat by France, the dominant naval power, in naval engagements culminating in the 1690 Battle of Beachy Head, England had no choice but to build a powerful navy. No public funds were available, and the credit of William IIIs government was so low in London that it was impossible for it to borrow the £1,200,000 that the government wanted. To induce subscription to the loan, the subscribers were to be incorporated by the name of the Governor, the Bank was given exclusive possession of the governments balances, and was the only limited-liability corporation allowed to issue bank notes. The lenders would give the government cash and issue notes against the government bonds, the £1. 2m was raised in 12 days, half of this was used to rebuild the navy.
This helped the new Kingdom of Great Britain – England and Scotland were formally united in 1707 – to become powerful, the power of the navy made Britain the dominant world power in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The establishment of the bank was devised by Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, the plan of 1691, which had been proposed by William Paterson three years before, had not been acted upon. The Royal Charter was granted on 27 July through the passage of the Tonnage Act 1694, the first governor was Sir John Houblon, who is depicted in the £50 note issued in 1994. The charter was renewed in 1742,1764, and 1781, the Bank moved to its current location in Threadneedle Street in 1734, and thereafter slowly acquired neighbouring land to create the edifice seen today. When the idea and reality of the National Debt came about during the 18th century, the 1844 Bank Charter Act tied the issue of notes to the gold reserves and gave the Bank sole rights with regard to the issue of banknotes.
Private banks that had previously had that right retained it, provided that their headquarters were outside London, a few English banks continued to issue their own notes until the last of them was taken over in the 1930s. Scottish and Northern Irish private banks still have that right, the bank acted as lender of last resort for the first time in the panic of 1866
King William Street, London
King William Street is a street in the City of London, the historic nucleus and modern financial centre of London. It is a two-way street linking Lombard Street, at its end, with London Bridge. King William Street continues south into London Bridge, the nearest London Underground stations are Bank and Monument, the former King William Street station was once sited on the road, at the corner of Monument Street. The road was built in 1829-35 and is named after the monarch of the time. Today, it houses a number of investment banks and City firms, rothschilds main London office occupies No. 1, a building constructed as the head office of the London Assurance Corporation on the site of the first clubhouse of the Gresham Club. Adelaide House, a Grade II listed building, is located at the far end of King William Street. Opposite and adjacent to the bridge is Fish Hall, the hall of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers. King William Street is mentioned in T. S. Eliots poem The Waste Land, lines 60–68 read, Unreal City, Under the brown fog of a winter dawn, A crowd flowed over London Bridge, so many, I had not thought death had undone so many.
Sighs and infrequent, were exhaled, And each man fixed his eyes before his feet, flowed up the hill and down King William Street, To where Saint Mary Woolnoth kept the hours With a dead sound on the final stroke of nine. At the time he wrote this section, Eliot was working for a bank in the City
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, before his accession to the throne, he served as heir apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. During the long reign of his mother, he was excluded from political power. He travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial duties, and represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, as king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War. He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised and he died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis that was resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords.
Edward was born at 10,48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace and he was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle and he was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the family throughout his life. As the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall, as a son of Prince Albert, he held the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 17 January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9 November 1858, and a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he renounced his rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of his younger brother. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were determined that their eldest son should have an education that would prepare him to be a constitutional monarch.
At age seven, Edward embarked on an educational programme devised by Prince Albert. Unlike his elder sister Victoria, Edward did not excel in his studies and he tried to meet the expectations of his parents, but to no avail. Although Edward was not a diligent student—his true talents were those of charm and tact—Benjamin Disraeli described him as informed, after the completion of his secondary-level studies, his tutor was replaced by a personal governor, Robert Bruce. After an educational trip to Rome, undertaken in the first few months of 1859, he spent the summer of that year studying at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, in October, he matriculated as an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford. Now released from the strictures imposed by his parents, he enjoyed studying for the first time
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S