City of London

The City of London is a city, county and a local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders; the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, it is a separate ceremonial county, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London, is the smallest county in the United Kingdom. The City of London is referred to as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is 1.12 sq mi in area. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being based in the City; the name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City.

London most denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888; the local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries; the Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from the Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, as of November 2019, is William Russel; the City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008; the insurance industry is focused around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists at Canary Wharf, 2.5 miles to the east.

The City has a resident population of 9,401 but over 500,000 are employed there, some estimates put the number of workers in the city to be over 1 million. About three-quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial and associated business services sectors; the legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary. Known as "Londinium", the Roman legions established a settlement on the current site of the City of London around AD 43, its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial."At its height, the Roman city had a population of 45,000–60,000 inhabitants.

Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. The Romans built the London Wall some time between AD 190 and 225; the boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londonium's Ludgate, the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londonium's shoreline north of the City's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as AD 50, near to today's London Bridge. By the time the London Wall was constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, it faced problems of plague and fire; the Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts and Saxon raiders; the decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, in AD 410 the Romans withdrew from Britain.

Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, after the formal withdrawal the city became uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic, a settlement to the west in the modern day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area. During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex and Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was under the control or threat of the Vikings. Bede records that in AD 604 St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 886, appointed his son-in-law Ea

Common gull

For the common gull butterfly, see Cepora nerissa. The common gull or sea mew is a medium-sized gull that breeds in northern Asia, northern Europe, northwestern North America; the North American subspecies is referred to as the mew gull, although that name is used by some authorities for the whole species. Many common gulls migrate further south in winter. There are differing accounts as to; the name "sea mew" originates from the Dutch name "zee meeuw" Adult common gulls are 40–46 cm long, noticeably smaller than the herring gull and smaller than the ring-billed gull. It is further distinguished from the ring-billed gull by its shorter, more tapered bill, a more greenish shade of yellow and is unmarked during the breeding season; the body is white below. The legs are greenish-yellow. In winter, the head is streaked grey and the bill has a poorly defined blackish band near the tip, sometimes sufficiently obvious to cause confusion with ring-billed gull, they have black wingtips with large white "mirrors".

Young birds have scaly black-brown upperparts and a neat wing pattern, grey legs. They take two to three years to reach maturity; the call is a high-pitched "laughing" cry. There are four subspecies, two of which are considered distinct species by some authorities: L. c. canus – Linnaeus, 1758 – common gull. Nominate, found in Europe and western Asia. Small. Wingspan 110–125 cm. Found in central northern Asia. Medium size. Mass 315–550 g. L. c. kamtschatschensis – Bonaparte, 1857. Found in northeastern Asia. Large. Mass 394–586 g. L. c. brachyrhynchus – Richardson, 1831. Found in Alaska and western Canada. Small. Wingspan 96–102 cm. Both common and mew gulls breed colonially near water or in marshes, making a lined nest on the ground or in a small tree. Three eggs are laid. Like most gulls, they will scavenge as well as hunt small prey; the global population is estimated to be about one million pairs. By contrast, the Alaskan population is only about 10,000 pairs; the common gull occurs as a scarce winter visitor to coastal eastern Canada and as a vagrant to the northeastern USA.

There is one recent record of a mew gull in Europe, on the Azores in 2003. The scientific name is from Latin. Larus appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird, canus is "grey"; the name "common gull" was coined by Thomas Pennant in 1768 because he considered it the most numerous of its genus. Others assert that the name does not indicate its abundance, but that during the winter it feeds on common land, short pasture used for grazing. John Ray earlier used the name common sea-mall, it is said. There are many old British regional names for this species variations on maa and mew. BirdLife species factsheet for Larus canus "Larus canus". Avibase. "Mew Gull media". Internet Bird Collection. Mew Gull photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Larus canus at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Mew gull on Xeno-canto. Larus canus in the Flickr: Field Guide Birds of the World Common gull media from ARKive


WFRD is a commercial FM radio station licensed to Hanover, New Hampshire. Owned and operated by Dartmouth Broadcasting, the WFRD studios are located on the Hanover campus of Dartmouth College; the station transmitter is located off Crafts Hill Road in New Hampshire. WFRD airs a mainstream rock radio format with classic rock tracks. In addition to a standard analog transmission, WFRD is available online via iHeartRadio and from its website; the station's playlist on weekdays is mainstream rock, plus alternative rock and classic rock titles. Weekday mornings feature Chris Garrett and the "Rock N Go Morning Show" and weekday afternoons are hosted by Heath Cole; the station's middays and weekends feature DJs who are students at Dartmouth College. The station provides hourly news and sports reports in morning drive time. In addition, special on air features include "The Happy Hour,". On weeknights, WFRD features alternative rock, active rock, classic rock plus the "99 Minute Nightmare," which features programming geared more towards heavy metal.

Monday through Friday, 99Rock airs. On weekends, WFRD focuses on specific genres of rock music or its roots, on public affairs or sports. "Valley Voices" is a 30-minute public affairs show that showcases various local events and news stories that airs Sunday mornings. "The Big Green Scene," airs Sunday mornings and concentrates on Dartmouth Sports, with highlights, interviews with coaches, more. Weekends include several syndicated programs including Harddrive with Lou Brutus, Rock Countdown with LA Lloyd, Skratch'N Sniff, The House of Hair with Dee Snider, Out of Order with Stryker, Racing Rocks with Riki Rachtman, Full Metal Jackie. On Sunday nights, WFRD features a two-hour show called "Homebrew," spotlighting local artists from around the region. Local acts are encouraged to submit their material for airplay; the show features in-studio interviews with local bands. WFRD is a commercial radio station and managed by Dartmouth Broadcasting, in turn owned by the Trustees of Dartmouth College. WFRD receives no funding from the college.

It supports itself by selling advertising. Student staff members are, for the most part, unpaid; the station is managed by a board composed of current students. It acts as a training ground for students interested in broadcasting, is a serious commercial competitor in the Lebanon-Hanover-White River Junction radio market. WFRD is involved in the Upper Valley community; the station features a "Community Calendar" segment, where non-profit organizations can send bulletins of their events to be read over the air. WFRD does remote broadcasts from charity events and local businesses around the Upper Valley, participates in local charitable and cultural events. WFRD's history goes back more than four decades. On February 19, 1976, WFRD first signed on the air, it broadcast a wide variety of music, from classical, folk music to progressive rock, punk rock and new wave music. The call letters stand for "FM Radio Dartmouth". There was a lengthy debate over whether to choose WDCR-FM to link the FM station with its former AM companion, 1340 WDCR, or to give the new FM station an independent identity.

Among the arguments for an independent identity was the possibility of selling the AM station once FM became the more popular broadcast band. Around 2001, WFRD began playing a modern rock format, although by the 2010s, WFRD began including other genres of current rock. In 2011, WFRD celebrated its 35th Anniversary by playing "35 Years of Rock," spotlighting songs from 1976 to the present; as of 2014, the station left the Nielsen BDS Alternative Rock indicator panel and was added to the Nielsen BDS Mainstream Rock indicator panel. In 2016, WFRD celebrated its 40th Anniversary with the slogan "40 Years of Rock." Eric Wellman'91, current program director at WAXQ in New York City Eric MacDonald'04, former program director at WCTZ in Norwalk, Connecticut Dartmouth Broadcasting Brooks, College Radio Days: 70 Years of Student Broadcasting at Dartmouth College, Greenwich CT: Glenville Press, 2014. 99Rock WFRD official website 99Rock on Facebook Rock and Go Morning Show on Facebook Query the FCC's FM station database for WFRD Radio-Locator information on WFRD Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WFRD