James Mortimer (chess player)
James Mortimer was an American chess player and playwright who spent the last 40 years of his life in Britain. Born in Richmond, Mortimer graduated from the University of Virginia; as an attaché in the U. S. Diplomatic Service he was stationed in Paris from 1855 to 1860. Emperor Napoleon III awarded him the Cross of the Legion of Honor for his work; when American chess champion Paul Morphy traveled to Paris in 1858, Mortimer met him and they became friends. Mortimer was one of the few, his loyalty to the Southern Confederacy led him to quit federal service in 1860. Mortimer remained in Paris working as a journalist; when Napoleon III was deposed in 1870, they both settled in England. In London, Mortimer founded The London Figaro, the official newspaper of Napoleon's government in-exile. Although Napoleon died in 1873, Figaro continued as a magazine, it was controversial, Mortimer made many enemies with his scathing theatre reviews. When caught up in a libel case, Mortimer unwisely chose to defend himself.
Acting as his own counsel, he was unable to testify in his own defense. After he was convicted by the jury Mortimer was able to produce evidence to the judges that he had no personal knowledge of the libelous article, but it was too late. Rather than imposing the more common penalty of a fine, the court sentenced him to three months prison. Mortimer's public stature grew as a result as the punishment was felt to be unfair. Mortimer's imprisonment caused him to sell Figaro, with the sale came the end of its excellent chess column, written by chess master Johann Löwenthal from 1872 to 1876 and World Chess Champion Wilhelm Steinitz from 1876 to 1882; when Mortimer was released, he continued his career as a playwright. He wrote over 30 plays produced in London. Covering Spain's first international chess tournament, San Sebastián 1911, he caught pneumonia and died. Mortimer had a poor record in chess tournaments, nearly always finishing near the bottom of the field. At a London tournament in 1887, he finished last of ten players.
Despite his poor finishes, he was invited to many tournaments and seemed to be regarded more as a chess personality than a chess player. Although never successful in tournaments, Mortimer sometimes did play well in individual games against powerful opponents. In the London tournament of 1883, he beat Johannes Zukertort and Mikhail Chigorin, but finished tied for last in a field of 14 with a score of 3–23. At the BCA International Congress in London in 1886 he defeated Jean Taubenhaus, James Mason, William H. K. Pollock, Emil Schallopp, but finished with a score of 4–8 and in 11th place of 13; when he was 74 he played the 1907 Masters Tournament at Ostend and defeated Savielly Tartakower, Eugene Znosko-Borovsky, Joseph Henry Blackburne, but finished last of 29 with a score of 5–23. He won tournament games against Henry Bird and Jacques Mieses, drew with Wilhelm Steinitz and George Henry Mackenzie. Mortimer wrote two best-selling chess books published in London, he is the eponym of the Mortimer Defence in the Ruy Lopez and the related Mortimer Trap, the Mortimer-Frazier Attack in the Evans Gambit.
London 1883: 3-23, =13-14th out of 14 players London 1885: 6-9, =10-11th of 12 London 1886: 4-8, 11th of 13 London 1887: 0-9, last of 10 Bradford 1888: 5½-10½, 13th of 17 London 1889: 3-7, 10th of 11 Manchester 1890: 8½-10½, 14th of 20 London 1891: 5½-3½, 4th of 10 London 1891: 4-5, =6-9th of 10 London 1892: 3½-7½, 10th of 12 London 1896: 4-7, =8-11th of 12 London 1900: ½-3½, last of 5 Paris 1900: 2-14, 15th of 17 Folkstone 1901: 2-3, =3rd-5th out of 6 Monte Carlo 1902: 1-18, last of 20 Norwich 1902: 2½-8½, =10-11th of 12 Tunbridge Wells 1902: 4-5, 7th of 10 Canterbury 1903: 4-4, 5th of 9 Plymouth 1903: 4½-3½, =3rd-4th of 9 Brighton 1904: 5-3, 4th of 9 London 1904: 4-12, last of 17 London 1904 Rice Gambit: 2½-13½, last of 9 Ostend 1907: 5-23, last of 29 London 1907-8: 10-9, =8-10th of 20 London 1909-10: 6-11, 15th of 18 Paris 1910: 2½-13½, 16th of 17 London 1910-11: 2½-13½, 16th of 17 Gaige, Chess Personalia: A Biobibliography, McFarland & Company, p. 291, ISBN 978-0-7864-2353-8 Korn, America's Chess Heritage, New York: David McKay, pp. 48–49, ISBN 0-679-13200-7 Hooper, David Vincent.
New Stories About Old Players, Chesscafe.com, retrieved 2007-04-29 Olimpiu G. Urcan. "Chess and madness". Chessbase.com. Retrieved 2007-04-29. James Mortimer player profile and games at Chessgames.com
World Chess Championship
The World Chess Championship is played to determine the world champion in chess. Since 2014, the schedule has settled on a two-year cycle with a championship held in every year. Magnus Carlsen has been world champion since he dethroned Viswanathan Anand in 2013, he went on to defend his title against Anand in 2014, against Sergey Karjakin in 2016 and against Fabiano Caruana in 2018. The official world championship is regarded to have begun in 1886, when the two leading players in Europe and the United States, Johann Zukertort and Wilhelm Steinitz played a match. From 1886 to 1946, the champion set the terms, requiring any challenger to raise a sizable stake and defeat the champion in a match in order to become the new world champion. From 1948 to 1993, the championship was administered by the World Chess Federation. In 1993, the reigning champion broke away from FIDE, which led to the creation of the rival PCA championship; the titles were unified at the World Chess Championship 2006. Though the world championship is open to all players, there are separate events and titles for the Women's World Chess Championship, the World Junior Chess Championship, the World Senior Chess Championship.
There are faster time limit events, the World Rapid Chess Championship and the World Blitz Chess Championship. The World Computer Chess Championship is open to hardware; the concept of a world chess champion started to emerge in the first half of the 19th century, the phrase "world champion" appeared in 1845. From this time onwards various players were acclaimed as world champions, but the first contest, defined in advance as being for the world championship was the match between Steinitz and Zukertort in 1886; until 1948 world championship contests were matches arranged between the players. As a result, the players had to arrange the funding, in the form of stakes provided by enthusiasts who wished to bet on one of the players. In the early 20th century this was sometimes a barrier that prevented or delayed challenges for the title. Between 1888 and 1948 various difficulties that arose in match negotiations led players to try to define agreed rules for matches, including the frequency of matches, how much or how little say the champion had in the conditions for a title match and what the stakes and division of the purse should be.
However these attempts were unsuccessful in practice, as the same issues continued to delay or prevent challenges. The first attempt by an external organization to manage the world championship was in 1887–1889, but this experiment was not repeated. A system for managing regular contests for the title went into operation in 1948, under the control of FIDE, functioned quite smoothly until 1993. However, in that year reigning champion Kasparov and challenger Short were so dissatisfied with FIDE's arrangements for their match that they set up a break-away organization; the split in the world championship continued until the reunification match in 2006. After reunification, FIDE retains the right to organize the world championship match, stabilizing to a two-year cycle; the first match proclaimed by the players as for the world championship was the match that Wilhelm Steinitz won against Johannes Zukertort in 1886. However, a line of players regarded as the strongest in the world extends back hundreds of years beyond them, these players are sometimes considered the world champions of their time.
They include Ruy López de Segura around 1560, Paolo Boi and Leonardo da Cutri around 1575, Alessandro Salvio around 1600, Gioachino Greco around 1623. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, French players dominated, with Legall de Kermeur, François-André Danican Philidor, Alexandre Deschapelles and Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais all regarded as the strongest players of their time. Something resembling a world championship match was the La Bourdonnais - McDonnell chess matches in 1834, in which La Bourdonnais played a series of six matches – and 85 games – against the Irishman Alexander McDonnell; the idea of a world champion goes back at least to 1840, when a columnist in Fraser's Magazine wrote, "To whom is destined the marshal's baton when La Bourdonnais throws it down, what country will furnish his successor?... At present de La Bourdonnais, like Alexander the Great, is without heir, there is room to fear the empire may be divided under a number of petty kings."After La Bourdonnais' death in December 1840, Englishman Howard Staunton's match victory over another Frenchman, Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant, in 1843 is considered to have established Staunton as the world's strongest player.
A letter quoted in The Times on 16 November 1843, but written before that, described the second Staunton vs Saint-Amant match, played in Paris in November–December 1843, as being for "the golden sceptre of Philidor." The earliest recorded use of the term "World Champion" was in 1845, when Howard Staunton was described as "the Chess Champion of England, or... the Champion of the World". The first known proposal that a contest should be defined in advance as being for recognition as the world's best player was by Ludwig Bledow in a letter to von der Lasa, written in 1846 and published in the Deutsche Schachzeitung in 1848: "... the winner of the battle in Paris should not be overly proud of his special position, since it is in Trier that the crown will first be a
A chess variant is a game "related to, derived from, or inspired by chess". Such variants can differ from chess in many different ways, ranging from minor modifications to the rules, to games which have only a slight resemblance. "International" or "Western" chess itself is one of a family of games which have related origins and could be considered variants of each other. Chess is theorised to have been developed from chaturanga, from which other members of this family, such as shatranj and xiangqi evolved. Many chess variants are designed to be played with the equipment of regular chess. Although most variants have a similar public-domain status as their parent game, some have been made into commercial, proprietary games. Just as in traditional chess, chess variants can be played over-the-board, by correspondence, or by computer; some internet chess servers facilitate the play of some variants in addition to orthodox chess. In the context of chess problems, chess variants are called fairy chess.
Fairy chess variants tend to be created for problem composition rather than actual play. There are thousands of known chess variants; the Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants catalogues around two thousand, with the preface noting that — with creating a chess variant being trivial — many were considered insufficiently notable for inclusion. The origins of the chess family of games can be traced to the game of chaturanga during the time of the Gupta Empire in India. Over time, as the game spread geographically, modified versions of the rules became popular in different regions. In Sassanid Persia, a modified form became known as shatranj. Modifications made to this game in Europe resulted in the modern game. Courier chess was a popular variant in medieval Europe, which had a significant impact on the "main" variant's development. Other games in the chess family, such as shogi, xiangqi, are developments from chaturanga made in other regions; these related games are considered chess variants, though the majority of variants are, modifications of chess.
The basic rules of chess were not standardised until the 19th century, the history of chess prior to this involves many variants, with the most popular modifications spreading and forming the modern game. While some regional variants have historical origins comparable to or older than chess, the majority of variants are express attempts by individuals or small groups to create new games with chess as a starting point. In most cases the creators are attempting to create new games of interest to chess enthusiasts or a wider audience. Variants have the same public domain status as chess, though a few are proprietary, the materials for play are released as commercial products; the variations from chess may be done to address a perceived issue with the standard game. For example, Chess960, which randomises the starting positions, was invented by Bobby Fischer to combat what he perceived to be the detrimental dominance of opening preparation in chess. Several variants introduce complications to the standard game, providing an additional challenge for experienced players, for example in Kriegspiel, where players cannot see the pieces of their opponent.
A handful, such as No Stress Chess, attempt to simplify the game, so as to be attractive to chess beginners. The table below details some, but not all, of the ways in which variants can differ from the orthodox game: Variants can themselves be developed into further sub-variants, for example Horde chess is a variation upon Dunsany's Chess; some variations are created for the purpose of composing interesting puzzles, rather than being intended for full games. This field of composition is known as fairy chess. Fairy chess gave rise to the term "fairy chess piece", used more broadly across writings about chess variants to describe chess pieces with movement rules other than those of the standard chess pieces. Forms of standardised notation have been devised to systematically describe the movement of these. A distinguishing feature of several chess variants is the presence of one or more fairy pieces. Physical models of common fairy pieces are sold by major chess set suppliers. Individuals notable for creating multiple chess variants include V. R. Parton, Ralph Betza, Philip M. Cohen and George R. Dekle Sr.
Some board game designers, notable for works across a wider range of board games, have attempted to create chess variants. These include Andy Looney. Several chess masters have developed variants, such as Chess960 by Bobby Fischer, Capablanca Chess by José Raúl Capablanca, Seirawan chess by Yasser Seirawan. While chess and xiangqi have professional circuits as well as many organised tournaments for amateurs, play of the majority of chess variants is predominately on a casual basis; some variants have had significant tournaments. Several Gliński's hexagonal chess tournaments were played at the height of the variant's popularity in the 1970s and 1980s. Chess960 has been the subject of tournaments, including in 2018 an "unofficial world championship" between reigning World Chess Champion Magnus Carlsen and fellow high-ranking Grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura. Several internet chess servers facilitate live play of popular variants, including Chess.com and the Free Internet Chess Server. The software packages Zillions of Games and Fairy-Max have been programmed to support many chess variants.
Play in most chess variants is sufficiently similar to chess that games can be recorded with algebraic notation, although additions to this are required. For example, the third dimension in Millennium 3D Chess means that move notatio
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, Bohemia sometimes refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia in a historical context, such as the Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by Bohemian kings. Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire. After World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland; the remainder of Czech territory became the Second Czechoslovak Republic and was subsequently occupied as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, In 1969, the Czech lands were given autonomy within Czechoslovakia as the Czech Socialist Republic. In 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which became a separate state in 1993 with the split of Czechoslovakia.
Until 1948, Bohemia was an administrative unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its "lands". Since administrative reforms have replaced self-governing lands with a modified system of "regions" which do not follow the borders of the historical Czech lands. However, the three lands are mentioned in the preamble of the Constitution of the Czech Republic: "We, citizens of the Czech Republic in Bohemia and Silesia…"Bohemia had an area of 52,065 km2 and today is home to 6.5 million of the Czech Republic's 10.5 million inhabitants. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria, in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia, in the northeast by Silesia, in the east by Moravia. Bohemia's borders were marked by mountain ranges such as the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains, the Krkonoše, a part of the Sudetes range. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy with various peoples including the Gauls-Celtic tribe Boii; the Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Mutina.
After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps. Much Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied as Boiohaemum; the earliest mention was by Tacitus' Germania 28, mentions of the same name are in Strabo and Velleius Paterculus. The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz "home"; this Boiohaemum was isolated to the area where King Marobod's kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest. Emperor Constantine VII in 10th century De Administrando Imperio mentioned the region as Boïki; the Czech name "Čechy" is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, who settled in the area during the 6th or 7th century AD. Bohemia, like neighbouring Bavaria, is named after the Boii, who were a large Celtic nation known to the Romans for their migrations and settlement in northern Italy and other places. Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, one of the events leading to the interventions of Julius Caesar's Gaulish campaign of 58 BC.
The emigration of the Helvetii and Boii left southern Germany and Bohemia a inhabited "desert" into which Suebic peoples arrived, speaking Germanic languages, became dominant over remaining Celtic groups. To the south, over the Danube, the Romans extended their empire, to the southeast in present-day Hungary, were Dacian peoples. In the area of modern Bohemia the Marcomanni and other Suebic groups were led by their king Marobodus, after suffering defeat to Roman forces in Germany, he took advantage of the natural defenses provided by its forests. They were able to maintain a strong alliance with neighbouring tribes including the Lugii, Hermunduri and Buri, sometimes controlled by the Roman Empire, sometimes in conflict with it, for example in the second century when they fought Marcus Aurelius. In late classical times and the early Middle Ages, two new Suebic groupings appeared to the west of Bohemia in southern Germany, the Alemanni, the Bavarians. Many Suebic tribes from the Bohemian region took part in such movements westwards settling as far away as Spain and Portugal.
With them were tribes who had pushed from the east, such as the Vandals, Alans. Other groups pushed southwards towards Pannonia; the last known mention of the kingdom of the Marcomanni, concerning a queen named Fritigil is in the 4th century, she was thought to have lived in or near Pannonia. The Suebian Langobardi, who moved over many generations from the Baltic Sea, via the Elbe and Pannonia to Italy, recorded in a tribal history a time spent in "Bainaib". After this migration period, Bohemia was repopulated around the 6th century, Slavic tribes arrived from the east, their language began to replace the older Germanic and Sarmatian ones; these are precursors of today's Czechs, though the exact amount of Slavic immigration is a subject of debate. The Slavic influx was divided into three waves; the first wave came from the
Joseph Henry Blackburne
Joseph Henry Blackburne, nicknamed "The Black Death", dominated British chess during the latter part of the 19th century. He learned the game at the late age of 17 or 18, but he became a strong player and went on to develop a professional chess career that spanned over 50 years. At one point he was the world's second most successful player, with a string of tournament victories behind him, popularised chess by giving simultaneous and blindfold displays around the country. Blackburne published a collection of his own games. Joseph Henry Blackburne was born in Manchester in December 1841, he learned how to play draughts as a child, but it was not until he heard about Paul Morphy's exploits around Europe that he switched to playing chess at the age of 17 or 18: I learnt the game in, say, 1859. Blackburne joined the Manchester Chess Club in 1861. In July 1861 he lost 5–0 in a match with Manchester's strongest player, Eduard Pindar, but in August/September, Blackburne defeated Pindar. By the next year, Blackburne became champion of the city club, ahead of Bernhard Horwitz.
Blackburne's introduction to blindfold chess was a little later. In November 1861, Louis Paulsen gave a simultaneous blindfold exhibition in Manchester, beating Blackburne among others. Less than three years after learning the moves to chess, Blackburne entered the 1862 London International Tournament and defeated Wilhelm Steinitz in their individual game, although Blackburne finished in 9th place. Up to that point, timekeeping was measured with hourglasses, it was Blackburne who suggested chess clocks; this trip cost Blackburne his job back in Manchester, he became a professional chess player. In the 1868–'69 season he won the British championship by beating the current holder, Cecil Valentine De Vere, he was therefore regarded as England's best player, his first major international success was in a strong tournament at Baden-Baden in 1870, where he shared 3rd place with Gustav Neumann, behind Adolf Anderssen and Wilhelm Steinitz but ahead of Paulsen, De Vere, Simon Winawer, Samuel Rosenthal and Johannes von Minckwitz.
Blackburne was one of the world's top five players from 1871 to 1889, although Steinitz, Emanuel Lasker and, during his brief prime, Johannes Zukertort were better players. His best results were in international tournaments. Although tournaments were much less frequent than they are now, Blackburne played in nearly one strong tournament per year from 1870 to 1899. In the 1870s and 1880s he was always a high prize-winner, his best results were 1st equal with Steinitz at Vienna 1873, where the commentators nicknamed Blackburne "the Black Death". He achieved 2nd place in: a strong mini-tournament in London 1872, George Alcock MacDonnell and De Vere, his worst result from this 20-year period was 6th place in the 1882 Vienna "super-tournament", the one occasion on which all his major rivals placed ahead of him. In the mid to late 1890s Blackburne's was less successful in tournaments, but by this time he was competing against the next generation of players, Emanuel Lasker and Lasker's major rivals.
Blackburne's worst results were 10th place at Hastings 1895 and 11th at Nuremberg 1896. Chessmetrics concludes that Blackburne's best performances, taking account of the strength of his opponents, were his second places at Frankfurt 1887 and London 1892. At London 1892 he finished only ½ point behind Emanuel Lasker and 2 points ahead of the third-placed player, Mason. Emanuel Lasker thought that Blackburne had more talent than Steinitz, but lacked the willpower and capacity for hard work needed for becoming world champion. Blackburne's match results are weaker, he was twice soundly beat by Steinitz, in 1862/3 and 1876. Emanuel Lasker beat Blackburne in 1892, but Lasker beat Steinitz decisively in their 1894 championship match. Blackburne was comfortably beaten in 1881 by Zukertort, in great form at the time. On the other hand, against Gunsberg, Blackburne lost his 1887 match; the 1876 match against Steinitz was held at the West-end Chess Club in London. The stakes were £60 a side with the winner taking all.
This was a considerable
The game of chess is divided into three phases: the opening and endgame. There is a large body of theory regarding how the game should be played in each of these phases the opening and endgame; those who write about chess theory, who are also eminent players, are referred to as "theorists" or "theoreticians". "Opening theory" refers to consensus, broadly represented by current literature on the openings. "Endgame theory" consists of statements regarding specific positions, or positions of a similar type, though there are few universally applicable principles. "Middlegame theory" refers to maxims or principles applicable to the middlegame. The modern trend, however, is to assign paramount importance to analysis of the specific position at hand rather than to general principles; the development of theory in all of these areas has been assisted by the vast literature on the game. In 1913, preeminent chess historian H. J. R. Murray wrote in his 900-page magnum opus A History of Chess that, "The game possesses a literature which in contents exceeds that of all other games combined."
He estimated that at that time the "total number of books on chess, chess magazines, newspapers devoting space to the game exceeds 5,000". In 1949, B. H. Wood estimated that the number had increased to about 20,000. David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld wrote in 1992 that, "Since there has been a steady increase year by year of the number of new chess publications. No one knows how many have been printed..." The world's largest chess library, the John G. White Collection at the Cleveland Public Library, contains over 32,000 chess books and serials, including over 6,000 bound volumes of chess periodicals. Chess players today avail themselves of computer-based sources of information; the earliest printed work on chess theory, whose date can be established with some exactitude, is Repeticion de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez by the Spaniard Luis Ramirez de Lucena, published c. 1497, which included among other things analysis of eleven chess openings. Some of them are known today as the Giuoco Piano, Ruy Lopez, Petroff's Defense, Bishop's Opening, Damiano's Defense, Scandinavian Defense, though Lucena did not use those terms.
The authorship and date of the Göttingen manuscript are not established, its publication date is estimated as being somewhere between 1471 and 1505. It is not known whether Lucena's book was published first; the manuscript includes examples of games with the openings now known as Damiano's Defence, Philidor's Defense, the Giuoco Piano, Petroff's Defense, the Bishop's Opening, the Ruy Lopez, the Ponziani Opening, the Queen's Gambit Accepted, 1.d4 d5 2. Bf4 Bf5, Bird's Opening, the English Opening. Murray observes that it "is no haphazard collection of commencements of games, but is an attempt to deal with the Openings in a systematic way."Fifteen years after Lucena's book, Portuguese apothecary Pedro Damiano published the book Questo libro e da imparare giocare a scachi et de la partiti in Rome. It includes analysis of the Queen's Gambit Accepted, showing what happens when Black tries to keep the gambit pawn with...b5. Damiano's book "was, in contemporary terms, the first bestseller of the modern game."
Harry Golombek writes that it "ran through eight editions in the sixteenth century and continued on into the next century with unflagging popularity." Modern players know Damiano because his name is attached to the weak opening Damiano's Defense, although he condemned rather than endorsed it. These books and ones discuss games played with various openings, opening traps, the best way for both sides to play. Certain sequences of opening moves began to be given names, some of the earliest being Damiano's Defense, the King's Gambit, the Queen's Gambit, the Sicilian Defense. Damiano's book was followed by general treatises on chess play by Ruy López de Segura, Giulio Cesare Polerio, Gioachino Greco, Joseph Bertin, François-André Danican Philidor; the first author to attempt a comprehensive survey of the openings known was Aaron Alexandre in his 1837 work Encyclopedie des echecs. According to Hooper and Whyld, " Jaenisch produced the first openings analysis on modern lines in his Analyse nouvelle des ouvertures."
In 1843, Paul Rudolf von Bilguer published the German Handbuch des Schachspiels, which combined the virtues of Alexandre and Jaenisch's works. The Handbuch, which went through several editions, last being published in several parts in 1912–16, was one of the most important opening references for many decades; the last edition of the Handbuch was edited by Carl Schlechter, who had drawn a match for the World Championship with Emanuel Lasker in 1910. International Master William Hartston called it "a superb work the last to encase the whole of chess knowledge within a single volume."The English master Howard Staunton the world's strongest player from 1843 to 1851, included over 300 pages of analysis of the openings in his 1847 treatise The Chess Player's Handbook. That work became the standard reference work in English-speaking countries, was reprinted 21 times by 1935. However, "as time passed a demand arose for more up-to-date works in English". Wilhelm Steinitz, the first World Champion considered the "father of modern chess," extensively analyzed various double king-pawn openings in his book The Modern Chess Instructor, published in 1889 and 1895.
In 1889, E. Freeborough and the Reverend C. E. Ranken published the first edition of Chess Openings Modern. In 1911, R. C. Griffi