The London Borough of Havering in East London, forms part of Outer London. The principal town is Romford. Other communities are Hornchurch and Rainham; the borough is suburban, with large areas of protected open space. Romford is a major retail and night time entertainment centre, to the south the borough extends into the London Riverside redevelopment area of the Thames Gateway; the name Havering is a reference to the Royal Liberty of Havering which occupied the area for several centuries. The local authority is Havering London Borough Council. In 2011, the borough had a population of 237,232 over 43 square miles. Havering has a lower population density than other London Boroughs as large areas are parkland and 23 square miles is Metropolitan Green Belt protected land; those areas of development are extensive but intensive. It has, at 4.5%, a below average unemployment rate for Greater London, one of the lowest crime rates. Havering has a higher proportion of residents in white ethnic groups than other outer London boroughs.
The Black African population is the most significant minority ethnic group in Havering. The Upminster ward of the borough is the third least ethnically diverse in Greater London, with a Simpson's diversity index of 1.10. Havering is bordered to the south by the London Borough of Bexley by the River Thames, to the west by the London Borough of Redbridge and the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham and to the north and east by Essex. There are over 7,000 businesses based in Havering. Romford is the main commercial hub of the borough with a small district of office development close to the railway station. There is some industry to the south between Rainham and the River Thames such as Rainham Steel headquarters on the boundary of Elm Park. Light industry elsewhere in the borough has been in decline, with major employers such as the former Star Brewery now closed down. New industrial development is encouraged in the south of the borough has been encouraged by the London Development Agency, with the opening of the Centre for Engineering and Manufacturing Excellence.
The main retail district is located in Romford with several interconnected or neighbouring shopping arcades including the Liberty Shopping Centre, the Mercury Mall, the Brewery. Romford Market is located to the north of Romford and is the largest market within the borough and in the surrounding area. Hornchurch and Upminster are the other main retail centres with extensive high street shopping areas. Romford has a developed night-time economy with one of the highest concentrations of bars and nightclubs anywhere in Greater London outside the West End with public transport radiating into all parts of the borough. Havering London Borough Council applied to the Government to allow a'super-casino' to be built in the south of the borough, however the application was rejected in May 2006; the London Borough of Havering was created in 1965 by the combined former area of the Municipal Borough of Romford and Hornchurch Urban District, transferred to Greater London from Essex by the London Government Act 1963.
The name originates from the Royal Liberty of Havering which covered broadly, but not the same area, had been abolished in 1892. Modern settlement originated in Anglo-Saxon times when it consisted of Havering Palace and the surrounding lands that belonged to the king; the palace itself is known to have existed since at least the reign of Edward the Confessor when it was one of his primary residences. The area formed a liberty from 1465 which included the parishes of Havering atte Bower and Romford; the name Havering appears in documents from around the 12th century. The origins of this name have been debated by historians since the Middle Ages when it was linked to the legend of Edward the Confessor and a mystical ring returned to him by Saint John the Apostle; the event being commemorated in stained glass in a chapel at Romford, dedicated to the king. London Underground and fast rail services to central London resulted in considerable residential land use mixed with designated parklands and farmland under the planning policy of the predecessor local authorities and current authority during the 20th century and into the early 21st century.
The development of the borough came in two distinct phases. The first middle class suburban developments were built in Edwardian period; the garden suburbs of Upminster, Emerson Park and Gidea Park were spurred on by the building of the railway lines through Havering from Liverpool Street and Fenchurch Street in the late 19th century. In the 1930s the District Line was electrified and extended to Upminster with new stations at Elm Park and Upminster Bridge. At this time new industries near the area such as the Ford Motor Company plant at Dagenham caused a new wave of working class developments along the route of the new Underground line. In addition to this, to the north of the borough, the large housing estates of Harold Hill and Collier Row were constructed to deal with the chronic housing shortages and early slum clearance programmes in central London; this pattern of the'garden suburb' with inter- and post-war private housing developments occurred across the borough, with small estates of social housing representing a low percentage of housing in any single council ward.
Plans to extend existing developments in much of the borough are blocked as open lan
This is a timeline of terrorist incidents which took place in October 2015, including attacks by violent non-state actors for political motives. To be included, entries must be notable and described by a consensus of reliable sources as "terrorism". List entries must comply with the guidelines outlined in the manual of style under MOS:TERRORIST. Casualties figures in this list are the total casualties of the incident including immediate casualties and casualties. Casualties listed are the victims. Perpetrator casualties are listed separately. Casualty totals may be unavailable due to a lack of information. A figure with a plus sign indicates that at least that many people have died – the actual toll could be higher. A figure with a plus sign may indicate that over that number of people are victims. If casualty figures are 20 or more, they will be shown in bold. In addition, figures for casualties more than 50 will be underlined. Incidents are limited to one per location per day. If multiple attacks occur in the same place on the same day, they will be merged into a single incident.
Total incidents: 56
Mission Mangal is a 2019 Indian Hindi-language drama film directed by Jagan Shakti and jointly produced by Cape of Good Films, Hope Productions, Fox Star Studios, Aruna Bhatia, Anil Naidu. The film stars an ensemble cast of Akshay Kumar, Vidya Balan, Taapsee Pannu, Nithya Menen, Kirti Kulhari, Sharman Joshi, H. G. Dattatreya, Vikram Gokhale, Sonakshi Sinha; the film is loosely based on the life of scientists at the Indian Space Research Organisation who contributed to the Mars Orbiter Mission, India's first interplanetary expedition. Mission Mangal was announced in November 2018. Shakti, who worked as associate director on Pad Man, pitched the script to Kumar. Principal photography for the film began in November 2018; the film's soundtrack was composed by Amit Trivedi and Tanishk Bagchi with lyrics written by Baghchi along with Amitabh Bhattacharya, released under the banner Zee Music Company. Mission Mangal was theatrically released in India on India's Independence Day, it received positive reviews from critics and earned ₹290.59 crore worldwide, becoming a commercial success.
After the failed launch of GSLV-F06 on 25 December 2010, due to a small mistake by Project Director Tara Shinde, Rakesh Dhawan, a fellow scientist working with her, takes the blame for her. As a result, he is relocated to work on Mangalyaan as punishment; the new GSLV missions are given to a NASA scientist of Indian origin. The MoM is thought of as an impossible mission by his coworkers due its aim of reaching Mars with its tight budget. Rakesh learns that MoM cannot take off on the PSLV since the available technology has a payload of only 1500 kg and not enough fuel to fire the rocket to be carried to a distance of 5.5*10^7 kilometres. GSLV, if it had succeeded, could have taken the satellite to Mars. However, recent significant failures of GSLV have jeopardised the planned future missions. Back at home, Tara is badly caught in between balancing her family. One day at home, while frying'Puris', Tara's maid informs of insufficient gas to cook all the'Puris', to which Tara tells her to heat the oil and turn off the gas, turn it back on if oil cools down, which sparks her an idea to launch the MoM using PSLV.
They would use bursts of gas to push the MoM satellite further into Earth's outside orbit, slingshot it using Earth's gravitational sphere saving fuel. She approaches Rakesh with the idea, convinced; the duo tries to get the other team members on board, but instead are mocked, though they are convinced too along with Director of ISRO. When Tara and Rakesh ask Rupert to lend them expert members of his team, Rupert instead gives them junior scientists and engineers, who have little to no experience in mission launches. First, there is Eka Gandhi, propulsion control expert, a youngster that hates most Indian things and looking for any chance to get away to NASA. There is the spacecraft autonomy designer Neha Siddiqui, struggling with rejection as a result of her intercommunal background. Navigation expert Krittika Agarwal is a devoted wife tending to her ex-serviceman husband Rishi Agarwal, wounded in action. Varsha Pillai, the satellite designer and payload expert, battles with her mother-in-law's taunts at home for not being able to bear a child.
Parmeshwar Joshi, payload expert, relies more on the priest and his advice to and develops a romantic interest in Eka. Lastly, there is the team's structural engineer. However, after the announcement of India's second Moon mission, Chandrayaan-2, the mission's budget is cut by 50%. In between the tight schedule and minuscule budget and Rakesh continue to work on their MoM project by making several compromises. Tara and Rakesh realise that the junior scientists working on the project have low morale and motivation to make this mission happen, leading to the team slowing down. Tara soon realises that in order to meet their budget and schedule, she must make the team members change their attitudes, motivate them to make their dream jobs into a reality, she is successful with this, the team puts all their hardwork and energy into solving the issues with the mission, making it happen. The MoM satellite is launched on PSLV on 5 November 2013, is named Mangalyaan and is inserted into Earth's orbit. Rakesh and his team celebrates the successful launch.
However, while doing the sixth orbit-raising manoeuvre, the jets fail to launch, pushing the mission 6 days behind. Rupert mocks the team. Couple months on the way to Mars, the satellite is hit by a solar radiation wave damaging the communication systems of the satellite; when the team manages to regain communications, they realise that the solar radiation had increased the speed of the satellite and pushed it further, making up the 6 day gap they had incurred while doing the orbital manoeuvres with Earth. After spending 298-day transit to Mars, MoM satellite is inserted into Mars orbit on 24 September 2014, making the country 4th in the world to do so and the first country to do it in the first attempt. On 5 November 2018, to coincide with 5 November 2013, the day the Mars Orbiter Mission was launched, Mission Mangal was announced. Principal photography for the film began in mid-November. In early February, Pannu finished her schedule of shooting. Shakthi had Mohanlal and Sridevi in mind for the roles played by Akshay Kumar and Vidya Balan.