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London Borough of Richmond upon Thames

The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in southwest London forms part of Outer London and is the only London borough on both sides of the River Thames. It was created in 1965 when three smaller council areas amalgamated under the London Government Act 1963, it is divided into nineteen wards. The borough is home to The National Archives; the attractions of Kew Gardens, Hampton Court Palace, Twickenham Stadium and the WWT London Wetlands Centre are within its boundaries and draw domestic and international tourism. The borough is half parkland – large areas of London's open space fall within its boundaries, including Richmond Park, Kew Gardens, Bushy Park and Old Deer Park; the predominant other land use is residential. Most businesses within the borough consist of retail, property improvement/development and professional services. Parts of the borough, including Barnes, Richmond, St Margarets, Cambridge Park and Marble Hill, some areas of Twickenham and much of East Sheen rival Stanmore Hill and Kenley as the highest house-price districts and neighbourhoods in Outer London.

In 2006, research commissioned by a major mortgage lender found that, on the quantitative statistical indices used, the borough had the best quality of life in London and was in the top quarter of local authorities nationwide. A neighbouring authority in Surrey achieved the best quality of life in that report. Demography is a diverse picture as in all of London: each district should be looked at separately and those do not reflect all neighbourhoods. Whatever generalisations are used, "the fine-grained texture of London poverty" by its minutely localised geography must always be taken into account according to an influential poverty report of 2010. Richmond upon Thames has the lowest child poverty rates in London at 20% and contains at least one ward with an above-average level of working-age adults receiving out-of-work benefits but this borough – reflecting the best result – has two standard poverty indices of sixteen in which it is placed in the worst quarter of boroughs. Richmond is one of London's wealthiest boroughs on many measures.

It has the lowest rates of poverty, child poverty, low pay, child obesity and adults without level 3 qualifications of any London borough, according to a 2017 research project by Trust for London. London's German business and expatriate community is centred on this borough, which houses the German School London and most of the capital's German expatriates; the local authority divides the borough into fourteen loosely bounded neighbourhoods, or "villages", with which residents broadly identify. Some of the neighbourhoods have the same name as their associated political ward, but the boundaries are not aligned. There is no direct alignment between these areas and postcode districts, which tend to cover much broader areas, crossing the borough boundaries. Although most addresses in the borough have TW postcodes, some have KT postcodes. Parks take up a great deal of the borough and include Richmond Park, Bushy Park, Kew Gardens, Hampton Court Park. There are over open spaces in Richmond upon Thames and 21 miles of river frontage.

140 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The borough is home to the National Physical Laboratory and the attractions of Hampton Court Palace, Twickenham Stadium and the WWT London Wetlands Centre that draw domestic and international tourism; the river Thames becomes narrower than at any part of Inner London towards its flow into the borough and becomes non-tidal at Teddington Lock in the borough. The borough was formed in 1965 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Twickenham from Middlesex with the Municipal Borough of Richmond and the Municipal Borough of Barnes from Surrey; the name "Richmond upon Thames" was coined at that time. The borough's history is reflected in the coat of arms, granted on 7 May 1966, it is: Ermine a portcullis or within a bordure gules charged with eight fleurs-de-lis or. The crest is: On a wreath argent and gules out of a mural crown gules a swan rousant argent in beak a branch of climbing red roses leaved and entwined about the neck proper.

The supporters are: On either side a griffin gules and beaked azure, each supporting an oar proper, the blade of the dexter dark blue and that of the sinister light blue. The portcullis was taken from the arms of the Municipal Borough of Richmond. Red and ermine are the royal livery colours, reflecting Richmond's royal history; the swan represents the River Thames. The oars are from the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club, reflecting the fact that the Boat Race between the two universities ends at Mortlake in the borough. Since its formation, the council has most been led either by the Conservatives or by the Liberal Democrats; the Lib Dems make up the majority in the council. London Heathrow Airport is located a few kilometres west; the borough is served by many Transport for London bus routes. The borough is connected to central London and Reading by the National Rail services of the South Western Railway; the London Underground's District line serves Richmond and Kew Gardens stations: both are served by London Overground trains on the No

Choral music of Washington, D.C.

Washington, D. C. and its environs are home to an unusually large and vibrant choral music scene, including choirs and choruses of many sizes and types. Note - this section does not discuss particular scholastic / university or church ensembles unless they are independently notable. Unlike many American cities, Washington, D. C. features several independent symphonic choruses, including three major organizations with annual budgets exceeding $1 million. The Choral Arts Society of Washington and directed by Norman Scribner for 47 years, has been led by Scott Tucker since 2012; the Choral Arts Society presents an annual concert series at the Kennedy Center, performs with the National Symphony Orchestra, in recent years has performed with prominent symphony orchestras from Philadelphia, London and China. It participates in nationally televised events such as the Kennedy Center Honors and A Capitol Fourth, it tours internationally every 3–4 years, including a landmark tour to Russia in 1993 with Mstislav Rostropovich and the NSO, two trips to the Festival dei Due Mondi in Spoleto, Italy in 1993 and 2001, opening the BBC Proms in London in 2002, performing with Valery Gergiev and the London Symphony Orchestra in 2008, a visit to China with the Qingdao Symphony Orchestra in 2015.

The Choral Arts Society is the largest choral organization by budget in the Washington area, is among the largest in the United States. The Washington Chorus known as the Oratorio Society of Washington, is directed by Julian Wachner and has a similar performing profile, with regular Kennedy Center performances, NSO guest appearances, several international tours to Europe, most in 2004. In 2000, the chorus received the Grammy Award for Best Choral Performance for its live recording of Benjamin Britten's War Requiem; the Cathedral Choral Society is the oldest symphonic chorus in Washington, founded in 1941 by Paul Callaway and directed by J. Reilly Lewis from 1985 to 2016, it performs at the Washington National Cathedral but appears at the Kennedy Center and other local venues. In recent years, several new symphonic choirs have formed in the area, some have folded; the City Choir of Washington was established under the direction of Robert Shafer in 2007 in the wake of his departure from the Washington Chorus.

The Master Chorale of Washington, founded in 1967 as the Paul Hill Chorale, was once the fourth large-budget symphonic choir in Washington but folded in 2009 due to budget difficulties associated with the Great Recession. Elsewhere in the Washington metropolitan area, the 200-voice National Philharmonic Chorale performs at Strathmore in Bethesda, MD; the Chorale was established in 2003 when the Masterworks Chorus merged with the National Chamber Orchestra to create the National Philharmonic. In Virginia, the 120-voice Fairfax Choral Society has been a community institution since 1962; the Choralis Foundation, founded in 2000 in Falls Church, supports a symphonic chorus and four other auditioned choirs of various types The 200-voice New Dominion Chorale performs symphonic repertoire, but is structured as a "singers' cooperative" and does not require auditions to participate. There are a large number of mid-size choruses in the Washington, D. C. area, including the Washington Master Chorale, formed in 2009 by former singers from the Master Chorale of Washington.

Many ensembles have a particular focus on specific geographic, demographic, or ethnic communities of interest. These include the 100-voice Capitol Hill Chorale based in the city's Capitol Hill neighborhood, which performs symphonic repertoire and has a tradition of performing works of the Orthodox liturgy; the 90-voice auditioned Congressional Chorus performs "an eclectic repertoire of American music," focusing on artistic collaborations and emerging composers. The 50-voice 18th Street Singers is composed of young professionals, Zemer Chai: The Jewish Chorale of the Nation's Capital," founded by conductor Eleanor Epstein in 1976, is one of the nation’s leading Jewish choirs; the choir sings the full range of Jewish choral repertoire, from classical and liturgical pieces to world Jewish folk music in multiple languages, new works composed for the choir. The choir collaborates with other D. C area choirs, such as Chorale Contigas and the Heritage Signature Chorale, performs at Interfaith and community events.

Zemer Chai has performed at the White House, the Library of Congress and the Kennedy Center, as well as concert halls in Boston, New York, Philadelphia Kolot HaLev, founded by Hazzan Dr. Ramon Tasat in 2008, is the only independent Jewish community choir in the DC area that does not require singers to audition. Kolot HaLev is the choir-in-residence at Shirat HaNefesh Congregation, offers annual concerts exploring the vast treasury of Jewish music, from Italy to Russia. In the Maryland suburbs, the 40-voice Maryland Choral Society is a community choral group based in Prince George's County, Maryland. In Virginia, the 90-voice teaching choir Vienna Choral Society draws audiences from the DC-metro region, the 80-voice Reston Chorale serves western Fairfax County; the 45-voice Alexandria Choral Society focuses on choral repertoire while the Alexandria Singers focus on American popular music. The 60-voice Washington Men's Camerata has been directed by Frank Albinder since 1999 and performs annually at th

Reine Wisell

Reine Wisell is a Swedish former racing driver. He participated in 23 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 4 October 1970, he achieved 1 podium, scored a total of 13 championship points. He participated in several non-Championship Formula One races, he won the Swedish Formula 3 Championship in 1967 and three years he made the big step and signed with Team Lotus who were the best team this year. In the 1970 United States Grand Prix in Watkins Glen, Wisell raced for Lotus who made their return in the championship after Jochen Rindt's death at Monza. Rindt's death caused his teammate John Miles to retire and Wisell replaced him, his first grand prix was the best in his career as he achieved a third-place finish, trailing only his teammate and future champion Emerson Fittipaldi and Pedro Rodríguez and finishing ahead of title contender Jacky Ickx. This result was Wisell's best, as the subsequent years were not so good for him, he retired after his home grand prix in 1974. Profile at

Le Port (painting)

Le Port known as The Harbor, The Port or Marine, is a painting by the French artist Jean Metzinger. The work was exhibited in the spring of 1912 at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris, at the Salon de La Section d'Or, Galerie La Boétie, October 1912, Paris. Le Port was reproduced a few months in the first major text on Cubism entitled Du "Cubisme", written in 1912 by Jean Metzinger and Albert Gleizes, published by Eugène Figuière Editeurs the same year; the Harbor was subsequently reproduced in The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations, written by Guillaume Apollinaire, published by Figuière in 1913. At the Salon des Indépendants of 1912, Apollinaire had noticed the classical Ingresque qualities of Metzinger's Le Port, suggested that it deserved to be hung in the Musée du Luxembourg's modern art collection; the dimensions and current whereabouts of Le Port are unknown. Le Port an oil on canvas, depicts a complex harbor scene with sailboats, surrounding buildings and shuttered windows. On the distant horizon can be seen two larger boats.

Here Metzinger is exclusively concerned with principles of pictorial construction: the interplay of horizontals, diagonals and curves. The horizon is curved spherically. Rather than depicting The Harbor from one classical point of view, Metzinger has used a'mobile perspective' to portray the subject from a variety of locations and from different angles at various moments in time; the images captured from multiple spatial view-points and at successive time intervals are all shown on one canvas. Metzinger and Gleizes wrote with reference to non-Euclidean geometry in Du "Cubisme", the manifesto in which The Harbor was selected, amongst other paintings, to represent the Cubist methodology, it was argued in the text that Cubism itself was not based on any geometrical theory but that non-Euclidean geometry corresponded better than classical Euclidean geometry to what the Cubsists were doing. The essential was in the understanding of space other than by the classical method of perspective; the topology chosen for The Harbor resembles that of a higher-dimensional Riemannian manifold, as opposed to a standard Euclidean 3-space.

This is a space of constant positive Gaussian curvature. The boats on the distant horizon are traveling a geodesic path of positive intrinsic curvature. All of the objects represented by Metzinger in this painting are embedded in the non-Euclidean Riemannian manifold of constant positive Gaussian curvature; the surface depicted is globally flat. But Metzinger goes further than the simple geometrical model of Gauss or Riemann by using the faceting of form associated with a robust form of analytic Cubism. In addition, each element or constituent of the painting partakes in the overall scheme of things subjectively, in each individual's mental realization. Metzinger goes well beyond a non-Euclidean perspective with multiple points of view, beyond the technical innovations of analytical Cubism, he penetrates to its intellectual core: "an art capable of synthesizing a reality in the mind of the observer". The reconstruction of the total image was left to the creative intuition of the observer; the spectator now played an active role in the Cubist process.

The sum of the parts of which the painting is composed now resides in the mind of the viewer. The dynamism of form implicit or explicit in the quantitative and qualitative properties of the work, set in motion by the artist who chose the multiple view points, could be reassembled and understood in an interactive dynamic process. "But we cannot enjoy in isolation" wrote the two principle theorists of Du "Cubisme", "we wish to dazzle others with that which we daily snatch from the world of sense, in return we wish others to show us their trophies."This reciprocity between the artist and the public is one of the reasons Metzinger felt the need to include elements of the real world into his paintings of the period, untouched by the wrath of total abstraction. "The reminiscence of natural forms cannot be banished. Art, to them, could not "be raised to the level of a pure effusion at the first step." At the 1912 Salon des Indépendants Jean Metzinger exhibited Le Port and La Femme au Cheval — Albert Gleizes exhibited his monumental Les Baigneuses — Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 was listed in the catalogue but was withdrawn — Roger de La Fresnaye exhibited Artillerie — Robert Delaunay showed his immense Ville de ParisFernand Léger showed La Noce — Henri Le Fauconnier, Le Chasseur — and the newcomer Juan Gris exhibiting in a major Salon for the first time, showed his Portrait of Picasso.

The art critic Olivier-Hourcade writes of this exhibition in 1912 and its relation to the creation of a new French school: Metzinger with his Port, Delaunay with Paris, Gleizes with his Baigneuses, are close to this real and magnificent result, this victory comes from several centuries: the creation of a school of painting,'French' and independent. Roger Allard's reviewed the 1912 Salon des Indépendants in the March–April 1912 issue of La Revue de France et des Pays, noting Metzinger's'refined choice of colors' and the'precious rarity' of the painting's'matière'. André Salmon too, in his review, noted Metzinger's'refined use of color' in La Femme au Cheval and praised its'French grace', while noting Metzi


The transpersonal is a term used by different schools of philosophy and psychology in order to describe experiences and worldviews that extend beyond the personal level of the psyche, beyond mundane worldly events. The transpersonal has been defined as experiences in which the sense of identity or self extends beyond the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, psyche or cosmos. On the other hand. In the Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology Scotton defined the term as "development beyond conventional, personal or individual levels." It is associated with a developmental model of psychology that includes three successive stages: the prepersonal, the personal, the transpersonal. One of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology, Stanislav Grof, has defined transpersonal states of awareness as such: The common denominator of this otherwise rich and ramified group of phenomena is the feeling of the individual that his consciousness expanded beyond the usual ego boundaries and the limitations of time and space.

The term is related to the terminology of peak experience, altered states of consciousness, spiritual experiences. Note a The term is associated with psychedelic work, psychotechnologies, that includes research with psychedelic plants and chemicals such as LSD, ketamine, peyote and the vast variety of substances available to all human cultures throughout history. Note b The term has an early precedent in the writing of philosopher William James, who used the term "Trans-personal" in one of his lectures from 1905. However, this early terminology, introduced by James, had a different meaning than the current one and its context was philosophy, not psychology, where the term is used these days. There has been some speculation of an early precedent of the term in the writings of Carl Jung, as a result of the work of Jung's translators, it regards the jungian term ueberpersonlich, used by Jung in a paper from 1917, which in English translations appeared as superpersonal, transpersonal. Note c In a revised, version of the Psychology of the Unconscious there was a chapter heading called The Personal and the Collective Unconscious.

However, the origin of the term transpersonal, as it is used in academic writing, is associated with the human potential movement of the 1960s and the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology. According to Vich all three had used the term as early as 1967, in order to describe new ideas in the field of Psychology. In 1968 the term was selected by the founding editors of the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, Abraham Maslow and Anthony Sutich, in order to represent a new area of psychological inquiry. Note d Porter locates the start of the so-called Transpersonal psychology movement to the American west-coast in the late 1960s. In addition to Maslow and Grof the movement was associated with the names of Ken Wilber, Frances Vaughan, Roger Walsh and Seymoor Boorstein. According to Powers the term transpersonal starts to show up in academic journals from 1970 and onwards; the use of the term transpersonal in academic literature is documented in Psychological Abstracts and Dissertations Abstracts.

The use of the term stabilized in the 1990s. The collective of people and organizations with an interest in the transpersonal is called the transpersonal movement. Walsh and Vaughan defines the transpersonal movement as the interdisciplinary movement that includes various individual transpersonal disciplines; the philosophy of William James, the school of Psychosynthesis, the Analytical school of Carl Jung are considered to be forerunners to the establishment of transpersonal theory. However, the start of the movement is associated with the emergence and growth of the related field of Humanistic Psychology. Several of the academic profiles of the early transpersonal movement, such as Abraham Maslow and Anthony Sutich, had their background in Humanistic Psychology; the formative years of the transpersonal movement can be characterized by the founding of a few key organizations and institutions, such as: the Institute of Noetic Sciences in 1973, The International Transpersonal Psychology Association in 1973, Naropa Institute in 1974, the California Institute of Transpersonal Psychology in 1975.

The California Institute of Transpersonal Psychology emerged as the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology and is today known as Sofia University. Contemporary transpersonal disciplines include Transpersonal psychology, Transpersonal psychiatry, Transpersonal anthropology, Transpersonal sociology and Transpersonal ecology. Other academic orientations, whose main focus lies elsewhere, but that are associated with a transpersonal perspective, include Humanistic psychology and Near-Death Studies. Contemporary institutions include: the Association for Transpersonal Psychology, the European Transpersonal Psychology Association, the International Transpersonal Association, the Ibero-American Transpersonal Association and the European Transpersonal Association. Leading publications within the movement include: the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, the International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, the Journal of Transpersonal Research. Several commentators note how the transpersonal field, its vision, moved beyond the perspective of psychology and into other transpersonal domains during the 1980s and

Garrick Theater (Chicago)

The Schiller Theater Building was designed by Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler of the firm Adler & Sullivan for the German Opera Company. At the time of its construction, it was one among the tallest buildings in Chicago, its centerpiece was a 1300-seat theater, considered by architectural historians to be one of the greatest collaborations between Adler and Sullivan. Opened in 1891, the Schiller Theater was funded by former Illinois Staats-Zeitung publisher Anton C. Hesing and other German investors and was projected to be used for German-language operas and cultural events. One of the more tangible references to its German heritage was a series of terra cotta busts of prominent German figures on the second story arcade. A portion of this arcade is now integrated into the façade of The Second City's theater in Chicago; the theater changed its name and duties over the following decades. It was known as the Dearborn Theater from 1898 to 1903, until settling on the name Garrick Theater. After German investors backed out of the project in the late 1890s, it ceased its German performances, exhibited touring stage shows.

In the 1930s the theater was acquired by Katz who converted it into a movie theater. It became a television studio in 1950 and returned to screening movies in 1957. After a long decline that began in the 1930s, the Garrick was razed early in 1961 and replaced with a parking structure; the demolition instigated a large outcry and is considered to be one of the first wide scale preservation efforts in Chicago. Photographer and historical preservationist Richard Nickel was able to salvage hundreds of artifacts and ornaments from the building before and during its demolition, as well as record extensive notes and photographs of the structure. Tim Samuelson, Lost Buildings. WBEZ and Public Radio International, 2004