Justine Greening is a British Conservative Party politician who served as Secretary of State for Education from 2016 to 2018, has served as Member of Parliament for Putney since 2005. Greening served in the Cameron Government as Economic Secretary to the Treasury and Secretary of State for Transport, prior to being appointed Secretary of State for International Development in September 2012. From 14 July 2016 to 8 January 2018, she served as Secretary of State for Education and Minister for Women and Equalities in the May Government, she resigned as Education Secretary in the January 2018 Cabinet reshuffle. Greening was born in Rotherham, she studied Business Economics and Accounting at the University of Southampton, graduating with a first class honours degree in 1990. She obtained an Executive MBA from the London Business School in 2000. Before entering parliament, she trained and qualified as an accountant, working as an accountant/finance manager for, amongst others, PricewaterhouseCoopers, GlaxoSmithKline and Centrica.
She contested the constituency of Ealing and Shepherd's Bush in 2001. Greening gained the seat of Putney from Labour in the 2005 general election on 5 May 2005. Greening won 15,497 votes giving her a majority of 1,766, she unseated Tony Colman, who had held the seat for Labour since defeating David Mellor in 1997. As the first Conservative elected on the evening of the election, her victory was the first real sign that the Conservative Party was to reduce the Labour Government's majority and begin to recover from the landslide defeats of the 1997 and 2001 general elections. Michael Howard, who had visited Putney to give a speech on his first day as Conservative Leader, returned there on the morning after the election to congratulate Putney Conservatives and give the speech in which he announced his intention to step down. Greening was the youngest female Conservative MP in the House of Commons until Chloe Smith was elected to Parliament on 12 October 2009. Greening was appointed a vice-chair of the Conservative Party on 15 December 2005, having earlier that year been appointed a member of the Work and Pensions Committee.
In July 2007, following a shadow ministerial reshuffle, she was promoted to be a Junior Shadow Minister for The Treasury. In January 2009, following a further shadow ministerial reshuffle, Greening was promoted to Shadow Minister for London, within the Communities and Local Government Team with responsibility for Local Government Finance. Within this brief, she focussed on transport and local community benefits. In March 2010, she was put in charge of co-ordinating the Conservative campaign for the 2010 general election in London, she held the post of Economic Secretary to the Treasury from 13 May 2010 to 14 October 2011. In 2018, she established the Social Mobility Pledge upon returning to the backbenches, a new scheme aimed at broadening social mobility and opportunity in Britain; that year, she became the first senior Conservative to come out in favour of a new EU referendum, arguing that Parliament was unable to make a decision on Brexit and therefore it had to be put back to the people.
In October 2018, in an interview on Good Morning Britain she was asked if she would be interested in launching a leadership bid. Greening said: "Well, things need to change, don't they, people need to have some hope for the future that Britain can be a country that runs differently and more fairly." Questioned again on whether she would stand for the Conservative leadership if there were a vacancy, Greening said: "I might be prepared to, but I'm more interested in the Conservative party showing what it can do for this country."In early 2019, she co-founded the group Right to Vote. In October 2011, she was appointed Secretary of State for Transport and was sworn of the Privy Council. Greening represents the London constituency of Putney and had always campaigned against a third runway at Heathrow Airport. In the run up to the 2012 Cabinet reshuffle, Greening said it would be difficult to serve in a Cabinet, in favour of a third runway. In her role as Secretary of State for Transport, Greening oversaw the award of new rail franchises, including the award of the Intercity West Coast franchise to First Group in 2012.
In October 2012, Greening announced that the government was cancelling the franchise competition for the InterCity West Coast franchise after discovering significant technical flaws in the way the franchise process was conducted, reversing the decision to award it to FirstGroup. A report by the Transport Select Committee found fault with Greening and revealed that the cost to the taxpayer of the flawed franchise process was at least £40 million. On 4 September 2012, she was replaced by Patrick McLoughlin at the Department for Transport and became Secretary of State for International Development; the move was criticised by the Mayor of London Boris Johnson who believed it was linked to her opposition to a third runway at Heathrow. As Secretary of State for International Development, Greening became a member of the National Security Council. Greening was appointed Secretary of State for Education and Minister for Women and Equalities by Theresa May on 14 July 2016, replacing Nicky Morgan in both roles.
During her time in these posts, she announced the creation of social mobility'opportunity areas', the approval of additional free schools. She has spoken in favour of creating new grammar schools and retaining university tuition fees. In the June 2017 general election, after which the Conservatives formed a minority government, she held her Putney constituency albeit with a loss in vote share
Irish migration to Great Britain
Irish migration to Great Britain has occurred from the earliest recorded history to the present. There has been a continuous movement of people between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain due to their proximity; this tide has ebbed and flowed in response to politics and social conditions of both places. Ireland was a feudal Lordship of the Kings of England between 1171 and 1541. Today, Ireland is divided between the independent Republic of Northern Ireland. Today, millions of residents of Great Britain have Irish ancestry, it is estimated that as many as six million people living in the UK have at least one Irish grandparent. The Irish diaspora refers to their descendants who live outside Ireland; this article refers to those who reside in Great Britain, the largest island and principal territory of the United Kingdom. During the Dark Ages, significant Irish settlement of western Britain took place. The'traditional' view is that Gaelic language and culture was brought to Scotland in the 4th century, by settlers from Ireland, who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast.
This is based on medieval writings from the 9th and 10th centuries. However some archeologists have argued against this view, saying that there is no archeological or placename evidence for a migration or a takeover by a small group of elites. Due to the growth of Dál Riata, in both size and influence, Scotland became wholly Gaelic-speaking until Northumbrian English began to replace Gaelic in the Lowlands. Scottish Gaelic remained the dominant languages of the Highlands into the 19th century, but has since declined. Before and during the Gregorian mission of 596 AD, Irish Christians such as Columba, Diuma, Saint Machar, Saint Cathan, Saint Blane, Wyllow, Kessog, St Govan, Donnán of Eigg and Saint Fursey began the conversion of the English and Pictish peoples. Modwenna and others were significant in the following century; some English monarchs, such as Oswiu of Northumbria and Harold Godwinson were either raised in or sought refuge in Ireland, as did Welsh rulers such as Gruffudd ap Cynan. Alfred the Great may have spent some of his childhood in Ireland.
In the year 902 Vikings, forced out of Ireland were given permission by the English to settle in Wirral, in the north west of England. An Irish historical record known as "The Three Fragments" refers to a distinct group of settlers living among these Vikings as "Irishmen". Further evidence of this Irish migration to Wirral comes from the name of the village of Irby in Wirral, which means "settlement of the Irish", St Bridget's church, known to have been founded by "Vikings from Ireland". Irish people who made Britain their home in the medieval era included Aoife MacMurrough, Princess of Leinster, the poet Muireadhach Albanach, the lawyer William of Drogheada, Máel Muire Ó Lachtáin, Malachias Hibernicus, Gilbert Ó Tigernaig, Diarmait MacCairbre and Germyn Lynch, all of whom made successful lives in the various kingdoms of Britain. Irish immigrants to the United Kingdom in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were considered over-represented amongst those appearing in court. However, research suggests that policing strategy may have put immigrants at a disadvantage by targeting only the most public forms of crime, while locals were more able to engage in the types of crimes that could be conducted behind locked doors.
An analysis of historical courtroom records suggests that despite higher rates of arrest, immigrants were not systematically disadvantaged by the British court system in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Some notable people born in Ireland who settled in Great Britain between the 16th and 19th centuries: Richard Burke, 4th Earl of Clanricarde, died 1635. Robert Boyle, FRS, died 1691. Laetitia Pilkington, died 1750. Richard Brinsley Sheridan George Monro, 1700–57. Patrick Brontë, 1777–1861. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Thomas Moore, died 1852. Bram Stoker, author of Dracula Oliver Goldsmith author of The Deserted Village Edmund Burke politician, writer Mary Burns Robert Tressell The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists The most significant exodus followed the worst of a series of potato crop failures in the 1840s - the Irish Potato Famine, it is estimated that more than one million people died and the same again emigrated. A further wave of emigration to England took place between the 1930s, 1960s by Irish escaping poor economic conditions following the establishment of the Irish Free State.
This was furthered by the severe labour shortage in Britain during the mid-20th century, which depended on Irish immigrants to work in the areas of construction and domestic labour. The extent of the Irish contribution to Britain's construction industry in the 20th century may be gauged from Sir William MacAlpine's 1998 assertion that the contribution of the Irish to the success of his industry had been'immeasurable'. Ireland's population fell from more than 8 million to just 6.5 million between 1841 and 1851. A century it had dropped to 4.3 million. By the late 19th century, emigration was heaviest from Ireland's most rural southern and western counties. Cork, Galway, Sligo and Limerick alone provi
Metropolitan Borough of Battersea
Battersea was a civil parish and metropolitan borough in the County of London, England. In 1965, the borough was abolished and its area combined with parts of the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth to form the London Borough of Wandsworth; the borough was administered from Battersea Town Hall on Lavender Hill and the building is now Battersea Arts Centre. As an ancient parish, Battersea was part of the Hundred of County of Surrey, it included the exclave of Penge. In 1855, under the Metropolis Management Act 1855, the civil responsibilities of the parish were passed to the Metropolitan Board of Works; the two parts of the parish were assigned to different districts by the act establishing the MBW: Battersea was included in the area of the Wandsworth District Board of Works and the hamlet of Penge in that of Lewisham District Board of Works. Penge became a civil parish in its own right in 1866. On 25 March 1888, a separate vestry was formed as a local authority for The parish of Saint Mary Battersea excluding Penge.
In 1889, the Local Government Act 1888 reconstituted the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works as the County of London, Battersea was transferred from Surrey to the new county. The population of the parish in 1896 was 165,115 and it had adopted the Public Libraries Act 1850 upon obtaining local independence in 1888, with its own vestry. For electoral purposes, the parish had 120 elected vestrymen. In 1900, the London Government Act 1899 divided the County of London into twenty-eight metropolitan boroughs, the vestries and district boards were dissolved; the parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Battersea, with the borough council replacing the civil vestry. The Metropolitan Borough included within its bounds Battersea, Battersea Park, Clapham Junction and parts of Wandsworth Common and Clapham Common. In 1913, John Archer became mayor of the first black mayor in the capital; the ancient parish, dedicated to St Mary, was in the Diocese of Winchester until 1877 the Diocese of Rochester until 1905, finally in the Diocese of Southwark.
From 1851, as the population of Battersea increased, a number of new parishes were formed: St George, Nine Elms in 1853 Christ Church, Battersea Park in 1861 St John, York Road Battersea in 1863 St Philip, Queen's Road, Battersea in 1870 Church of the Ascension, Lavender Hill in 1871 St Saviour, Battersea Park Road in 1872 St Peter, Plough Road, Battersea in 1876 St Mark, Battersea Rise in 1883 All Saints, Queen's Road, Battersea Park in 1884 St Michael, Wandsworth Common in 1884 St Andrew, Stockdale Road, Battersea in 1886 St Stephen, Battersea Bridge Road in 1887 St Barnabas, Clapham Common in 1895 St Luke, Ramsden Road, Battersea in 1901 St Bartholomew, Wickersley Road, Battersea in 1906A number of new parishes were formed within the detached part of Battersea parish, the hamlet of Penge: St John the Evangelist, Penge in 1851 St Paul, Penge in 1869 Holy Trinity, Anerley Road, Penge in 1873 Christ Church, Penge in 1886 In 1901, the borough adopted an unofficial coat of arms, consisting of a shield vertically divided blue and white, the division line being indented.
This design was taken from a flag dating from 1803. On top of the shield was a dove bearing an olive branch; the Latin motto was Non Mihi, Non Tibi, Sed Nobis, or "Neither for myself, nor for yourself, but for us". In 1955, the borough received an official grant based on the old device; the colours in the shield were reversed, a bordure or heraldic border added. The bordure consisted of silver and blue waves, representative of the River Thames, bore sixteen gold stars for the sixteen wards of the borough; the new crest on top of the helm was the dove of the 1901 design, with the addition of sprigs of lavender, for the old lavender fields of the area, Lavender Hill, the main road of Battersea. The old motto was retained; the area of the Borough was 2,163 acres. The population recorded in the Census was: Battersea Vestry 1801–1899 Metropolitan Borough 1900–1961 The first election to the council was on 1 November 1900, with the Progressive Party taking control of the new borough, they retained power until 1909.
The Progressives regained the council in 1912, holding power until 1919 when the Labour Party gained control. In 1931 the borough come under Municipal Reform control again. Labour regained power in 1934. Elections of the whole council were held every three years. Elections were cancelled during the two world wars; the 1952 election was postponed for a year so that it did not clash with elections to the London County Council. The number of councillors returned at each election was as follows:. Local electionsNo Municipal Reform candidates were nominated after 1946, Conservative candidates were nominated at local elections for the first time. From 1900 to 1949 the borough was divided into nine wards, returning either three, six or nine councillors: Bolingbroke Broomwood Church Latchmere Nine Elms Park St John Shaftesbury Winstanley In 1949 the wards were redrawn, with fourteen wards returning three to five councillors each: Bolingbroke Broomwood Church Latchmere Lavender Newtown Nightingale Nine Elms Park Queenstown St John Shaftesbury Stormont Thornton Vicarage Winstanley The latest ward to be redrawn was Fairfield ward, with three councillors.
For elections to parliament the borough was part of the parliamentary borough of Battersea and Clapham, which consisted of two divisions, Battersea a
Wandsworth London Borough Council
Wandsworth London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Wandsworth in Greater London, England. It is one of 32 in the United Kingdom capital of London. Wandsworth is divided into each electing three councillors. After the May 2018 election, 33 of these councillors were Conservatives and 26 were Labour, with 1 independent. Since 1978, the Conservatives have had an overall majority on the council, it was envisaged through the London Government Act 1963 that Wandsworth as a London local authority would share power with the Greater London Council. The split of powers and functions meant that the Greater London Council was responsible for "wide area" services such as fire, flood prevention, refuse disposal; this arrangement lasted until 1986 when Wandsworth London Borough Council gained responsibility for some services, provided by the Greater London Council, such as waste disposal. Wandsworth became an education authority in 1990. Since 2000 the Greater London Authority has taken some responsibility for highways and planning control from the council, but within the English local government system the council remains a "most purpose" authority in terms of the available range of powers and functions.
Wandsworth London Borough Council is the billing authority for Council Tax, collects a precepts on behalf of the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime, the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority the Greater London Authority and Transport for London. The Labour Party won the first election in 1964 and in 1971 and 1974; the Conservative Party have been in power since 1978. Wandsworth Plus Credit Union
British African-Caribbean people
British African-Caribbean people are residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestors were indigenous to Africa. As immigration to the United Kingdom from Africa increased in the 1990s, the term has sometimes been used to include UK residents of African origin or as a term to define all Black British residents, though the phrase African and Caribbean has more been used to cover such a broader grouping; the most common and traditional use of the term African-Caribbean community is in reference to groups of residents continuing aspects of Caribbean culture and traditions in the UK. The African-Caribbean population in the UK come from the Islands in the British West Indies such as Jamaica and Tobago, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Grenada and Barbuda, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Belize. African-Caribbean communities are present throughout the United Kingdom's major cities, the UK Census identified the largest concentration is in Birmingham followed by London. Manchester, Nottingham, Luton, Leicester, Gloucester, Huddersfield, Sheffield and Cardiff.
In these cities, the community is traditionally associated with a particular area, such as Brixton, Stonebridge, Lewisham, Peckham in London, West Bowling and Heaton in Bradford, Chapeltown in Leeds, St. Pauls in Bristol, or Handsworth and Aston in Birmingham or Moss Side in Manchester, St Ann's in Nottingham and Toxteth in Liverpool. According to the 2011 UK Census, the largest number of African-Caribbean people are now found in Croydon, South London. A glossary published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health with the intention of stimulating debate about the development of better and more internationally applicable terms to describe ethnicity and race, suggests a definition of Afro-Caribbean/African Caribbean as, "A person of African ancestral origins whose family settled in the Caribbean before emigrating and who self identifies, or is identified, as Afro-Caribbean". A survey of the use of terms to describe people of African descent in medical research notes that: "The term African Caribbean/Afro-Caribbean when used in Europe and North America refers to people with African ancestral origins who migrated via the Caribbean islands".
It suggests that use of the term in the UK is inconsistent, with some researchers using it to describe people of Black and of Caribbean descent, whereas others use it to refer to those of either West African or Caribbean background. The British Sociological Association's guidelines on ethnicity and race state that "African-Caribbean has replaced the term Afro-Caribbean to refer to Caribbean peoples and those of Caribbean origin who are of African descent. There is now a view that the term should not be hyphenated and that indeed, the differences between such groups mean the people of African and Caribbean origins should be referred to separately"; the Guardian and Observer style guide prescribes the use of "African-Caribbean" for use in the two newspapers noting "not Afro-Caribbean". Sociologist Peter J. Aspinall argues that the term "Black" has been reclaimed by people of African and Caribbean origin in the UK, noting that in a 1992 health survey, 17 per cent of 722 African–Caribbeans surveyed, including 36 percent of those aged 16 to 29, described themselves as "Black British".
This, he suggests, "appears to be a pragmatic and spontaneous response to the wish to describe an allegiance to a'British' identity and the diminishing importance of ties with a homeland in the Caribbean". From the 16th century to the 19th century, enslaved Africans were shipped by European slave traders to British colonies in the Caribbean and British North America, as well as French, Danish and Portuguese colonies. New World slavery was focused on the extraction of gold and other precious raw materials. Africans were later set to work on the vast cotton and sugar plantations in the Americas for the economic benefit of these colonial powers and their plantocracy. One impact of the American Revolution was the differing historical development of African-American and African-Caribbean people. Whereas the American colonies had established slavery by positive laws, slavery did not exist under English common law and was thus prohibited in England; the much lauded British Afro-Caribbean Ignatius Sancho was among the leading British abolitionists in the 18th century, in 1783 an abolitionist movement spread throughout Britain to end slavery throughout the British Empire, with the poet William Cowper writing in 1785: "We have no slaves at home – Then why abroad?
Slaves cannot breathe in England. They touch our country, their shackles fall. That's noble, bespeaks a nation proud, and jealous of the blessing. Spread it And let it circulate through every vein." There are records of small communities in the ports of Cardiff, Liverpool and South Shields dating back to the mid-18th century. These communities were formed by freed slaves following the abolition of slavery. Typical occupations of the early migrants were coachmen. Prominent African-Caribbean people in Britain during the 19th century include: William Davidson, Cato Street Conspirator Rev. George Cousens, a Jamaican who became minister of Cradley Heath Baptist Church in 1837 Mary Seacole
British Indians are citizens of the United Kingdom whose ancestral roots lie in India. This includes people born in the UK who are of Indian descent, Indian-born people who have migrated to the UK. Today, Indians comprise about 1.4 million people in the UK, making them the single largest visible ethnic minority population in the country. They make up the largest subgroup of British Asians, are one of the largest Indian communities in the Indian diaspora due to the Indian-British relations; the British Indian community is the sixth largest in the Indian diaspora, behind the Indian communities in the United States, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Nepal. The largest group of British Indians are those of Punjabi origin, accounting for an estimated 45 percent of the British Indian population, followed by other communities including Gujarati and Marathi communities. Official figures demonstrate that Indian employees have the highest average hourly rate among all ethnic groups in Britain.
A study in 2011 found British Indians have among the lowest poverty rates among all non-Caucasian ethnic groups in Britain. Studies and official figures have shown that Indians are more to be employed in professional and managerial occupations, than all other ethnic groups, including White British people. People from India have settled in Great Britain since the East India Company recruited lascars to replace vacancies in their crews on East Indiamen whilst on voyages in India; these were men from the Indo-Portuguese or Luso-Asian communities of the subcontinent, including men from Bombay, Cochin and the Hugli River in Bengal. Muslim Bengalis and men from Ratnagiri were hired. Many were refused passage back and had no alternative than to settle in London. There were some ayahs, domestic servants and nannies of wealthy British families, who accompanied their employers back to Britain when their stay in South Asia came to an end. British soldiers would sometimes marry Indian women and send their mixed race children back to Britain, although the wife did not accompany them.
Indian wives of British soldiers would sometimes ask for passage home after being abandoned or widowed if they did accompany their children. In 1835, Bridget Peter a native of the Madras region lost her husband, a British soldier serving in His Majesty's 1st Foot Regiment, she petitioned the Directors from Chelsea Hospital'in a state of destitution'. They her three children to India; the Navigation Act of 1660 restricted the employment of non-English sailors to a quarter of the crew on returning East India Company ships. Baptism records in East Greenwich suggest that a small number of young Indians from the Malabar Coast were being recruited as house servants at the end of the 17th century, records of the EIC suggest that Indo-Portuguese cooks from Goa were retained by captains from voyage to voyage. In 1797, 13 were buried in the parish of St Nicholas at Deptford. During the 19th century, the East India Company brought thousands of Indian lascars and workers to Britain to work on ships and in ports.
Some of whom settled down and took local British wives due to a lack of Indian women in Britain and abandonment due to restrictions on South Asian crew members being employed on British ships such as the Navigation Acts. It is estimated 8,000 Indians lived in Britain permanently prior to the 1950s. Due to the majority of early Asian immigrants being lascar seamen, the earliest Indian communities were found in port towns. Naval cooks came, many of them from the Sylhet Division of what is now Bangladesh. One of the most famous early Bengali immigrants to Britain was Sake Dean Mahomet, a captain of the British East India Company. In 1810, he founded the Hindoostanee Coffee House, he is valued for introducing shampoo and therapeutic massage to the United Kingdom. By the mid-19th century, there were more than 40,000 Indian seamen, scholars, officials, tourists and students in Britain, the majority of them being seamen working on ships, Lascars lodged in British ports in between voyages. Most Indians during this period would visit or reside in Britain temporarily, returning to India after months or several years, bringing back knowledge about Britain in the process.
The 1931 Census of India estimated that there were at least 2,000 Indian students in English and Scottish Universities at the time, from an estimated, overwhelmingly male population of 9,243 South Asians on the British mainland, of which 7,128 resided in England and Wales, two thousand in Scotland, with a thousand in Northern Ireland, 1 on the Isle of Man. Their origins were recorded as: In 1932, the Indian National Congress survey of "all Indians outside India" estimated that there were 7,128 Indians living in the United Kingdom, which included students and professionals such as doctors; the resident Indian population of Birmingham was recorded at 100 by 1939. By 1945 it was 1,000. Following the Second World War and the breakup of the British Empire, Indian migration to the UK increased through the 1950s and 1960s; this was due to the British Nationality Act 1948, which enabled migration from the Commonwealth with few limits. In 1950 there were fewer than 20,000 non-white residents in B
British Pakistanis are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestral roots lie in Pakistan. This includes people born in the UK who are of Pakistani descent, Pakistani-born people who have migrated to the UK; the majority of British Pakistanis originate from the Azad Kashmir and Punjab regions, with a smaller number from other parts of Pakistan including Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. The UK is home to the largest Pakistani community in Europe, with the population of British Pakistanis exceeding 1.17 million based on the 2011 census. British Pakistanis are the second-largest ethnic minority population in the United Kingdom and make up the second-largest sub-group of British Asians. In addition, they are one of the largest overseas Pakistani communities, similar in number to the Pakistani diaspora in Saudi Arabia. Due to the historical relations between the two countries, immigration to the UK from the region, now Pakistan began in small numbers in the mid-19th century.
During the mid-nineteenth century, parts of what is now Pakistan came under the British Raj and people from those regions served as soldiers in the British Indian Army, some were deployed in other parts of the British Empire. However, it was following the Second World War, the break-up of the British Empire and the independence of Pakistan, that Pakistani immigration to the United Kingdom increased during the 1950s and 1960s; this was made easier. Pakistani immigrants helped to resolve labour shortages in the British steel and engineering industries. Doctors from Pakistan were recruited by the National Health Service in the 1960s; the British Pakistani population has grown from about 10,000 in 1951 to over 1.1 million in 2011. The vast majority of these live in England, with a sizable number in Scotland and smaller numbers in Wales and Northern Ireland; the most diverse Pakistani population is in London which comprises Punjabis, Mirpuri Kashmiris, Sindhis, Saraikis and others. The majority of British Pakistanis are Muslim.
The majority are Sunni Muslims, with a significant minority of Shia Muslims. The UK has one of the largest overseas Christian Pakistani communities. Since their settlement, British Pakistanis have had diverse contributions and influence on British society, culture and sport. Whilst social issues include high relative poverty rates among the community according to the 2001 census, significant progress has been made in recent years, with the 2011 Census showing British Pakistanis as having amongst the highest levels of home ownership in Britain. A large number of British Pakistanis have traditionally been self-employed, with a significant number working in the transport industry or in family-run businesses of the retail sector; the earliest period of Asian migration to Britain has not been ascertained. It is known that Romani groups such as the Romanichal and Kale arrived in the region during the Middle Ages, having originated from North India and Pakistan and traveled westward to Europe via Southwest Asia around 1000 CE, intermingling with local populations over the course of several centuries.
Immigration from what is now Pakistan to the United Kingdom began long before the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Muslim immigrants from Kashmir, Sindh, the North-West Frontier and Balochistan as well as other parts of South Asia, arrived in the British Isles as early as the mid-seventeenth century as employees of the East India Company as lashkars and sailors in British port cities; these immigrants were the first Asians to be seen in British port cities and were perceived as indolent due to their reliance on Christian charities. Despite this, most early Pakistani immigrants married local white British women because there were few South Asian women in Britain at the time. During the colonial era, Asians continued coming to Britain as seamen, students, domestic workers, political officials and visitors, some of them settled in the region. South Asian seamen being abandoned by ship masters. Many early Pakistanis came to the UK as scholars and studied at major British institutions, before returning to British India.
An example of such a person is the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah came to the UK in 1892 and started an apprenticeship at Graham's Shipping and Trading Company. After completing his apprenticeship, Jinnah joined Lincoln's Inn. At 19, Jinnah became the youngest person from South Asia to be called to the bar in Britain. Most early Pakistani settlers and their families moved from port towns to the Midlands, as Britain declared war on Germany in 1939. Many of these Kashmiris and Sindhis worked in the munition factories of Birmingham. After the war, most of these early settlers stayed on in the region and took advantage of an increase in the number of jobs; these settlers were joined by the arrival of their families to Britain. In 1932, the Indian National Congress survey of'all Indians outside India' estimated that there were 7,128 Indians in the United Kingdom. There were 832,500 Muslim Indian soldiers in 1945; these soldiers fought alongside the British Army during the F