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London Broncos

The London Broncos are the only professional rugby league club in the entire south of England and play at the Trailfinders Sports Ground in Ealing, sharing with the rugby union side Ealing Trailfinders. The club competes in the Rugby Football League Championship, though it was a founding member of Super League from its introduction in 1996 until the end of the 2014 season when it was relegated to the RFL Championship; the club returned to the Super League after having achieved promotion by winning the Million Pound Game against the Toronto Wolfpack in 2018, but was relegated back to RFL Championship at the conclusion of the 2019 Super League season after finishing 12th. The club was formed as Fulham in 1981, entering the Rugby Football League Championship's second division for the 1980–81 Rugby Football League season; the club has been known as London Crusaders, London Broncos and Harlequins Rugby League. The current head coach and assistant coaches are Danny Ward and Jamie Langley, As both have been under 19s Head Coaches for the Broncos, they are renowned for bringing young players through to first team level.

The Broncos squad as of 2019 includes home grown players such as Scotland international Alex Walker. There are six other club trained players in the first team pool. Former Broncos club trained players in Super League include Dan Sarginson. Broncos has several club trained players in the Championship including Will Sharp. Five of the Jamaican World Cup squad in Jonathan Magrin, James Woodburn-Hall, Jacob Ogden, Lamont Bryan and Omari Caro are club-trained Broncos; the Broncos are captained by Jay Pitts, a second row forward who has played for the likes of Leeds Rhinos, Hull FC, Wakefield and Bradford Bulls. Whilst the club has never won a major trophy, they were finalists in the 1999 Challenge Cup and finished the 1997 Super League season in second place; the first trophy the club has won since its formation in 1980 was the Rugby Football League Championship Second Division in 1982–83, with the second trophy being for the Million Pound Game in 2018. Professional rugby league was represented in London in the 1930s by London Highfield and Willesden and Streatham and Mitcham.

All were speculative clubs set up by local businessmen purely as money making exercises, were driven out of business through poor finances. Thereafter, the sport of rugby league in England remained a Northern game for over forty years until the formation in 1980 of a new club in London, Fulham. In 1980, Fulham Football Club chairman Ernie Clay, set up a rugby league team at Craven Cottage, with the primary intention of creating another income stream for the football club. Warrington director Harold Genders, who had helped to persuade Clay of the benefits of starting a rugby league club in the capital, resigned from the Warrington board to become managing director of Fulham R. L. F. C; the Rugby Football League, keen to encourage the expansion of the sport beyond its traditional Northern heartland, accepted the new club at once. One of the game's leading players, Reg Bowden, was recruited by Genders to act as player-coach and the club's first signing was Roy Lester on a free transfer from Warrington.

Within nine weeks and Bowden had assembled a team of experienced players approaching retirement, together with a few promising youngsters. The first match was a major success; the new Fulham RL team proved to be competitive and went on to win promotion at the end of their inaugural season. After their initial season, immediate relegation from the first division in 1981–82 was something of a reality check. Fulham played two "home" games against Swinton and Huddersfield at Widnes in 1983 as the pitch at the Cottage had disintegrated in the wet winter following the collapse of the main drain to the River Thames under the Miller Stand. Despite winning the Division Two Championship comfortably in 1982–83, a second immediate relegation in 1983–84, coupled with continuing financial losses, saw Clay, under pressure from the Fulham board, pull the plug at the end of their fourth season. However, with the backing of supporters Roy and Barbara Close and with a new coach, former player Roy Lester, Fulham RL still had a future.

Most of the former players had moved on as free agents and a new squad began life based at the Crystal Palace National Sports Centre. The club moved to a new home at Chiswick Polytechnic Sports Ground in 1985, they played several one-off games at various football grounds around London such as Wealdstone, Hendon and Chelsea's ground Stamford Bridge in 1983. Bill Goodwin replaced Lester as coach between 1986 and 1987. In August 1986, Fulham hit a serious cash crisis and withdrew from the RFL 11 days before the start of the season, but re-launched in September. Bev Risman was asked to be coach at Fulham in 1987; the team was in the bottom half of the second division. The team struggled for success and Risman left after a couple of seasons and Bill Goodwin returned. Phil Sullivan was coach for just two months between January and February 1989, thereafter Goodwin came in for his third spell and held the r

List of places on the Isle of Wight

This is a list of towns and villages in the county of Isle of Wight, England. There are nine main towns, most located along the north and east coasts. By greater area population, Ryde is the largest with a population of 32,072. Newport is the centrally located county town, with an area population of 25,496. Most settlements link to Newport by road, a hub for island services. There are no settlements with city status. A self-descriptive definition of a village is adopted here. List of United Kingdom locations List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest on the Isle of Wight List of places in England Map of places on the Isle of Wight compiled from this list Isle of Wight Towns & Villages, Isle of Wight Time, Greenwich Mean Time website Place Name Index, Wightcam- Photographically Illustrated Walks on the Isle of Wight The Villages and Towns of the Isle of Wight, Southern Life website.

Downtown Tunnel

The Downtown Tunnel on Interstate 264 crosses the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River in the South Hampton Roads area of Virginia, US. It links the independent City of Portsmouth with the independent City of Norfolk. In conjunction with the Berkley Bridge, the Downtown Tunnel connects to Interstate 464 to the City of Chesapeake and a continuation I-264 to the downtown and Waterside areas of Norfolk, on to Virginia Beach. Owned by the Virginia Department of Transportation, it is operated and maintained by Elizabeth River Crossings under a 58-year public–private partnership concession agreement. A toll-free facility, open road tolling was implemented on February 1, 2014 by VDOT to help finance repairs and expansion to the tunnel. In the mid-1940s, Virginia legislators wanted to replace the aging vehicle ferry system that transported its motorists over the waterways in the state. Authorized by a revenue bond act passed earlier by the General Assembly, the commission decided during the 1946-47 fiscal year to construct toll bridges to replace ferry crossings on the York River at Yorktown and the Rappahannock River at Grey’s Point and to acquire from private owners the ferries that carried vehicles across Hampton Roads between the Norfolk and Lower Peninsula areas.

Shortly thereafter in 1952, VDOT opened a two-lane tunnel. It was the first fixed crossing directly between Portsmouth and Norfolk across the Elizabeth River, predating the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel by five years, it was financed and built by the Elizabeth River Tunnel Commission with toll revenue bonds and was completed in 1952. Tolls at the time were 25 cents. In 1988 and 1989, during an expansion of I-264, the Downtown Tunnel was expanded to two tunnels, the nearby Berkley Bridge was rebuilt and expanded to eight lanes, connecting I-264 to I-464, just short of the tunnel entrance. Tolls were removed at that time. In 2004, VDOT sent out an informal request for information to private entities to gauge interest in pursuing a public-private partnership to help build the parallel Midtown Tunnel and extend the MLK Freeway to I-264. At the time, the project did not include any work at the Downtown Tunnel. Of the three companies that responded, two of the companies, one being the company that bid on the current project, referred to a study funded earlier in the year noting that the only possible way of making the project financially feasible was to toll the Downtown Tunnel as well as the Midtown Tunnel for construction costs.

VDOT began soliciting bids from private companies to partner with the state in executing the Elizabeth River Tunnels Project, which now included the rehabilitation of the Downtown Tunnel) through Virginia's Public Private Transportation Act. Elizabeth River Crossings, the company formed by interested party Skanska with additional capital by Australian investment company Macquarie Group, submitted their proposal to VDOT. After the lengthy review process required under the PPTA, then-Governor Bob McDonnell and VDOT executed the Comprehensive Agreement with ERC on December 5, 2011. Under the agreement, VDOT retains ownership and oversight of the tunnels, while ERC finances, builds and maintains the facilities for a 58-year concession period. Under the agreement, the work on the Downtown Tunnel consisted of different items based on NFPA 502 standards, work which includes: Removing the suspended ceiling of the eastbound tunnel Removing old lighting and replacing with energy-efficient LED lighting Installing a new longitudinal ventilation system with eight sets of jet fans, Removing police booths and other cosmetic level rehab work.

Work on the westbound tunnel began on August 9, 2013. Rehabilitation work on the eastbound tunnel began on July 25, 2014; the completion date of the Downtown Tunnel rehabilitation work was November 3, 2016