London Buses is the subsidiary of Transport for London that manages bus services within Greater London. It was formed following the Greater London Authority Act 1999 that transferred control of bus services in Greater London and its surrounding areas from the UK Government's London Regional Transport to TfL, controlled by the locally elected Mayor of London. Transport for London's key areas of direct responsibility through London Buses are the following: planning new bus routes revising existing bus routes specifying service levels monitoring service quality management of bus stations and bus stops assistance in'on ground' set up of diversions, bus driver assistance in situations over and above job requirements, for example Road Accidents providing information for passengers in the form of timetables and maps at bus stops and online, an online route planning service producing leaflet maps, available from Travel Information Centres, libraries etc. and as online downloads. Operating CentreComm London Buses' 24‑hour command-and-control centre based in Southwark All bus operations are undertaken under a tendering system in which operators bid for routes in return for a set price per route operated.
Contracts are for five years, with two-year extensions available if performance criteria are met. Routes are set up, controlled and tendered out by Transport for London and they provide day to day assistance via CentreComm which coordinates a large scale network of Network Traffic Controllers to help with any traffic issues that may occur. Operators provide staff to drive the buses, provide the buses to operate and adhere to set TfL guidelines. Operators are in return paid per mile that each bus runs, the pricing is announced on new tenders. London Buses publishes a variety of bus maps; some are traditional street maps of London marked with bus numbers. In 2002, TfL introduced the first "spider" maps. Rather than attempting to cover the entire city, these maps are centred on a particular locality or bus station, convey the route information in the schematic style of Harry Beck's influential Tube map, capitalising on TfL's iconic style of information design; the arachnoid form of bus routes radiating from a centre earned them the nickname "spider" maps, although TfL refer to them on their website as route maps.
The maps are displayed at most major bus stops, can be downloaded in PDF format via the Internet from the TfL website. The legal identity of London Buses is London Bus Services Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London. East Thames Buses was the trading name of another wholly owned subsidiary of TfL called, rather confusingly, London Buses Limited. LBL was formed on 1 April 1985 as part of the privatisation of London bus services, acted as an arm's-length subsidiary of TfL's precursor organisation, London Regional Transport, holding twelve bus operating units and other assets; the operating units were sold off in 1994/95, their purchasers make up the majority of companies awarded bus operating tenders from the current London Buses. After 1994/95, the LBL company lay dormant, passing from LRT to TfL, it was resurrected when East Thames Buses was formed, separated by a "Chinese wall" from LBSL, acted as a London bus operator by proxy. The local bus network in London is one of the most comprehensive in the world.
Over 8000 scheduled buses operate on over 700 different routes. Over the year this network carries over 1.8 billion passenger journeys. Buses in the London Buses network accept Travelcards, Oyster card products and contactless debit and credit cards. Cash fares have not been available since 6 July 2014, but Day Bus passes were re-introduced on 2 January 2015. Single journey fares used to be charged in relation to length of journey, but are now charged as single flat fares for any length of journey. From 2000, the flat fare was higher for journeys in Zone 1 than in outer zones, although from 2004 this difference was eliminated, the change coinciding with the introduction of Oyster card flat fares; as of 2019, the single fare is £1.50. With Oyster pay as you go, users are charged a set amount for single journeys, although there is a "daily cap", which limits the maximum amount of money that will be deducted from the balance, regardless of how many buses are taken that day. Alternatively and monthly passes may be purchased and loaded onto an Oyster card.
Passengers using contactless payment cards are charged the same fares as on Oyster pay. Unlike Oyster cards, contactless cards have a 7-day fare cap though it only operates on a Monday-Sunday basis. Under 11s can travel free on London buses and trams at any time unaccompanied by an adult. Children aged 11 to 15 travel free on buses with an 11–15 Oyster photocard. Visitors can have a special discount added to an ordinary Oyster card at TfL's Travel Information Centres. There are concessions for London residents aged 16 to 18; the Freedom Pass scheme allows Greater London residents over state pension age, those with a disability, to travel free at any time on buses and TfL's rail services. People who have concessionary bus passes issued by English local authorities travel free on TfL bus services at any time. Bus services in London are operated by Abellio London, Arriva London, CT Plus, Go-Ahead London, London Sovereign RATP, London United, Quality Line, Stagecoach London, Sullivan Buses, Tower Transit and Uno.
Each company has its own operating code, and
Gowan Glacier is a glacier about 15 nautical miles long in the Heritage Range of the Ellsworth Mountains of Antarctica, flowing north from the vicinity of Cunningham Peak in the Founders Escarpment to enter Minnesota Glacier just east of Welcome Nunatak. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U. S. Navy air photos, 1961–66, was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Lieutenant Jimmy L. Gowan, U. S. Navy Medical Corps, officer in charge and doctor at Plateau Station in 1966. List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Gowan Glacier"
Robert M. Arkin is a social psychologist and member of the social program faculty at The Ohio State University, he is known for his research on self-handicapping. Arkin’s research concerns the self in social interaction, with special emphasis on the uncertain self. Arkin developed the Subjective Overachievement Scale more than a decade ago to tap feelings of self-doubt coupled with a performance outcome concerns, he is Editor of the 2011 book "Most Underappreciated: 50 Prominent Social Psychologists Describe Their Most Unloved Work”, Handbook of the Uncertain Self, the forthcoming Handbook of Personal Security. Arkin is a member of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology. Arkin has served more than fourteen years as Associate Editor and Editor of major journals in the discipline. Other honors include: The Middlebush Chair in Psychology. Arkin’s Ohio State Faculty profile Arkin’s Laboratory of the Uncertain Self Arkin’s Social Psychology Network page