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London Marathon

The London Marathon is an annual long-distance running event held in London, United Kingdom, part of the World Marathon Majors. The event has been held in the spring of every year since. Since 2010, the race has been sponsored by Virgin Money; the 2019 London Marathon took place on Sunday, 28 April 2019. It was won by Eliud Kipchoge in a time of 02:02:37; the 2020 London Marathon is scheduled for Sunday, 26 April 2020. It includes a anticipated matchup between Kipchoge and Kenenisa Bekele; the race was founded by journalist Chris Brasher and athlete John Disley. It is organised by Hugh Brasher as Nick Bitel as Chief Executive. Set over a flat course around the River Thames, the race begins at three separate points around Blackheath and finishes in The Mall alongside St James's Park. Since the first marathon, the course has undergone few route changes. In 1982, the finishing post was moved from Constitution Hill to Westminster Bridge due to construction works, it remained there for twelve years before moving to its present location at The Mall.

In addition to being one of the top six international marathons run over the distance of 26 mi 385 yd, the IAAF standard for the marathon established in 1921 and used for the 1908 London Olympics, the London Marathon is a large, celebratory sporting festival, third in England only to the Great North Run in Newcastle upon Tyne and Great Manchester Run in Manchester in terms of the number of participants. The event has raised over £450 million for charity since 1981, holds the Guinness world record as the largest annual fund raising event in the world, with the 2009 participants raising over £47.2 million for charity. In 2007, 78% of all runners raised money. In 2011 the official charity of the London Marathon was Oxfam. In 2014, the official charity was Anthony Nolan, in 2015, it was Cancer Research UK. In 2018 it was Teenage Cancer Trust; the London Marathon was not the first long-distance running event held in the city, which has a long history of marathon events. The Polytechnic Marathon was first held in 1909.

The current London Marathon was founded in 1981 by Olympic champion and journalist Chris Brasher and athlete John Disley. Shortly after completing the New York City Marathon in November 1979 Brasher wrote an article for The Observer newspaper which began: To believe this story you must believe that the human race be one joyous family, working together, laughing together, achieving the impossible. Last Sunday, in one of the most trouble-stricken cities in the world, 11,532 men and women from 40 countries in the world, assisted by over a million black and yellow people, laughed and suffered during the greatest folk festival the world has seen. Inspired by the people of New York coming together for this occasion, he asked "whether London could stage such a festival?" The following year Brasher and Disley made trips to America to study the organisation and finance of big city marathons. Brasher signed a contract with Gillette for £50,000, established charitable status and outlined six main aims in the hope to mirror the scenes he witnessed in New York and establish the United Kingdom on the map as a country capable of arranging major events.

The London Marathon was born. The first London Marathon was held on more than 20,000 applied to run. 6,747 were accepted and 6,255 crossed the finish line on Constitution Hill. The Marathon's popularity has grown since then; as at 2009, 746,635 people have completed the race since its inception. In 2010, 36,549 people crossed the line, the biggest field since the race began; the first wheelchair marathon race was held in 1983 and the event was credited with reducing the stigma surrounding disabled athletes. In 2013 the IPC Athletics Marathon World Cup was held within the London Marathon featuring athletes of both genders in the T42–T46 and T11–T13 categories. In August 2013 it was announced that the event would be staged in London until 2017 and feature athletes in the T11-T12, T13, T42-T44, T43, T45-46, T51-52 and the T53-54 class. For many years the London and Polytechnic Marathons competed with each other until, in 1996, the latter folded in due to the popularity of the former. Following the Boston Marathon bombings, organisers of the 2013 London Marathon undertook a review of their security arrangements, despite no specific threats against the event.

A 30-second silence was held before the start of the marathon to show respect and support to those affected by the tragedy. The race is organised by Hugh Brasher, son of Chris, as Race Director and Nick Bitel as Chief Executive. David Bedford and Bitel had overseen a period of great change for the race, including amendments to the course in 2005 which saw the cobbled section by the Tower of London replaced with a flat stretch along the Highway. Dan Tunstall Pedoe was the medical director of the London Marathon for 25 years between the first one in 1981 until 2005. In 2003, Pedoe was shadowed by Sanjay Sharma from St George's Hospital who took over the role in its entirety in 2006. Medical cover is provided by 150 doctors. Assisting were more than 1,500 volunteers of St. John Ambulance, who organise over 50 first aid posts along the route, three field hospitals at the finish. St John Ambulance provide a number of healthcare professions for the event, including nurses, ambulances with crews; the BBC covers the event.

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Saint-√Čtienne River (Saguenay River)

The Saint-Étienne River is a tributary of the south shore of the Saguenay River flowing into the municipality of Petit-Saguenay in the Saguenay Fjord, Canada. In the end, this river crosses the Saguenay Fjord National Park; the Saint-Étienne River Valley is served by Chemin Saint-Étienne and Chemin du Lac Fidelin. Forestry is the first economic activity in the sector; the surface of the Saint-Étienne River is frozen from the beginning of December to the end of March, safe ice circulation is from mid-December to mid-March. The main hydrographic slopes near the Saint-Étienne River are: North side: Saguenay River; the Saint-Étienne River rises at the mouth of Lac des Côtes. This source is located at: 3.8 km south of its mouth. From its source, the course of the Saint-Étienne River descends on 4.8 km according to the following segments: 2.9 km northerly in a confined valley to the outlet of an unidentified lake. The mouth of the Saint-Étienne River flows into the bottom of Anse Saint-Étienne on the south shore of the Saguenay River.

This confluence is located at: 3.6 km north-east of the village center of Saint-Étienne. The toponym "Saint-Étienne River" refers to a patron of the Roman Catholic Church; the toponym "Saint-Étienne River" was formalized on December 5, 1968 at the Bank of Place Names of the Commission de toponymie du Québec. Petit-Saguenay, a municipality Saguenay Fjord National Park Saguenay River, a watercourse List of rivers of Quebec

List of Xbox One applications

This is a list of applications available on Xbox One. Some applications may require subscriptions to Xbox Live, its premium gold service, or a qualifying TV provider and to the respective content. Yes = Exclusive only to the Xbox One console. Xbox = Exclusive to Microsoft's Xbox platforms. Timed = Confirmed as exclusive for a certain period of time, but will become available on other platforms later. No = Available to more than one console of this or the previous console generation. Yes = Kinect is required for functionality. Supported = Kinect is optional. No = Control is with the controller exclusively. Yes = A separate subscription to a particular service is required for use; this can be to specific television service providers as well as content providers. Optional = A separate subscription to a particular service adds functionality. No = All features available to all application users. List of Xbox 360 applications List of Xbox One games Xbox Live