Augustus De Morgan
Augustus De Morgan was a British mathematician and logician. He formulated De Morgan's laws and introduced the term mathematical induction, making its idea rigorous. Augustus De Morgan was born in Madurai, India in 1806, his father was Lieut.-Colonel John De Morgan, who held various appointments in the service of the East India Company. His mother, Elizabeth Dodson, was a descendant of James Dodson, who computed a table of anti-logarithms, that is, the numbers corresponding to exact logarithms. Augustus De Morgan became blind in one eye; the family moved to England. As his father and grandfather had both been born in India, De Morgan used to say that he was neither English, nor Scottish, nor Irish, but a Briton "unattached", using the technical term applied to an undergraduate of Oxford or Cambridge, not a member of any one of the Colleges; when De Morgan was ten years old his father died. Mrs De Morgan resided at various places in the southwest of England, her son received his elementary education at various schools of no great account.
His mathematical talents went unnoticed until he was fourteen, when a family-friend discovered him making an elaborate drawing of a figure in Euclid with ruler and compasses. She explained the aim of Euclid to Augustus, gave him an initiation into demonstration, he received his secondary education from Mr Parsons, a fellow of Oriel College, who appreciated classics better than mathematics. His mother was an active and ardent member of the Church of England, desired that her son should become a clergyman, but by this time De Morgan had begun to show his non-conforming disposition, he became an atheist. There is a word in our language with which I shall not confuse this subject, both on account of the dishonourable use, made of it, as an imputation thrown by one sect upon another, of the variety of significations attached to it. I shall use the word Anti-Deism to signify the opinion that there does not exist a Creator who made and sustains the Universe. In 1823, at the age of sixteen, he entered Trinity College, where he came under the influence of George Peacock and William Whewell, who became his lifelong friends.
His college tutor was John Philips Higman, FRS. At college he was prominent in the musical clubs, his love of knowledge for its own sake interfered with training for the great mathematical race. This entitled him to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. To the signing of any such test De Morgan felt a strong objection, although he had been brought up in the Church of England. In about 1875 theological tests for academic degrees were abolished in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge; as no career was open to him at his own university, he decided to go to the Bar, took up residence in London. About this time the movement for founding London University took shape; the two ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge were so guarded by theological tests that no Jew or Dissenter outside the Church of England could enter as a student, still less be appointed to any office. A body of liberal-minded men resolved to meet the difficulty by establishing in London a University on the principle of religious neutrality.
De Morgan 22 years of age, was appointed professor of mathematics. His introductory lecture "On the study of mathematics" is a discourse upon mental education of permanent value, has been reprinted in the United States; the London University was a new institution, the relations of the Council of management, the Senate of professors and the body of students were not well defined. A dispute arose between the professor of anatomy and his students, in consequence of the action taken by the Council, several professors resigned, headed by De Morgan. Another professor of mathematics was appointed, who drowned a few years later. De Morgan had shown himself a prince of teachers: he was invited to return to his chair, which thereafter became the continuous centre of his labours for thirty years; the same body of reformers—headed by Lord Brougham, a Scotsman eminent both in science and politics who had instituted the London University—founded about the same time a Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
Its object was to spread scientific and other knowledge by means of cheap and written treatises by the best writers of the time. One of its most voluminous and effective writers was De Morgan, he wrote a great work on The Differential and Integral Calculus, published by the Society. When De Morgan came to reside in London he found a congenial friend in William Frend, notwithstanding his mathematical heresy about negative quantities. Both were arithmeticians and actuaries, their religious views were somewhat similar. Frend lived in what was a suburb of London, in a country-house occupied by Daniel Defoe and Isaac Watts. De Morgan with his flute was a welcome visitor; the London University of which De Morgan was a professor was a different institution from the University of London. The University of London was founded about ten years by the Government for the purpose of granting degrees after
John James Walker
John James Walker was an English mathematician, president of the London Mathematical Society from 1888 to 1890. His father was headmaster in the schools where he studied: London High School and Plymouth New Grammar School; as his family was of Irish descent, he went to study mathematics and physics to Trinity College, Dublin where he graduated in 1846 and mastered in 1857. From 1853 to 1862 he was private tutor of the rich family Guinness, the most famous brewers of Ireland. In 1865 he returned to London and he was appointed professor on applied mathematics at University College London. In 1883 he was elected fellow of the Royal Society. In 1888 he retired from the academy and he devoted to original research the rest of his live, his original research was in higher algebra and in quaternions. S. R.. "Obituary". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 75: 93–95. Doi:10.1098/rspl.1904.0163. ISSN 0370-1662. O'Connor, John J..
University College London
University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, the first in England to be secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England and the first to admit women. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, granted a royal charter in the same year, it has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology, the Royal Free Hospital Medical School, the Eastman Dental Institute, the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Education.
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments and research centres. UCL operates several culturally significant museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2017/18, UCL had around 41,500 students and 15,100 staff and had a total group income of £1.45 billion, of which £476.3 million was from research grants and contracts. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight.
UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2016. UCL is ranked from tenth to twentieth in the four major international rankings, from eighth to eleventh in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities. UCL alumni include the'Father of the Nation' of each of India and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, made several foundational advances in modern statistics; as of 2018, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers. UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, the first scientist to head a British university. Despite the held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful; this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders the Scotsmen James Mill and Henry Brougham. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.
In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates; the Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.
The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. While UCL claims to have been the first university in England
James Whitbread Lee Glaisher
James Whitbread Lee Glaisher FRS FRSE FRAS, son of James Glaisher the meteorologist and Cecilia Glaisher the photographer, was a prolific English mathematician and astronomer. He was born in Lewisham in Kent on 5 November 1848 the son of the eminent astronomer James Glaisher and his wife, Cecilia Louisa Belville, his mother was a noted photographer. He was educated at St Paul's School from 1858, he became somewhat of a school celebrity in 1861 when he made two hot-air balloon ascents with his father to study the stratosphere. He won a Campden Exhibition Scholarship allowing him to study at Trinity College, where he was second wrangler in 1871 and was made a Fellow of the College. Influential in his time on teaching at the University of Cambridge, he is now remembered for work in number theory that anticipated interest in the detailed properties of modular forms, he published over other fields of mathematics. Glaisher was elected FRS in 1875, he was the editor-in-chief of Messenger of Mathematics.
He was the'tutor' of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. He was president of the Royal Astronomical Society 1886–1888 and 1901–1903; when George Biddell Airy retired as Astronomer Royal in 1881 it is said that Glaisher was offered the post but declined. He lived in a set of rooms at Trinity College, he died there on 7 December 1928. He was a keen cyclist but preferred his penny-farthing to the newer "safety" bicycles, he was President of Cambridge University Cycling Club 1882 to 1885. He was a keen collector of Delftware and the university indulged him by allowing him a room of the Fitzwilliam Museum to house his personal collection, he amassed a collection of some 1,600 valentines, which he bequeathed to the museum. Honorary doctorate from the University of Dublin in 1892 Honorary doctorate from Manchester University in 1902 Winner of the London Mathematical Society's De Morgan Medal in 1908 Winner of the Royal Society's Sylvester Medal in 1913 Glaisher published many papers and was editor and contributor to both the Messenger of Mathematics and the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics.
Glaisher's theorem Glaisher–Kinkelin constant Works written by or about James Whitbread Lee Glaisher at Wikisource O'Connor, John J..
Mathematika is a peer-reviewed Mathematics journal that publishes both pure and applied mathematical articles. The journal was founded by Harold Davenport in the 1950s; the journal is published by the London Mathematical Society, on behalf of its owner University College London. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 0.779. The journal in indexing in the following bibliographic databases: MathSciNet Science Citation Index Expanded Web of Science Zentralblatt MATH
A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative as letters patent. They have been used to promulgate public laws, the most famous example being the British Magna Carta of 1215, but since the 14th century have only been used in place of private acts to grant a right or power to an individual or a body corporate, they were, are still, used to establish significant organisations such as boroughs and learned societies. Charters should be distinguished from royal warrants of appointment, grants of arms and other forms of letters patent, such as those granting an organisation the right to use the word "royal" in their name or granting city status, which do not have legislative effect; the British monarchy has issued over 1,000 royal charters. Of these about 750 remain in existence; the earliest charter recorded by the UK government was granted to the University of Cambridge in England in 1231, although older charters are known to have existed including to the Worshipful Company of Weavers in England in 1150 and to the town of Tain in Scotland in 1066.
Charters continue to be issued by the British Crown, a recent example being that awarded to The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors, in 2014. Charters have been used in Europe since medieval times to grant rights and privileges to towns and cities. During the 14th and 15th century the concept of incorporation of a municipality by royal charter evolved. Among the past and present groups formed by royal charter are the Company of Merchants of the Staple of England, the British East India Company, the Hudson's Bay Company, the Chartered Bank of India and China, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, the British South Africa Company, some of the former British colonies on the North American mainland, City livery companies, the Bank of England and the British Broadcasting Corporation. Between the 14th and 19th centuries, royal charters were used to create chartered companies – for-profit ventures with shareholders, used for exploration and colonisation. Early charters to such companies granted trade monopolies, but this power was restricted to parliament from the end of the 17th century.
Until the 19th century, royal charters were the only means other than an act of parliament by which a company could be incorporated. The use of royal charters to incorporate organisations gave rise to the concept of the "corporation by prescription"; this enabled corporations that had existed from time immemorial to be recognised as incorporated via the legal fiction of a "lost charter". Examples of corporations by prescription include Cambridge universities. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, of the 81 universities established in pre-Reformation Europe, 13 were established ex consuetudine without any form of charter, 33 by Papal bull alone, 20 by both Papal bull and imperial or royal charter, 15 by imperial or royal charter alone. Universities established by royal charter did not have the same international recognition – their degrees were only valid within that kingdom; the first university to be founded by charter was the University of Naples in 1224, founded by an imperial charter of Frederick II.
The first university founded by royal charter was the University of Coimbra in 1290, by King Denis of Portugal, which received Papal confirmation the same year. Other early universities founded by royal charter include the University of Perpignan and the University of Huesca, both by Peter IV of Aragon, the Jagiellonian University by Casimir III of Poland, the University of Vienna by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, the University of Caen by Henry VI of England, the University of Girona and the University of Barcelona, both by Alfonso V of Aragon, the University of Valence by the Dauphin Louis, the University of Palma by Ferdinand II of Aragon; the University of Cambridge was confirmed by a Papal bull in 1317 or 1318, but despite repeated attempts, the University of Oxford never received such confirmation. The three pre-Reformation Scottish universities were all established by Papal bulls. Following the reformation, establishment of universities and colleges by royal charter became the norm; the University of Edinburgh was founded under the authority of a royal charter granted to the Edinburgh town council in 1582 by James VI as the "town's college".
Trinity College Dublin was established by a royal charter of Elizabeth I in 1593. Both of these charters were given in Latin; the Edinburgh charter gave permission for the town council "to build and to repair sufficient houses and places for the reception and teaching of professors of the schools of grammar, the humanities and languages, theology and law, or whichever liberal arts which we declare detract in no way from the aforesaid mortification" and granted them the right to appoint and remove professors. But, as concluded by Edinburgh's principal, Sir Alexander Grant, in his tercentenary history of the university, "Obviously this is no charter founding a university". Instead
Arthur Cayley was a British mathematician. He helped; as a child, Cayley enjoyed solving complex maths problems for amusement. He entered Trinity College, where he excelled in Greek, French and Italian, as well as mathematics, he worked as a lawyer for 14 years. He postulated the Cayley–Hamilton theorem—that every square matrix is a root of its own characteristic polynomial, verified it for matrices of order 2 and 3, he was the first to define the concept of a group in the modern way—as a set with a binary operation satisfying certain laws. When mathematicians spoke of "groups", they had meant permutation groups. Cayley tables and Cayley graphs as well. Arthur Cayley was born in Richmond, England, on 16 August 1821, his father, Henry Cayley, was a distant cousin of Sir George Cayley, the aeronautics engineer innovator, descended from an ancient Yorkshire family. He settled in Russia, as a merchant, his mother was daughter of William Doughty. According to some writers she was Russian, his brother was the linguist Charles Bagot Cayley.
Arthur spent his first eight years in Saint Petersburg. In 1829 his parents were settled permanently near London. Arthur was sent to a private school. At age 14 he was sent to King's College School; the school's master observed indications of mathematical genius and advised the father to educate his son not for his own business, as he had intended, but to enter the University of Cambridge. At the unusually early age of 17 Cayley began residence at Cambridge; the cause of the Analytical Society had now triumphed, the Cambridge Mathematical Journal had been instituted by Gregory and Robert Leslie Ellis. To this journal, at the age of twenty, Cayley contributed three papers, on subjects, suggested by reading the Mécanique analytique of Lagrange and some of the works of Laplace. Cayley's tutor at Cambridge was George Peacock and his private coach was William Hopkins, he finished his undergraduate course by winning the place of Senior Wrangler, the first Smith's prize. His next step was to take the M.
A. degree, win a Fellowship by competitive examination. He continued to reside at Cambridge University for four years; because of the limited tenure of his fellowship it was necessary to choose a profession. He made a specialty of conveyancing, it was while he was a pupil at the bar examination that he went to Dublin to hear Hamilton's lectures on quaternions. His friend J. J. Sylvester, his senior by five years at Cambridge, was an actuary, resident in London. During this period of his life, extending over fourteen years, Cayley produced between two and three hundred papers. At Cambridge University the ancient professorship of pure mathematics is denominated by the Lucasian, is the chair, occupied by Isaac Newton. Around 1860, certain funds bequeathed by Lady Sadleir to the University, having become useless for their original purpose, were employed to establish another professorship of pure mathematics, called the Sadleirian; the duties of the new professor were defined to be "to explain and teach the principles of pure mathematics and to apply himself to the advancement of that science."
To this chair Cayley was elected. He gave up a lucrative practice for a modest salary, he at once settled down in Cambridge. More fortunate than Hamilton in his choice, his home life was one of great happiness, his friend and fellow investigator, once remarked that Cayley had been much more fortunate than himself. At first the teaching duty of the Sadleirian professorship was limited to a course of lectures extending over one of the terms of the academic year. For many years the attendance was small, came entirely from those who had finished their career of preparation for competitive examinations; the subject lectured on was that of the memoir on which the professor was for the time engaged. The other duty of the chair — the advancement of mathematical science — was discharged in a handsome manner by the long series of memoirs that he published, ranging over every department of pure mathematics, but it was discharged in a much less obtrusive way. In 1872 he was made an honorary fellow of Trinity College, three years an ordinary fellow, which meant stipend as well as honour.
About this time his friends subscribed for a presentation portrait. Maxwell wrote an address to the committee of subscribers; the verses refer to the subjects investigated in several of Cay