London Passenger Transport Board

The London Passenger Transport Board was the organisation responsible for local public transport in London and its environs from 1933 to 1948. In common with all London transport authorities from 1933 to 2000, the public name and brand was London Transport; the LPTB was set up by the London Passenger Transport Act 1933 enacted on 13 April 1933. The bill had been introduced by Herbert Morrison, Transport Minister in the Labour Government until 1931; because the legislation was a hybrid bill it had been possible to allow it to'roll over' into the new parliament under the incoming National Government. The new government, although dominated by Conservatives, decided to continue with the bill, with no serious changes, despite its extensive transfer of private undertakings into the public sector. On 1 July 1933, the LPTB came into being, covering the "London Passenger Transport Area"; the London Passenger Transport Board's financial structure was not the same as that of outright nationalisation, which did not occur until the London Transport Executive was set up on 1st January 1948.

When the LPTB was formed in 1933, the companies taken over, notably the Underground Group and Thomas Tilling’s London operations, were ‘bought’ with cash and by the issue of interest-bearing stock – C stock – authorised by the enabling Act, which meant that those former businesses continued to earn yields from their holdings. The LPTB had six other members; the members were chosen jointly by five "appointing trustees" listed in the Act: The chairman of the London County Council. The Act required that the board members should be "persons who have had wide experience, have shown capacity, in transport, commercial or financial matters or in the conduct of public affairs and, in the case of two members, shall be persons who have had not less than six years' experience in local government within the London Passenger Transport Area."The first chairman and vice-chairman were Lord Ashfield and Frank Pick, who had held similar positions with the Underground Group. Members of the board had a term of office of between three and seven years, were eligible for reappointment.

Lord Ashfield, 1933–1947 Frank Pick, 1933–1940 Sir John Gilbert, 1933–1934 Sir Edward Holland, 1933–1939 Patrick Ashley Cooper, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, director of the Bank of England, 1933–47 Sir Henry Maybury, civil engineer, chairman of the London and Home Counties Traffic Advisory Committee, 1933–1943 John Cliff, secretary of the Transport and General Workers Union, 1933–1947 Charles Latham, 1935–1947 Colonel Forester Clayton, 1939–1947 Colonel C G Vickers, 1941-47 William Neville, 1946-47 Sir Gilfrid Craig, 1944-46 Sir Edward Hardy, 1946-47 Geoffrey Hayworth, 1942-47Latham and Cliff became Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the successor London Transport Executive in 1947. The London Passenger Transport Area had an approximate radius of 30 miles from Charing Cross, extending beyond the boundaries of what officially became Greater London to Baldock in the north, Brentwood in the east, Horsham in the south and High Wycombe in the west. Under the Act the LPTB acquired the following concerns: Underground Electric Railways Company of London, which controlled: London Electric Railway, the management company of: Bakerloo line Piccadilly line Hampstead & Highgate line City and South London Railway Central London Railway District Railway Metropolitan Railway, which controlled: Great Northern & City Railway London County Council and 1,713 trams Middlesex County Council Hertfordshire County Council City of London Barking Corporation Bexley and Dartford Urban District Councils Croydon Corporation Tramways East Ham Corporation Tramways Erith Urban District Council Tramways Ilford Urban District Council Tramways Leyton Corporation Tramways Walthamstow Urban District Council Light Railways West Ham Corporation Tramways London United Tramways Metropolitan Electric Tramways South Metropolitan Electric Tramways

John Lewis (Nebraska activist)

John Lewis was a hotel keeper and civil rights activist in Omaha, Nebraska. He was proprietor of the Lewis House in the early days of Omaha. In 1879, he organized a brass band, a fixture in African-American events in Omaha in the 1880s, he was active in the Nebraska State Convention of Colored Americans, a part of the Colored Conventions Movement and involved in Republican politics in Omaha. By 1876, John Lewis was proprietor of the Lewis House hotel. In 1879, Lewis organized a brass band consisting of eleven members and instructed by professor Toozer; the band adopted the name "Lewis' Excelsior Brass Band" and had Lewis as president, Cyrus D. Bell as secretary, Frank Bellmay as assistant secretary and D. H. Johnson as treasurer. Toozer was a drummer in the British Army Band in the Crimean War and was the leader of the Union Pacific Band, where he was an employee from 1867 to 1905. Lewis's brass band played at numerous celebrations, including the 1880 15th Amendment anniversary celebration and the August 4, 1887, anniversary of emancipation.

In June 1870, R. D. Curry was voted in Omaha's Third Ward as Republican candidate for Trustee, but white Omaha Republicans opposed Curry's selection and nominated someone else; this created a good deal of distrust of Republicans in Omaha by blacks. In response, a committee of black citizens in Omaha chaired by John Lewis and with G. G. Iredell as secretary was formed to encourage blacks to distance themselves from party politics and to vote more independently. On January 18, 1876, Lewis was a delegate to the Nebraska State Convention of Colored Men, led by E. R. Overall, Rev W. H. Wilson, C. D. Bell. Black Republicans met August 18, 1880, to send delegates to the state convention from each of Omaha's six wards as well as the Saratoga precinct; the delegates were: first ward -- W. W. Porter, W. H. C. Stephenson. A similar group met on August 30 at the call of W. H. C. Stephenson, James O. Adams, E. R. Overall, John R. Simpson, Peter Williams. E. R. Overall was at that time chairman of the Campaign Club and Rev. E. H. Brown of Lincoln was chosen as chairman of the "State Convention of Colored Americans".

The convention named Rev. C. M. Brown president. African Americans in Omaha, Nebraska

Samuel Whalley

Sir Samuel St. Swithin Burden Whalley was a British Radical politician. Born into a Lancashire family "of great antiquity", he was the son of Samuel Whalley of Weddington Hall and was educated at Clare Hall, gaining his bachelor's degree in 1822 and master's in 1825. In 1827 he was knighted. By the 1830s Whalley was living in the St John's Wood area of the parish of St Marylebone, a developing suburb of London. In 1832 Whalley sought to be nominated as a candidate for the newly enfranchised constituency of Marylebone, London. There was opposition to his candidacy as he was unknown in the area. Questions were raised about the manner in which he had obtained his knighthood, felt to have been in exchange for supporting the election of the Tory, Sir Nicholas Tindal as MP for Cambridge University. Although he failed to be selected on this occasion, a by-election occurred in the following year when one of the sitting members of parliament resigned, he was nominated, he described himself as "not backed by either church or aristocracy but... the representative of industry".

He promised to be a "pure and independent" member, set out his political views: he was in favour of "a rigid system of economy in all branches of the state" and "a revision of the system of tithes, the appropriation of the surplus revenues of the church to the education of the people". He advocated the abolition of slavery, reduction of taxation, destruction of monopolies, a secret ballot, a three-year parliamentary term; the by-election was held on 20 March 1833, Whalley secured a convincing win over his Tory opponent. He characterised his election as the "proud aristocracy of the country conquered by the will of the people", he was re-elected at the next general election in 1835. He was a strong supporter of the reforming Municipal Corporations Bill, attacking the attempts of the House of Lords to weaken the legislation. In 1837 he was again returned as member for Marylebone. However, a petition was lodged against his election. In February 1838 an election court declared his election null and void, as he had not been qualified to be a candidate due to an "insufficient estate".

Whalley did not contest another election. Whalley was twice married. In 1830 he married Amelia Webb who died in 1835, his second marriage was to the Hon. Harriet Rose Trench, of Moate and Woodlawn, County Galway, Ireland in 1853. In his years, he lived in Nice, where he died 3 February 1883. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Samuel Whalley