The London and North Eastern Railway was the second largest of the "Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. It operated from 1 January 1923 until nationalisation on 1 January 1948. At that time, it was divided into the new British Railways' Eastern Region, North Eastern Region, the Scottish Region; the company was the second largest created by the Railways Act 1921. The principal constituents of the LNER were: Great Eastern Railway Great Central Railway Great Northern Railway Great North of Scotland Railway Hull and Barnsley Railway North British Railway North Eastern RailwayThe total route mileage was 6,590 miles; the North Eastern Railway had the largest route mileage of 1,757 miles, whilst the Hull and Barnsley Railway was 106.5 miles. It covered the area east of London, it included the East Coast Main Line from London to Edinburgh via York and Newcastle upon Tyne and the routes from Edinburgh to Aberdeen and Inverness. Most of the country east of the Pennines was including East Anglia.
The main workshops were in Doncaster, with others at Darlington and Stratford, London. The LNER inherited four of London's termini: Fenchurch Street (ex-London and Blackwall Railway. In addition, it ran suburban services to Broad Moorgate; the LNER owned: 7,700 locomotives, 20,000 coaching vehicles, 29,700 freight vehicles, 140 items of electric rolling stock, 6 electric locomotives and 10 rail motor cars 6 turbine and 36 other steamers, river boats and lake steamers, etc. In partnership with the London and Scottish Railway, the LNER was co-owner of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, the UK's biggest joint railway, much of which competed with the LNER's own lines; the M&GNJR was incorporated into the LNER in 1936. In 1933, on the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board, the LNER acquired the remaining operations of the Metropolitan Railway Company; the LNER was the majority partner in the Cheshire Lines Committee and the Forth Bridge Railway Company. It depended on freight from heavy industry in Yorkshire, the north east of England and Scotland, its revenue was reduced by the economic depression for much of the early part of its existence.
In a bid to improve financial efficiency, staffing levels reduced from 207,500 in 1924 to 175,800 in 1937. For investment to retain freight traffic, new marshalling yards were built in Whitemoor in Cambridgeshire, Hull in Yorkshire to attempt to retain freight traffic. Sir Ralph Wedgwood introduced a Traffic Apprenticeship Scheme to attract graduates, train young managers and provide supervision by assistant general manager Robert Bell for career planning; the company adopted a regional managerial system, with general managers based in London and Edinburgh, for a short time, Aberdeen. For passenger services, Sir Nigel Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer built new powerful locomotives and new coaches. Developments such as the streamlined Silver Jubilee train of 1935 were exploited by the LNER publicity department, embedded the non-stop London to Edinburgh services such as the Flying Scotsman in the public imagination; the crowning glory of this time was the world record speed of 126 miles per hour achieved on a test run by LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard.
In 1929, the LNER chose the typeface Gill Sans as the standard typeface for the company. Soon it appeared on every facet of the company's identity, from metal locomotive nameplates and hand-painted station signage to printed restaurant car menus and advertising posters; the LNER promoted their rebranding by offering Eric Gill a footplate ride on the Flying Scotsman express service. Gill Sans was retained by the Railway Executive in 1949 and was the official typeface until British Rail replaced it in the mid 1960s with Rail Alphabet. Continental shipping services were provided from Harwich Parkeston Quay; the company took up the offer in 1933 of government loans at low interest rates and electrified the lines from Manchester to Sheffield and Wath yard, commuter lines in the London suburban area. The LNER inherited: 8 canals, including the Ashton, Macclesfield, Nottingham & Grantham, Peak Forest Docks and harbours in 20 locations, including Grimsby, Hull, Middlesbrough, some eastern Scottish ports, Harwich and London Other wharves, piers 2 electric tramways 23 hotels A 49% stake in the haulage firm Mutter, Howey & Co.
Ltd. It took shares in a large number of bus companies, including for a time a majority stake in United Automobile Services Ltd. In Halifax and Sheffield, it participated in Joint Omnibus Committees with the LMS and the Corporation. In 1935, with the LMS, Wilson Line of Hull and others it formed the shipping company Associated Humber Lines Ltd. In 1938 it was reported that the LNER, with 800 mechanical horse tractors, was the world's largest owner of this vehicle type; the LNER operated a number of ships. The most common liveries were lined apple green on passenger locomotives and unlined black on freight locomotives, both with gold lettering. Passenger
Ithaca Creek State School is a heritage-listed state school and war memorial at 49 Lugg Street, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was designed by Queensland Department of Public Work and built from 1930 to 1939, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 5 February 2016. Ithaca Creek State School, located in the inner Brisbane suburb of Bardon about four kilometres northwest of the Brisbane central business district, is important in demonstrating the evolution of state education and its associated architecture, it retains a Depression-era brick school building, constructed as a Depression-era work project, an aesthetically-pleasing landmark in the streetscape. The school has a ongoing association with its surrounding community; the provision of state-administered education was important to the colonial governments of Australia. National schools, established in 1848 in New South Wales were continued in Queensland following the colony's creation in 1859. Following the introduction of the Education Act 1860, which established the Board of General Education and began standardising curriculum and facilities, Queensland's national and public schools grew from four in 1860 to 230 by 1875.
The State Education Act 1875 provided for free and secular primary education and established the Department of Public Instruction. This further standardised the provision of education, despite difficulties, achieved the remarkable feat of bringing basic literacy to most Queensland children by 1900; the establishment of schools was considered an essential step in the development of early communities and integral to their success. Locals donated land and labour for a school's construction and the school community contributed to maintenance and development. Schools became a community focus, a symbol of progress, a source of pride, with enduring connections formed with past pupils and teachers; the inclusion of war memorials and community halls reinforced these connections and provided a venue for a wide range of community events in schools across Queensland. To help ensure consistency and economy, the Queensland Government developed standard plans for its school buildings. From the 1860s until the 1960s, Queensland school buildings were predominantly timber-framed, an easy and cost-effective approach that enabled the government to provide facilities in remote areas.
Standard designs were continually refined in response to changing needs and educational philosophy and Queensland school buildings were innovative in climate control and ventilation. Standardisation produced distinctly similar schools across Queensland with complexes of typical components. Land in the vicinity of Ithaca Creek State School was first surveyed in the 1860s, but not auctioned as suburban lots until 1870. In 1880, an early local government area was created incorporating the land between Enoggera and Windsor. By 1884 a country postal receiving office operated at Ithaca Creek to serve the small community. In the same year, the community petitioned the Minister for Public Lands to reserve land for a school at Ithaca Creek and soon afterwards a one hectare site was reserved for this purpose. Ithaca Creek State School opened on a sloping site fronting Lugg Street, on 28 September 1885, with a timber school building to accommodate 60 pupils. By December of that year 103 boys and 85 girls were enrolled with, on average, 66 boys and 55 girls attending.
The district continued to grow and in 1887 Ithaca Shire was formed from Ithaca Division. It comprised about one tenth of the former division, included Paddington and Red Hill, had a population of about 10,000 residents. Further growth in the area took place, resulting in the creation of the Town of Ithaca, which replaced the shire in 1903; this development was promoted by the establishment of Brisbane's electric tram network after 1897, which extended from Roma Street to Enoggera Terrace, via Musgrave Road while a second route travelled along Caxton Street and Given Terrace. In 1925 the municipality of Ithaca was incorporated into Greater Brisbane. Ithaca Creek State School grew in synchrony with this development. In 1926 a school committee formed to improve the school grounds to meet modern ideas and provide better equipment for sporting activities, it created a scheme for extension and improvement of the school grounds, which at the time were under 2.5 acres and rough, resulting in the children playing on the roadway in front of the school.
The scheme embraced the extension of the school grounds, the provision of septic tanks, swimming pool, library, tennis court, basketball courts. The first step was the filling in of a gully in the grounds. Over the next six years, the committee provided over £550 and the Government provided £410 for purchase of land; as a result, the grounds trebled in size to create a total area of 7.75 acres with purchase of land to the south and southeast of the school reserve creating access from Grace Street and Primrose Terrace. This expansion was achieved despite the onset of worldwide economic depression; the Great Depression, commencing in 1929 and extending well into the 1930s, caused a dramatic reduction of building work in
UberFacts is a web service/app that provides people with random facts. There is a Twitter version, a mobile app version, Instagram version, a Facebook version; the service was developed by Kris Sanchez. Sanchez receives the facts through research from books, science articles, the news, more, he stated. Mistakes are deleted or updated with corrections. In September 2009, Sanchez was having a "boring day" in New Paltz, so he decided to look up useless facts to kill time, he wanted an account that had purpose since his personal didn't have one, so he created UberFacts. UberFacts became more popular due to tweeting at all times of the day, because back in September, Sanchez only tweeted during the day. On May 21, 2014, the UberFacts Twitter account was hacked, the hacker sent vulgar messages out. Sanchez noticed this and tweeted on his personal account that the hacker will have to pay him for every tweet the hacker owes him. On the next day, Sanchez recovered UberFacts, announced that his account was hacked and felt sorry if anyone got offended by the vulgar messages the hacker sent out.
A March 2014 BuzzFeed article panned UberFacts for its incorrect facts, justifying why they are inaccurate. BuzzFeed sent an email to Sanchez inquiring if the facts provided are incorrect, he responded saying that the accuracy of his facts are reviewed prior to releasing them and he does not cite sources because not everyone would want to see a link at the end of a tweet. Sanchez stated that he earns US$500,000 per year through Uberfacts, expects that number to increase in the future due to the release of a dedicated app. UberFacts on Twitter