London postal district

The London postal district is the area in England of 241 square miles to which mail addressed to the LONDON post town is delivered. The General Post Office at the control of the Postmaster General directed Sir Rowland Hill to devise the area in 1856 and throughout its history has been subject to gradual periodic reorganisation and division into smaller postal units, with the early loss of two compass points and a minor retraction in 1866, it was integrated by the Post Office into the national postcode system of the United Kingdom during the early 1970s and corresponds to the N, NW, SW, SE, W, WC, E and EC postcode areas. The postal district has been known as the London postal area; the County of London was much smaller at 117 square miles, but Greater London is much larger at 607 square miles. By the 1850s, the rapid growth of the metropolitan area meant it became too large to operate efficiently as a single post town. A Post Office inquiry into the problem had been set up in 1837 and a House of Commons committee was initiated in 1843.

In 1854 Charles Canning, the Postmaster General, set up a committee at the Post Office in St. Martin's Le Grand to investigate how London could best be divided for the purposes of directing mail. In 1856, of the 470 million items of mail sent in the United Kingdom during the year one fifth were for delivery in London and half of these originated there; the General Post Office thus at the control of the Postmaster General devised the area in 1856 project-managed by Sir Rowland Hill. Hill produced an perfectly circular area of 12 miles radius from the central post office at St. Martin's Le Grand, near St Paul's Cathedral in central London; as devised, it extended from Waltham Cross in the north to Carshalton in the south and from Romford in the east to Sunbury in the west — six counties at the time if including the City of London. Within the district it was divided into two central areas and eight compass points which operated much like separate post towns; each was constituted "London" with a suffix indicating the area.

The system was introduced during 1857 and completed on 1 January 1858. The NE and S divisions were abolished following a report by Anthony Trollope: in 1866 NE was merged into the E district, the large districts transferred included Walthamstow and Leytonstone; the remaining eight letter prefixes have not changed. At the same time, the London postal district boundary was retracted in the east, removing places such as Ilford for good. In 1868 the S district was split between SE and SW; the NE and S codes have been re-used in the national postcode system and now refer to the NE postcode area around Newcastle upon Tyne and the S postcode area around Sheffield. In 1917, as a wartime measure to improve efficiency, the districts were further subdivided with a number applied to each sub-district; this was achieved by designating a sub-area served most conveniently by the head office in each district "1" and allocating the rest alphabetically by the name of the location of each delivery office. Exceptionally and esoterically, W2 and SW11 are also'head districts'.

The boundaries of each sub-district correspond to any units of civil administration: the parishes and hamlets/chapelries with chapels that traditionally define settlement names everywhere in England and Wales or the larger boroughs. The numbered sub-districts became the "outward code" of the postcode system as expanded into longer codes during the 1970s. Ad hoc changes have taken place to the organisation of the districts, such as the creation of SE28 from existing districts because of the construction of the high-density Thamesmead development. Subdivisions of postcode sub-districtsOwing to heavier demand, seven high-density postcode districts in central London have been subdivided to create new, smaller postcode districts; this is achieved by adding a letter after the original postcode district, for example W1P. Where such sub-districts are used elsewhere such as on street signs and maps, the original unsuffixed catch-all versions remain in use instead; the districts subdivided are E1, N1, EC SW1, W1, WC1 and WC2.

There are non-geographic suffixed sub-districts for PO boxes in NW1 and SE1. The London postal district has never been aligned with the London boundary; when the initial system was designed, the London boundary was restricted to the square mile of the small, ancient City of London. The wider metropolitan postal area covered parts of Middlesex, Kent and Hertfordshire. In 1889 a County of London, smaller than the postal district, was created from parts of Middlesex and Kent; the bulk of 40 fringe sub-districts lay outside its boundary including, for example: Leyton, Ealing and Wimbledon In 1965 the creation of Greater London boundary went beyond these postal districts except for part of the parish of Waltham Holy Cross. The General Post Office was unwilling to follow this change and expand the postal district to match because of the cost. Places in London's outer boroughs such as Harrow, Wembley, Ilford, Bexleyheath, Hounslow, Croydon, Sutton and Uxbridge are therefore covered by parts of twelve adjoining postcode areas from postal districts of 5 different counties including Middlesex whose county council was abolished upon the

Kettleness railway station

Kettleness was a railway station on the Whitby and Middlesbrough Union Railway. It was opened on 3 December 1883, served the remote village of Kettleness, it closed on 5 May 1958. The station building is now known as'Seeonee Lair' and is run as an activity centre by East Cleveland Scout District; the track bed has been lifted and the station canopy removed. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations. Patrick Stephens Limited. ISBN 1-85260-508-1. Williams, Michael Aufrère.'A more spectacular example of a loss-making branch would be hard to find.' A financial history of the Whitby-Loftus line 1871-1958. University of York. Williams, Michael Aufrère; the Whitby-Loftus Line. Jet Coast Development Trust. ISBN 978-0-9567890-1-3. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "The Whitby - Loftus line: "a more spectacular example of a loss-making branch would be hard to find." Is this the case?". Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society: 33–46. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "The Viaducts and Tunnels of the Whitby-Loftus Line".

Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society: 33–47. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "The Tunnels and Viaducts of the Whitby-Loftus line". Forgotten Relics of an Enterprising Age. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "A Difficult Year in the History of the Whitby and Middlesbrough Union Railway". Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society: 32–41. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "Closing a line before Beeching: the end of the Whitby-Loftus line". Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society: 149–58. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "The importance of fieldwork in researching railway history". Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society: 377–87. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "The Suez Specials". The Gresley Observer; the Gresley Society: 19–27. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "How the Coast Line could have been saved". The Gresley Observer; the Gresley Society: 32–33. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "The costs of working a failing branch line: a financial study of the Whitby – Loftus line, 1910–1933". Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society: 351–62.

Williams, Michael Aufrère. The Whitby-Loftus Line; the Oakwood Press. ISBN 978-0-85361-542-2. Locomotion Papers 244. Williams, Michael Aufrère. "Seconds from disaster". The Gresley Observer; the Gresley Society: 88–92. Seeonee Lair at East Cleveland Scout District web site Kettleness station on navigable 1955 O. S. map Disused Stations: Kettleness Station

Jake Hanson

Jake Hanson is a fictional character in the American television series Melrose Place, the second series of the Beverly Hills, 90210 franchise. Portrayed by Grant Show, Jake Hanson appeared in the first five seasons of Melrose Place, he appeared in two episodes of the second season of Beverly Hills, 90210 and the pilot of Models Inc.. Jake Hanson lived in Ellensburg, Washington before he moved to the Melrose Place apartment complex in Los Angeles, he was considered a bad-boy biker type. He opened his own motorcycle shop with the help of Jo Reynolds, who could be considered his great love; the two had an off-again romance throughout both characters' time on the series. Jake had Jess; the brothers were reunited at their mother's funeral, after which Jess moved from Washington to Los Angeles. He lived with Jake for a while and during this time, he got a job in construction and started dating Jo. However, he became jealous of Jake's life and attempted to take over his brother's bar, Shooters, by hiring men to kill Jake.

Jess proposed to Jo, but when she turned him down, he beat her up. Jake found Jo, realized that Jess was her assailant, left to confront his brother; the two men met up at the construction site where Jess worked and they fought physically, with the end result being that they both fell off the building. Jess died in the fall, while Jake recovered. Jake had numerous relationships including most of the female regulars, his bike shop ended up burning down, he bought Shooters, which remained as the Melrose gang's hangout. After dating for a while and Jake got married and, after a miscarriage, attempted to adopt a child. However, the child services department felt that a father who owned a bar and a mother, an alcoholic were not the best couple to entrust a child to, they are denied. Alison, who has no interest in being a mother despite having miscarried Jake's child, fools Jake into thinking she has fallen off the wagon so that he reunites with the mother of his long-lost child, they leave town separately.

Though good-natured, like most members of the Hanson family, was shown to have a tough side. He was prone to getting in physical fights-usually in defense of others. Several moments throughout the series show him standing up for people, it was revealed during Melrose Place's first season that he had a romantic history with the feisty Sandy Harling, with the two deciding that they were better off as friends. Following Sandy's departure, Jake was paired with sensitive tough girl Jo Reynolds, he discovered early on in the series that he had a son named David with ex-girlfriend Colleen Patterson. Both Colleen and David would appear again at points. Jake was the carpenter hired to help Jackie for their wedding, he became a love interest for Kelly Taylor, the two appeared in both Beverly Hills, 90210 and Melrose Place in hopes of linking the two shows together. While their attraction was mutual at first, Jake resisted because Kelly was not yet out of high school, it is revealed that another Beverly Hills, 90210 character, Dylan McKay, Jake go way back, with Dylan claiming it was Jake who taught him how to surf and how to pick up girls.

Jake is known for being a womanizer. He had a torrid fling with Amanda Woodward, he had relationships with Sydney Andrews, heroically aiding and defending her, had subsequent relationships with Jane Mancini and Alison Parker. Jo, became the woman he was connected to, though they would remain friends. After selling Shooters, Jake left the series in the fifth season following a reunion with his ex-girlfriend, moving away to live with her and their son. In the new series, it was shown that Michael had a file on him