Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least 3 kilometres. Physiologically, it is aerobic in nature and requires stamina as well as mental strength. Among mammals, humans are well adapted for running significant distances, so among primates; the endurance running hypothesis suggests that running endurance in the genus Homo arose because travelling over large areas improved scavenging opportunities and allowed persistence hunting. The capacity for endurance running is found in migratory ungulates and a limited number of terrestrial carnivores, such as bears, dogs and hyenas. In modern human society, long-distance running has multiple purposes: people may engage in it for physical exercise, for recreation, as a means of travel, for economic reasons, or for cultural reasons. Long-distance running can be used as a means to improve cardiovascular health. Running improves aerobic fitness by increasing the activity of enzymes and hormones that stimulate the muscles and the heart to work more efficiently.
Endurance running is a component of physical military training and has been so historically. Professional running is most found in the field of sports, although in pre-industrial times foot messengers would run to deliver information to distant locations. Long-distance running as a form of tradition or ceremony is known among the Hopi and Tarahumara people, among others. Distance running can serve as a bonding exercise for family, friends and has been associated with nation-building; the social element of distance running has been linked with improved performance. In the sport of athletics, long-distance events are defined as races covering three kilometres and above; the three most common types are track running, road running and cross country running, all of which are defined by their terrain – all-weather tracks and natural terrain, respectively. Typical long-distance track races range from 3000 metres to 10,000 metres, cross country races cover 5 to 12 km, while road races can be longer, reaching 100 kilometres and beyond.
In collegiate cross country races in the United States, men race 8000 or 10000 meters, depending on their division, whereas women race 6000 meters. The Summer Olympics features three long-distance running events: the 5000 metres, 10,000 metres and marathon. Since the late 1980s, Kenyans and Ethiopians have dominated in major international long-distance competitions; the high altitude of these countries has been proven to help these runners achieve more success. Mountain air, combined with endurance training, can lead to an increase in red blood cells, allowing more oxygen to be passed through the veins; the majority of these East African successful runners come from three mountain districts that run along the Great Rift Valley. Anthropological observations of modern hunter-gatherer communities have provided accounts for long-distance running as a historic method for hunting among the San of the Kalahari, American Indians, the Australian Aborigines. In this method, the hunter would run at a slow and steady pace between one hour and a few days, in an area where the animal has no place to hide.
The animal, running in spurts, has to stop to pant in order to cool itself, but as the chase goes on it would not have enough time before it has to start running again, after a while would collapse from exhaustion and heat. The body structure of a skeleton of a 12 years old Nariokatome boy is suggested to prove that early humans from 1.5 million years ago were eating more meat and less plants, hunted by running down animals. With developments in agriculture and culture, long-distance running took more and more purposes other than hunting: religious ceremonies, delivering messages for military and political purposes, sport. Running messengers are reported from early Sumer, were named lasimu as military men as well as the king's officials who disseminated documents throughout the kingdom by running. Ancient Greece was famous for its running messengers, who were named hemerodromoi, meaning “day runners”. One of the most famous running messengers is Pheidippides, who according to the legend ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory of the Greek over the Persians in the Battle of Marathon in 490 B.
C. He collapsed and died as he delivered the message “we won”. While there are debates around the accuracy of this historical legend, whether Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Athens or between other cities, how far this was, if he was the one to deliver the victory message, the marathon running event of 26.2 miles / 42.195 km is based on this legend. Humans are considered among the best distance runners among all running animals: game animals are faster over short distances, but they have less endurance than humans. Unlike other primates whose bodies are suited to walk on four legs or climb trees, the human body has evolved into upright walking and running around 2-3 million years ago; the human body can endure long-distance running through the following attributes: Bone and muscle structure: unlike quadruped mammals, which have their center of mass in front of the hind legs or limbs, in biped mammals including humans the center of mass lies right above the legs. This leads to different bone and muscular demands in the legs and pelvis.
Dissipation of metabolic heat: humans’ ability to cool the body by sweating through the body surface provides many advantages over panting through the mouth or nose. These include a larger surface of independence of the respiratory cycle. One distinction between upright walking and running is energy consumptio
The West End School is an academically rigorous, free boarding school in Louisville, Kentucky for boys, grades Pre-K through 8. The school was founded in 2005 by his wife Debbie; the focus of the school is to help "at risk" boys from the West End neighborhoods of Louisville, Kentucky. It admits incoming sixth-graders who qualify for the free or reduced lunch program and who are capable of doing grade-level work; the school does not accept students with therapeutic counseling needs or serious learning difficulties. The school is run like a traditional boarding school; the boys must get up each day at 6:45 and lights out is at 9:30. Paul Perconti is the chairman of the school's board of directors; the school is located in the former Virginia Avenue Colored School, Louisville's first purpose-built segregated elementary school, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. "Lunch With... Robert Blair"; the Courier-Journal. Louisville, Kentucky. November 9, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2010. Poore, Derek.
"West End School". Vimeo.com. "Shot and produced in April 2010 for courier-journal.com, the Web site for Kentucky's largest newspaper: The Courier-Journal in Louisville.". Retrieved May 11, 2010. Edelen, Sheryl. "West End boarding school graduates its first 8th-grade class. Future promising for institute and boys"; the Courier-Journal. Louisville, Kentucky. Retrieved May 11, 2010
In many European countries, there are various traditions surrounding the use of bread during the Easter holidays. Traditionally the practice of eating Easter bread or sweetened "communion" bread traces its origin back to Byzantium and the Orthodox Christian church; the recipe for sweetened or "honey-leavened" bread may date back as far as the Homeric Greek period based on anecdotal evidence from classical texts that mention this type of special food. It is widely known that sweetened bread desserts similar to panettone were a Roman favorite. A cozonac is traditional Easter bread in Bulgaria, kulich is one of different traditional Russian Paska Easter breads. Kolach is a traditional Czech bread made at Christmas in the shape of a ring. Three rings are stack on top of each other to represent the Holy Trinity. Ukrainian Easter breads are called Paska, where a rich, white bread is served and decorated on the top with symbols, including crosses, braids, wheat, or other designs representing aspects of Orthodox and Eastern Catholic faith.
Babka is a Ukrainian and Belarusian bread made at Easter. Rather than being broad and round, like Paska, babka is tall and cylindrical baked in bundt-type pan, it contains raisins, succade, or orangeat, may be iced on top. It is much sweeter than Paska. Babka is only made, like Paska, to celebrate Easter Sunday and the rising of Christ. Romania and Moldova have a traditional Easter bread called Pasca; the Romanian Pasca bread is made with cheese. It is found alongside another traditional sweet bread which Romanians make for Easter and Christmas called cozonac. During the weeks before Easter, special Easter bread is sold; this is made with yeast dough and almond splinters. It is cut in slices and spread with butter. People enjoy it either for tea time; the Dutch Easter bread is the so-called'stol', a fruit bread with raisins and filled with almond paste. It is the same type of bread eaten as a Christmas bread; the pizza di Pasqua is a leavened savory cake typical of some areas central Italy, based on wheat flour, eggs and parmesan, traditionally served at breakfast on Easter morning, or as an appetizer during Easter lunch, accompanied by blessed boiled eggs and red wine or, served at the Easter Monday picnic.
Having the same shape as panettone, the pizza di pasqua with cheese is a typical product of the Marche region, but Umbrian. There is a sweet variant, with candied fruits or without, sugar and a fiocca, a meringue glaze with sugar beads. According to religious tradition, the pizza di pasqua should be prepared on Maundy Thursday or Good Friday to be eaten only at Easter, that is, at the end of the period of fasting and abstinence dictated by lent. Once ready it was customary to bring the pizza di pasqua to the church, so that it would be blessed together with the other foods to be consumed on Easter day. In Sardinia, bread is a part of a wide social context, it is the most important food in Sardinia, as well as all over the Mediterranean. "Bread is a nexus of economic, aesthetic, social and health concerns". Bread is symbolic for life. A peasant proverb mentions, "Chie hat pane mai non morit — one who has bread never dies"; the Easter holiday is one. Bread is significant for religious purposes. Luisa Fois described bread in her life.
The bread was made into a cross to represent the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Since they were married, they needed to eat it together, they would share their lives now, they must share their "cross" together as well. "Bread was a product of their union, its shared consumption reaffirmed their interdependence". From this we gather that bread displays a message, rather than being an item purely for consumption and nutritional purposes. Two kinds of Easter bread are described in Counihans article. One contained two points, an egg covered with a cross. "The egg and the points that recall birds in flight speak of fertility and procreation — basic themes in Easter and its pagan precursors". The second bread was designed to have no overall shape, but was rather baked to encircle an egg, with the initials BP put on it; the initials BP stand for buona Pasqua or "happy Easter". "Letters rather than forms express meaning. Letters are symbolic of civilization and... meaning". Counihan, Carole; the Anthropology of Food and Body: Gender and Power.
New York: Routledge, 1999. Breads for Christ: European Easter Breads Shaped for the Season Easter bread recipe A 2009 article about the origin of chocolate babka. Ari Weinzweig, "Babka, Trans-Atlantic Jewish Delight" The Atlantic. April 30, 2009