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Long Beach, California

Long Beach is a city in the US state of California located within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It is the 39th most populous city in the United States with a population of 462,257 in 2010. A charter city, Long Beach is the 7th most populous city in California. Incorporated in 1897, Long Beach lies in Southern California in the southeastern corner of Los Angeles County. Long Beach is 20 miles south of downtown Los Angeles, is part of the Gateway Cities region; the Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the world's largest shipping ports. The city is over an oilfield with minor wells both directly beneath the city as well as offshore; the city is known for its waterfront attractions, including the permanently docked RMS Queen Mary and the Aquarium of the Pacific. Long Beach hosts the Grand Prix of Long Beach an IndyCar race; the California State University, Long Beach, one of the largest universities in California by enrollment, is located in the city.

Indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group was the Tongva people, they had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxa'anga was an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuu'nga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the mid-19th century due to missionization, political change, a drastic drop in population from exposure to European diseases. In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto; the Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ranchos ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was part of the Rancho San Pedro, its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto.

In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England. He built what is now known as the "Los Cerritos Ranch House", a still-standing adobe, a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a thriving cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Both Temple and his ranch house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an abortive attempt to establish a colony. In 1866 Temple sold Rancho Los Cerritos for $20,000 to the Northern California sheep-raising firm of Flint, Bixby & Co, which consisted of brothers Thomas and Benjamin Flint and their cousin Lewellyn Bixby. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, three ranchos which would become the city that bears Irvine's name. To manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyn's brother Jotham Bixby, the "Father of Long Beach".

Three years Bixby bought into the property and would form the Bixby Land Company. In the 1870s as many as 30,000 sheep were kept at the ranch and sheared twice yearly to provide wool for trade. In 1880, Bixby sold 4,000 acres of the Rancho Los Cerritos to William E. Willmore, who subdivided it in hopes of creating a farm community, Willmore City, he failed and was bought out by a Los Angeles syndicate that called itself the "Long Beach Land and Water Company." They changed the name of the community at that time. The City of Long Beach was incorporated in 1897; the town grew as a seaside resort with light agricultural uses. The Pike was the most famous beachside amusement zone on the West Coast from 1902 until 1969; the oil industry, Navy shipyard and facilities and port became the mainstays of the city. In the 1950s it was referred to as "Iowa by the sea," due to a large influx of people from that and other Midwestern states. Huge picnics for migrants from each state were a popular annual event in Long Beach until the 1960s.

Another Bixby cousin, John W. Bixby, was influential in the city. After first working for his cousins at Los Cerritos, J. W. Bixby leased land at Rancho Los Alamitos, he put together a group: banker I. W. Hellman and Jotham Bixby, him, to purchase the rancho. In addition to bringing innovative farming methods to the Alamitos, J. W. Bixby began the development of the oceanfront property near the city's picturesque bluffs. Under the name Alamitos Land Company, J. W. Bixby laid out the parks of his new city; this area would include Belmont Shore and Naples. J. W. Bixby died in 1888 of apparent appendicitis; the Rancho Los Alamitos property was split up, with Hellman getting the southern third and Lewellyn, the northern third, J. W. Bixby's widow and heirs keeping the central third; the Alamitos townsite was kept as a separate entity, but at first, it was run by Lewellyn and Jotham Bixby, although I. W, Hellman had a significant veto power, an influence made stronger as the J. W. Bixby heirs began to side with Hellman more.

When Jotham Bixby died in 1916, the remaining 3,500 acres of Rancho Los Cerritos was subd

Technology doping

Technology doping is the practice of gaining a competitive advantage using sports equipment. The World Anti-Doping Agency considers prohibiting technologies if they are "performance-enhancing" or "being against the spirit of the sport". In 2006, WADA initiated a consultation on technology doping, now recognised as a threat, whilst the decision to allow or ban a new technology relating to sports equipment, is the responsibility of each sport’s own governing body. Since most sports require equipment of some sort, it can be tricky to determine what is technology doping and what is not; the governing authorities of different sports make judgment calls about the technological advances in their sport’s equipment. Technological advancements are allowed unless the governing authorities feel they threaten the integrity of the sport. A report released before the 2012 Summer Olympics quotes an extensive public survey that shows that people fear that sports engineering could: overshadow the triumph of human spirit and effort, make certain sports easier, create unfairness so the "best athletes" might not win, ensure that rich athletes and countries have an advantage over the poor ones.

The LZR Racer has been one of the most discussed technologies accused of being technology doping. The LZR Racer bodysuit by Speedo is a high-performance swimsuit, it is made with a material, designed to mimic shark skin. The suit allows for better oxygen flow to the muscles, holds the body in a more hydrodynamic position, traps air which adds buoyancy. At the 2008 Beijing Olympics, this suit was worn by many swimmers. In fact, some swimmers wore two or more of these suits at once to increase buoyancy. In total, 23 out of the 25 swimming world records broken at the Beijing Olympics were broken by swimmers wearing this suit; some people thought these suits might be so technologically advanced that using them in competition was technology doping. After the Beijing Olympics and subsequent swimming events, at which many world records were broken by swimmers wearing the LZR suit, FINA banned all body-length swimsuits. Men's suits could only maximally cover from the waist to the knee. Women's suits could only cover from shoulder to knee.

They stipulated that the fabric used to make the suits must be a “textile” and the suit could not have fastening devices, such as zippers. These new rules took effect in January 2010. A New Zealand firm has created “IonX shirts” which are made of a material that claims to contain a negatively charged electromagnetic field, it further claims that the shirt helps increase blood flow, which in turn helps deliver more oxygen to the muscles and remove lactic acid from the muscles more quickly. For the moment, this technology is still legal; the World Anti-Doping Agency has ruled that since there is no scientific publication that confirms the material changes the body’s ion charges or enhances performance and the material does not contain prohibited substances, this technology is not banned as of now. Researchers at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, an Australian science agency, created a garment that can monitor movement and give feedback. For example, a basketball player can wear the material in the form of a sleeve.

Sensors in the material send information to a computer when the player takes shots and responds with audible tones. The material gives the athlete real-time feedback on their movements. Athletes can learn patterns of tones that indicate successful or unsuccessful movements and use these to make improvements; the material helps correct the athlete’s movement and helps the athlete gain muscle memory so they can continue to perform well once the material is taken away. In cycling, mechanical doping is the use of a secret motor to propel the bicycle, it is banned by the Union Cycliste Internationale. One of the first allegations of mechanical doping was in the 2010 Tour of Flanders; the first confirmed use of mechanical doping was at the 2016 UCI Cyclo-cross World Championships. Bike inspections have become commonplace in road racing since the 2015 season. Riders found guilty of mechanical doping are subject to a fine ranging from 20,000 to 200,000 Swiss Francs and a suspension of at least six months.

In the 2016 Tour de France, French officials utilized thermal cameras to enforce their policy against mechanical doping. Amputees can compete in the Paralympic Games using artificial limbs. There has been significant debate on whether the artificial limbs confer an advantage over able-bodied athletes and whether athletes using them can participate in the Olympic Games. There has been debate on the effect of the length of the artificial limbs in the Paralympic Games. Prior to the Women's World Gliding Championship at Lake Keepit 2020, the competition organisers mandated the use of a real time tracking system to make the sport more appealing to the general public. To maintain the challenge of the race the positions of each competitor was delayed by 15 minutes. After a few days of competing the near-telepathic ability of the Australian pilots to predict the movements of their opponents lead to questions being asked and on the penultimate day of the contest the Australian team captain Terry Cubley (EO of the GFA, admitted hacking the live tracking, bypassing the 15 minute delay and radioing the real time position of the competing teams to the Australian pilots, giving them a substantial tactical advantage.

Many sports set standards for equipment. This involves the types of materials the equipment is made from or dimensions/sizes. For example, tennis racquets must not exceed the maximum le

Lyle F. Bull

Lyle Franklin Bull was a retired rear admiral and Naval Flight Officer bombardier/navigator in the United States Navy. For extraordinary heroism on a bombing run over Hanoi in 1967, Bull was awarded the Navy Cross, the Navy's second highest honor; the Hanoi mission for which Bull received the citation was a key storyline in the novel, Flight of the Intruder as well as a film by the same name. Lyle Franklin Bull was born on April 1938 in Illinois, he and his future wife, Diana Stone, met while in high school at a softball game sponsored by the Lutheran church the teens attended in Port Byron, Illinois. After they started dating, the couple married in 1956 when Bull was 18 and Stone was 19. Both were attending Iowa State University at the time, with Bull's new wife beginning her junior year and Bull a freshman. Although they planned to wait and have children after college, their first child, Ron Bull, was born in 1958, 13 months following their wedding. Three more sons would follow: Vince in 1959, Bruce in 1960, Dell in 1965.

A Naval Reservist before graduating high school, Bull attended boot camp at Naval Station Great Lakes in Illinois and had joined the Reserve Officer Candidate Program, which required attendance of a Navy Reserve meeting weekly in Des Moines, Iowa. Following his graduation from Iowa State and completion of the 20-week Officer Candidate School course, Bull was commissioned an Ensign. At this time, after the birth of their third son and his family were stationed at NAS Pensacola in Florida. Having failed the required eye-exam to become a pilot, Bull was given the opportunity to become a Naval Aviation Observer and was next sent to NAS Corpus Christi in Texas for his Navigator wings, it was that Bull was selected to become a bombardier/navigator in the Navy's A-3D, a heavy attack, carrier-based nuclear bomber jet. Bull moved his family to NAS Whidbey in Oak Harbor, Washington. Bull was first assigned to training squadron VAH-123 and after his training, VAH-4 at NAS Whidbey. Following deployment aboard the USS Bon Homme Richard, Bull had completed his commitment to the Naval Reserve and separated from the Navy in 1964, moving with his family to East Moline, Illinois to be near his and his wife's parents.

With the Cold War continuing and the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War building up, Bull had been contacted several times by the Navy to rejoin. In January 1965, Bull was selected to be one of six A-3D bombardier/navigators to be trained in the A-6A Intruder at NAS Oceana in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Following his training, Bull returned to NAS Whidbey as part of VA-128, the first A-6 training squadron on the Pacific Coast; when a lieutenant in 1968, Bull received the Navy Cross for his role as bombardier-navigator in a 1967 bombing mission during the Vietnam War with VA-196. His Navy Cross citation reads: The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Lieutenant Lyle Franklin Bull, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism on 30 October 1967 as a Bombardier/Navigator in Attack Squadron ONE HUNDRED NINETY-SIX, embarked in U. S. S. CONSTELLATION. Exercising exceptional professional skill and sound judgment, Lieutenant Bull assisted in the planning and execution of an dangerous, single-plane, radar bombing attack on the strategically located and defended Hanoi railroad ferry slip in North Vietnam.

Although the entire Hanoi defensive effort was concentrated upon his lone bomber, he flawlessly assisted his pilot in navigating the aircraft to the target area and commencing an attack. Seconds before bomb release, six enemy surface-to-air missiles were observed to be tracking on his plane. Undaunted by this threat to his personal safety, Lieutenant Bull assisted his pilot in taking swift and effective action to avoid the missiles and complete the attack, releasing all weapons in the target area with extreme accuracy. After release, four more missiles were fired at his aircraft in addition to the intense anti-aircraft-artillery fire. In spite of this intense enemy opposition, Lieutenant Bull completed his mission and was directly responsible for dealing a significant blow to the North Vietnamese logistics efforts, his indomitable perseverance and conspicuous gallantry were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. The Hanoi mission for which Bull received the citation was one of the key storylines for the Stephen Coonts novel, Flight of the Intruder as well as a film by the same name.

Both Coonts and Bull served in A-6 Intruder squadrons at NAS Whidbey during the same time period in the 1960s and 1970s. Bull served in A-6 squadrons throughout the Vietnam War. Bull next served as a Deputy Director of Naval Training, Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air Warfare, deputy commander-in- chief of the United States Pacific Fleet, commanding officer of the USS Constellation, from 1982 to 1984. Other than the Navy Cross, Bull's awards include the Distinguished Flying Cross, Distinguished Service Medal, 19 Air Medals, several Navy commendations, unit awards, meritorious service awards, a medal from the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun awarded by the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force. After 38 years of service, both reserve and active duty, Bull retired from the Navy in 1993. Following his retirement, he and his wife remained in Oak Harbor. Among his community involvements following retirement was spearheading a project that needed a levy passed to get a new football stadium built for Oak Harbor High School.

His efforts in getting the levy passed and