Liberty County, Georgia
Liberty County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,453; the county seat is Hinesville. Liberty County is part of the Hinesville, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Savannah-Hinesville-Statesboro, Georgia Combined Statistical Area. Liberty county was established in 1777, it is named for the American ideal of liberty. Sunbury was first designated the county seat in 1784. In 1797, the seat was transferred to Riceboro and in 1837 it was transferred again to Hinesville. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 603 square miles, of which 490 square miles is land and 113 square miles is water; the eastern and southern portion of Liberty County is located in the Ogeechee Coastal sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin. The northern and western portion of the county is located in the Canoochee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin. Chatham County - northeast Bryan County - north McIntosh County - south Long County - west Evans County - northwest Tattnall County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 61,610 people, 19,383 households, 15,138 families residing in the county.
The population density was 119 people per square mile. There were 21,977 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 46.64% White, 42.84% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 1.76% Asian, 0.43% Pacific Islander, 4.43% from other races, 3.37% from two or more races. 8.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to 2005 Census Estimates Liberty County had a population, 44.5% African-American, 44.4% Non-Hispanic white, 7.2% Latino, 3.1% non-Hispanics who reported multiple races, 1.9% Asian and 0.5% of both Native Americans and Pacific Islanders. There were 19,383 households out of which 50.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.60% were married couples living together, 14.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.90% were non-families. 16.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.29.
In the county, the population was spread out with 32.00% under the age of 18, 17.90% from 18 to 24, 33.90% from 25 to 44, 12.20% from 45 to 64, 3.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,477, the median income for a family was $35,031. Males had a median income of $25,305 versus $20,765 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,855. About 13.50% of families and 15.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.20% of those under age 18 and 19.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 63,453 people, 22,155 households, 16,566 families residing in the county; the population density was 129.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 26,731 housing units at an average density of 54.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 47.1% white, 42.2% black or African American, 2.0% Asian, 0.6% Pacific islander, 0.6% American Indian, 2.9% from other races, 4.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 9.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 8.8% were German, 6.9% were Irish, 6.0% were American. Of the 22,155 households, 45.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 21.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.2% were non-families, 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.18. The median age was 27.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,674 and the median income for a family was $46,818. Males had a median income of $35,881 versus $31,159 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,662. About 15.0% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.2% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those age 65 or over. Allenhurst Flemington Gumbranch Hinesville Midway Riceboro Walthourville Fort Stewart Sunbury Liberty County School District operates public schools, including the comprehensive high school Liberty County High School and the Bradwell Institute.
The 2014 independent film, A Promise, was filmed in Liberty County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Liberty County, Georgia Georgia Encyclopedia entry for Liberty County, Georgia
Hinesville – Fort Stewart metropolitan area
The Hinesville-Fort Stewart Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties – Liberty and Long – in Georgia, anchored by the city of Hinesville and Fort Stewart. As of the 2000 census, the MSA had a population of 71,914; the Hinesville–Fort Stewart Metropolitan Statistical Area is part of the larger Savannah–Hinesville–Statesboro Combined Statistical Area. Liberty Long Allenhurst Flemington Fort Stewart Gumbranch Hinesville Ludowici Midway Riceboro Walthourville As of the census of 2000, there were 71,914 people, 22,957 households, 17,814 families residing in the MSA; the racial makeup of the MSA was 49.76% White, 40.18% African American, 0.55% Native American, 1.59% Asian, 0.41% Pacific Islander, 4.36% from other races, 3.15% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.19% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $32,059, the median income for a family was $33,752. Males had a median income of $25,861 versus $19,749 for females.
The per capita income for the MSA was $13,221. Georgia statistical areas List of municipalities in Georgia
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
The Ogeechee River is a 294-mile-long blackwater river in the U. S. state of Georgia. It heads at the confluence of its North and South Forks, about 2.5 miles south-southwest of Crawfordville and flowing southeast to Ossabaw Sound about 16 miles south of Savannah. Its largest tributary is the Canoochee River, which drains 1,400 square miles and is the only other major river in the basin; the Ogeechee has a watershed of 5,540 square miles. It is one of the state's few free-flowing streams; the Ogeechee runs from the Piedmont across the Fall Sandhills regions. There it flows across the coastal plain of Georgia to the Atlantic Ocean. From a shallow clear running stream with several shoals, a small falls at Shoals, below Louisville the river becomes a lazy meandering channel through cypress swamps and miles of undeveloped forests; the Ogeechee River basin contains parts of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, which extend throughout the southeastern United States. This boundary follows the contact between older crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Province and the younger unconsolidated Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Coastal Plain Province.
Other rock types found in the basin include metasedimentary rock and phyllites, felsic and mafic metavolcanic rocks, amphibolite. Coastal Plain sediments overlap the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the southern edge of the Piedmont Province at the Fall Line; the Ogeechee River watershed in Georgia crosses four major land resource areas. About 6 percent of the area lies within the Southern Piedmont MLRA, about 4 percent in the Carolina and Georgia Sand Hills MLRA, 48 percent in the Southern Coastal Plain MLRA, 42 percent in the Atlantic Coast Flatwoods MLRA; the dominant soils in this part of the watershed have 40 to 60 inches of sandy materials overlying a loamy subsoil. Soils in the Southern Coastal Plain part of the watershed are more variable than in other parts concerning their textures and water table depths. Paleo-Indian societies arrived in the area of the Ogeechee River around 11,500 years ago, the river was settled for several centuries by the Mississippians and Yuchi until the arrival of Europeans.
In fact, though the origin of the name "Ogeechee" is uncertain, it may be derived from a Muskogee term meaning "river of the Uchees", referring to the Yuchi people, who inhabited areas near it. Some scholars have drawn a connection between the river's name and the name Gullah Geechee for the Gullah people who inhabit coastal Georgia. South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif