The Long Range Desert Group was a reconnaissance and raiding unit of the British Army during the Second World War. Called the Long Range Patrol, the unit was founded in Egypt in June 1940 by Major Ralph A. Bagnold, acting under the direction of General Archibald Wavell. Bagnold was assisted by Captain William Shaw. At first the majority of the men were from New Zealand, but they were soon joined by Southern Rhodesian and British volunteers, whereupon new sub-units were formed and the name was changed to the better-known Long Range Desert Group; the LRDG never numbered more than 350 men. The LRDG was formed to carry out deep penetration, covert reconnaissance patrols and intelligence missions from behind Italian lines, although they sometimes engaged in combat operations; because the LRDG were experts in desert navigation, they were sometimes assigned to guide other units, including the Special Air Service and secret agents across the desert. During the Desert Campaign between December 1940 and April 1943, the vehicles of the LRDG operated behind the Axis lines, missing a total of only 15 days during the entire period.
Their most notable offensive action was during Operation Caravan, an attack on the town of Barce and its associated airfield, on the night of 13 September 1942. However, their most vital role was the'Road Watch', during which they clandestinely monitored traffic on the main road from Tripoli to Benghazi, transmitting the intelligence to British Army Headquarters. With the surrender of the Axis forces in Tunisia in May 1943, the LRDG changed roles and moved operations to the eastern Mediterranean, carrying out missions in the Greek islands and the Balkans. After the end of the war in Europe, the leaders of the LRDG made a request to the War Office for the unit to be transferred to the Far East to conduct operations against the Japanese Empire; the request was declined and the LRDG was disbanded in August 1945. Before the war, Major Ralph Bagnold learned how to maintain and operate vehicles, how to navigate, how to communicate in the desert. On 23 June 1940 he met General Archibald Wavell, the commander of the Middle East Command in Alexandria and explained his concept for a group of men intended to undertake long-range reconnaissance patrols to gather intelligence behind the Italian lines in Libya.
General Wavell was familiar with desert warfare, having been a liaison officer with the Egyptian Expeditionary Force during the First World War, he understood and endorsed Bagnold's suggested concept. Wavell assisted in equipping the force; the unit known as the No.1 Long Range Patrol Unit, was founded on 3 July 1940. Bagnold wanted men who were energetic, self-reliant and mentally tough, able to live and fight in seclusion in the Libyan desert. Bagnold felt that New Zealand farmers would possess these attributes and was given permission to approach the 2nd New Zealand Division for volunteers. Two officers and 85 other ranks including 18 administrative and technical personnel were selected, coming from the Divisional Cavalry Regiment and the 27th Machine-Gun Battalion. Once the men had been recruited, they started training in desert survival techniques and desert driving and navigation, with additional training in radio communications and demolitions; the LRP could form only three units, known as patrols, but a doubling of strength allowed the addition of a new Heavy Section.
In November 1940, the name of the LRP was changed to the "Long Range Desert Group", the New Zealanders were joined by volunteers from British and Southern Rhodesian regiments. The British volunteers, who came from the Brigade of Guards and Yeomanry regiments, were incorporated into their own patrols; the original patrol unit consisted of two officers and 28 other ranks, equipped with a Canadian Military Pattern Ford 15 Imperial hundredweight truck and 10 Chevrolet 30 cwt trucks. In March 1941 new types of trucks were issued and the patrol units were split into half-patrols of one officer and 15–18 men in five or six vehicles; each patrol incorporated a medical orderly, a navigator, a radio operator and a vehicle mechanic, each of whom manned a truck equipped for their role. The Long Range Patrol comprised a 15-man headquarters with Bagnold in command. There were three sub-units:'R' Patrol commanded by Captain Donald Gavin Steele,'T' Patrol commanded by Captain Patrick Clayton and'W' Patrol commanded by Captain Edward'Teddy' Cecil Mitford.'T' and'W' Patrols were combat units while'R' Patrol was intended to be a support unit.
In November 1940, the LRP was re-designated the Long Range Desert Group. It was expanded to six Patrols:'T','W' and'R' Patrols were joined by'G','S' and'Y' Patrols; each patrol was expected to belong to the same regimental group, but only the Brigade of Guards and the Yeomanry regiments formed their own Patrols,'G' and'Y' respectively. The men of'G' Patrol were drawn from the 3rd Battalion Coldstream Guards and the 2nd Battalion Scots Guards under command of Captain Michael Crichton-Stuart. The'Y' Patrol men were drawn from the Nottinghamshire Yeomanry under command Captain P. J. D. McCraith, with additional men from the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. In December 1940,'W' Patrol was disbanded and its personnel used to bring'R' and'T' Patrols up to strength, while'G' Patrol took over their vehicles. By June 1941 the LRDG was re-organised into two squadrons: the New Zealand and Rhodesian'A' Squadron with'S','T' and'R' Patrols, and'B' Squadron with'G','H' and'Y' Patrols.
There was a Headquarters Section along with signals, survey an
John Noel Pelly was an English first-class cricketer and Royal Navy officer. The son of Edmund Nevill Richard Pelly and Emma Mary Fowler, he was born in June 1888 at Ware, Hertfordshire, he graduated from the Britannia Royal Naval College and in May 1908 he was a sub-lieutenant. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in December 1910, he served in the First World War and shortly after the conclusion of the war he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant commander in December 1918. His next promotion, to commander, came in June 1925; the following year he made a single appearance in first-class cricket for the Royal Navy against the British Army cricket team at Lord's. Batting twice in the match, Pelly was dismissed in the navy first-innings without scoring by Kenneth Mackessack, while in their second-innings he was dismissed for 5 runs by Robert Melsome. Pelly was placed on the retired list at his own request in June 1934, at which point he was granted the rank of captain, he came out of retirement during the Second World War and was placed in command of the HMS King Alfred shore establishment at Hove in 1939.
The Chief Justice of the High Commissioner's Court, more known as the Chief Judicial Commissioner for the Western Pacific, was the chief judicial officer throughout the British Western Pacific Territories from 1877 through 1976. This was a supra-colonial entity established by the Western Pacific Orders-in-Council 1877, by the Pacific Order-in-Council 1893. Headed by a High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, ex officio the Governor of Fiji, until the end of 1952, it included numerous islands small, throughout Oceania. Composition varied over time. From 1877 through 1961, the Chief Justice of Fiji was ex officio Chief Judicial Commissioner, apart from a three-year suspension of the High Commission from 1942 through 1945 during the War in the Pacific, when many of Britain's colonies in Oceania were under either military administration or Japanese occupation. Appeals lay to the Privy Council in London. From the beginning of 1953, Fiji and Tonga were separated from the High Commission as a prelude to full independence, the High Commission offices were transferred to Honiara on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands, with the Governor of the Solomon Islands now being the High Commissioner ex officio.
The High Commissioner's Court, continued to meet in Suva, with the Chief Justice of Fiji continuing as Chief Judicial Commissioner for another decade, until 1962, when the two offices were separated. Under the Western Pacific Order in Council, gazetted on 15 August 1961 and effective from 9 April 1962, the High Commissioner's Court was renamed the High Court of the Western Pacific and relocated to the Solomon Islands; the court consisted of a Chief Justice and two puisne judges, one based in Port Vila, New Hebrides, the other in Tarawa and Ellice Islands. Most of the island groups had gained either independence or internal self-government by 1971. On 2 January 1976 after nearly all had been given separate statehood, the office of High Commissioner and the entity of the Pacific Territories were abolished; the High Commission of the Western Pacific was abolished, the last archives being packed up in Honiara in August 1978. A remnant of the High Commission was the right of appeal from the courts of many island nations to the Court of Appeal of Fiji, which persisted into the late 1970s.
Notes Citations Sources Biles, John. "Western Pacific Territories". In Olson, James Stuart. Historical Dictionary of the British Empire, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. Pp. 1156–7. ISBN 978-0-313-29367-2. Brereton, Bridget. Law and Empire: The Colonial Career of John Gorrie 1829–1892. University of the West Indies Press. ISBN 9789766400354. Care, Jennifer Corrin. Introduction to South Pacific Law. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-84568-039-8. Daley, Kevin and the challenge of Fijian unity Lal, Brij V.. The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopedia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2265-1. Lavaka, Penny. "The Tonga Ma'a Tonga Kautaha: a watershed in British-Tongan relations". Pacific Studies. Institute for Polynesian Studies. 4. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2015. Library Resources for Pacific History, University of Auckland Library Duff, Peter The evolution of trial by judge and assessors in Fiji Care, Jennifer Corrin Journal of Pacific Studies Volume 21: Sources of Law in the South Pacific.
Handley, K. R; the constitutional crisis in Fiji. The Australian Law Journal, Volume 75, November 2001, pp. 688–693
Vermilion Energy is an international oil and gas producer based in Calgary, Canada. It has operations in North America and Australia. Vermilion is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Vermilion began in 1994 as Vermilion Resources Ltd, an Alberta focused gas company. Vermilion had its initial public offering on the Alberta Stock Exchange in April 1996 for $0.10 per share. In 1997, it entered to the French market; the company changed its status to that of a trust in December 2002 when it became known as Vermilion Energy Trust for eight years. In 2004, Vermilion started to operate in the Netherlands. Vermilion acquired an 18.5% non-operating stake in the Corrib field in the Republic of Ireland from Marathon Oil in 2009, which grew to 20% along with operatorship when Royal Dutch Shell exited the project in 2018. In March 2013, Vermilion began trading on the NYSE under the ticker symbol "VET". Vermilion entered the US market with the acquisition of properties in the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming in 2014.
Vermilion acquired a 25% contractual participation interest in a four partner consortium in Germany from GDF Suez in February 2014. In April 2018, Vermilion announced the acquisition of Spartan Energy, a Saskatchewan-focused light oil producer, for $1.4 billion. In Canada, Vermilion's operations are focused in the West Pembina/Drayton Valley region of Alberta and the Northgate Region of southeast Saskatchewan. In West Pembina, Vermilion has the potential for three significant development projects sharing the same surface infrastructure: Cardium light oil development Mannville liquids-rich gas inventory Extensive position in Duvernay liquids-rich gas resource play Vermilion's activities in the United States are targeting oil and gas development in the Turner Sands tight-oil play. Vermilion has become the largest oil producer in France. In 2017, under a new climate change bill, Vermilion will no longer be an oil producer for France as of 2040; the company estimates there are more than 1.7 billion barrels of original oil in place in the five biggest conventional oil pools.
In the Netherlands, the company has undeveloped land base 800,000 acres. The Netherlands is characterized by development. Vermilion's natural gas production in the Netherlands is priced of Title Transfer Facility. In Germany, the assets include four natural gas producing fields across 11 production licenses, spanning 1,100,000 acres in the prolific North German Basin. Vermilion is the minority owner of the Corrib gas project in Ireland. At peak production, the Corrib project has been projected to supply 60-65% of the country's natural gas demand and over 90% of the country's natural gas production. First-gas from Corrib began on December 30, 2015. Wandoo is Vermilion's Australian asset, an offshore oil field and platform 80 kilometres off the northwest coast of Australia. Wandoo production receives a premium to Brent Crude pricing. Vermilion purchased a 60% operated interest in Wandoo in 2005; the company purchased the remaining 40% interest in Wandoo in 2007. Canadian petroleum companies Official website
"Ka-Ching!" is the Japanese debut single by Exo-CBX, the first official sub-unit of the South Korean boy group Exo. It was released on May 24, 2017 by Avex Trax as the title track of their debut Japanese extended play Girls; the song was first revealed in the short version of the music video on May 1, 2017. "Ka-Ching!" was re-released as a b-side track in EXO-CBX's first Japanese studio album Magic on May 9, 2018. "Ka-Ching!" is described as a catchy pop-tune song that blends elements of jazz with electronica, resulting in an eclectic tune that's as energetic as it is quirky. On May 1, 2017, a short music video of "Ka-Ching!" was released. The music video features the members with backup dancers showcasing some energetic choreography in various lavishly decorated casino sets. Exo-CBX performed "Ka-Ching!" for the first time at the 2017 Girls Awards on May 3, 2017. On June 7, the group performed "Ka-Ching!" on Exo-CBX "Colorful BoX" Free Showcase. On August 26, Exo-CBX performed "Ka-Ching!" on A-Nation concert in Japan.
Exo-CBX performed a Korean version of the song on Exo's concert Exo Planet 4 – The EℓyXiOn
André Guillaume Lubaya was a Congolese politician who served twice as the President of Kasai Province and as the Minister of Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He was the founder of the Union Démocratique Africaine. André Lubaya was born on 28 March 1932 in the Kazumba Territory, Kasai Province, Belgian Congo to a Bena-Ngoshi family, his father was Catholic and his mother was Protestant. In the 1960 general elections, Lubaya won a seat on a Union National Congolaise ticket in the Chamber of Deputies with 9,946 preferential votes. On 2 August 1961 a new government under Cyrille Adoula was presented to Parliament for a vote of confidence. Lubaya joined a few other deputies in expressing concerns about the government's sincerity in guaranteeing the safety and freedom of expression of the parliamentarians, he was the only deputy not to vote in favor of investing the government. In December 1961 the Kasai Provincial Assembly elected Lubaya Provincial President, he was seated the following January.
Both were members of the Lulua-dominated UNC, but while Lubaya was a member of the "modernist and revolutionary" tendency in the party, Mukenge adhered to the "moderate and more traditionalist" faction. Under Lubaya's rule more attention was given to the needs of the population of the Sankuru region, which were neglected by his predecessor, his government took a legalistic approach towards its work. Mukenge meanwhile contested the election of Lubaya on the grounds that several unqualified provincial deputies had participated in the election and demanded that Parliament reverse the result, he returned to the office in July 1962, causing Lubaya to appeal to the United Nations Operation in the Congo for security. The following month he relinquished their protection. Soon thereafter the provinces of the Congo were divided up and a new Luluabourg Province was created. A power struggle over the Luluabourg government ensued. On 18 September a government under François Luakabuanga was installed. Lubaya hesitantly accepted the post of Minister of the Interior.
On 11 May 1963 the provincial assembly, following a motion of censure against Luakabuanga, elected Lubaya as President before police interrupted the session and arrested several deputies. As a result, 12 other deputies traveled to the capital and lobbied for Parliament to confirm Lubaya's investiture, which occurred in an extraordinary session in August. However, shortly thereafter Central Government Minister of Interior Joseph Maboti arrested Lubaya and affirmed the legitimacy of Luakabuanga's government. Lubaya fled to Brazzaville where he joined other nationalist dissidents on 3 October in founding the Comité National de Libération, a revolutionary organisation with the goal of overthrowing the Congolese government, he was given the responsibility of managing the organisation's internal affairs. On 18 October 1965 Lubaya was appointed Minister of Economy of the Congo. Lubaya did not approve of Mobutu's coup in 1965 and refused to join his party, the Mouvement Populaire de la Révolution, he became Mobutu's Minister of Economy.
In October 1966 Lubaya introduced a resolution in the Chamber that urged the government to break off diplomatic relations with Portugal—which was suspected of supporting rebellion from Angola—and close all foreign consulates in the country. It passed unanimously. Meanwhile, Lubaya felt marginalised by the Lulua paramount chief, Kalamba Mangole, he announced his break from the UNC in a speech and subsequently organised his own party, the Union Démocratique Africaine. UNC leader Alphonse Ilunga allegedly reported Lubaya's opposition to Mobutu's regime. In 1968 Mobutu made an official visit Luluabourg during which he announced that a plot to overthrow his regime was being orchestrated by several Kasai senators, he initiated an investigation and instructed his agents to bring in Lubaya, dead or alive, with an offer of 500 zaires to the individual who fulfilled the request. Lubaya was brought to a military camp where he was summarily executed, his family never received the body