Magnoliids are a group of flowering plants. Until the group included about 9,000 species, including magnolias, bay laurel, avocado, black pepper, tulip tree and many others; that group is characterized by trimerous flowers, pollen with one pore, branching-veined leaves. "Magnoliidae" is the botanical name of a subclass, "magnoliids" is an informal name that does not conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants. The circumscription of a subclass will vary with the taxonomic system being used; the only requirement is. The informal name "magnoliids" is used by some researchers to avoid the confusion that surrounds the name "Magnoliidae". More the group has been redefined under the PhyloCode as a node-based clade comprising the Canellales, Laurales and Piperales. Chase & Reveal have proposed, "Magnoliidae" as the name used for the entire group of flowering plants, the formal name "Magnolianae" for the group of four orders are discussed here; the APG III and its predecessor systems did not use formal botanical names above the rank of order.
Under those systems, larger clades were referred to by informal names, such as "magnoliids" or "magnoliid complex". The formal name in Linnean nomenclature was specified in a separate APG publication as the existing name "Magnolianae" Takht.. The APG III recognizes a clade within the angiosperms for the magnoliids; the circumscription is: The clade includes most of the basal groups of the angiosperms. This clade was formally named Magnoliidae in 2007 under provisions of the PhyloCode; the Cronquist system used the name Magnoliidae for one of six subclasses. In the original version of this system the circumscription was: Subclass Magnoliidae: Order Aristolochiales Order Illiciales Order Laurales Order Magnoliales Order Nymphaeales Order Papaverales Order Piperales Order Ranunculales Both Dahlgren and Thorne classified the magnoliids in superorder Magnolianae, rather than as a subclass. In their systems, the name Magnoliidae is used for a much larger group including all dicotyledons; this is the case in some of the systems derived from the Cronquist system.
Dahlgren divided his Magnolianae into ten orders, more than other systems of the time, unlike Cronquist and Thorne, he did not include the Piperales. Thorne grouped most of his Magnolianae into two large orders and Berberidales, although his Magnoliales was divided into suborders along lines similar to the ordinal groupings used by both Cronquist and Dahlgren. Thorne revised his system in 2000, restricting the name Magnoliidae to include only the Magnolianae and Rafflesianae, removing the Berberidales and other included groups to his subclass Ranunculidae; this revised system diverges from the Cronquist system, but agrees more with the circumscription published under APG II. Comparison of classification systems is difficult. Two authors may apply the same name to groups with different composition of members. Two authors may describe the same group with nearly identical composition, but each may apply a different name to that group or place the group at a different taxonomic rank. For example, the composition of Cronquist's subclass Magnoliidae is nearly the same as Thorne's superorder Magnolianae, despite the difference in taxonomic rank.
Because of these difficulties and others, the synoptic table below imprecisely compares the definition of "magnoliid" groups in the systems of four authors. For each system, only orders are named in the table. All orders included by a particular author are linked in that column; when a taxon is not included by that author, but was included by an author in another column, that item appears in unlinked italics and indicates remote placement. The sequence of each system has been altered from its publication in order to pair corresponding taxa between columns; the magnoliids is a large group of plants, with many species that are economically important as food, perfumes, as ornamentals, among many other uses. One cultivated magnoliid fruit is the avocado, believed to have been cultivated in Mexico and Central America for nearly 10,000 years. Now grown throughout the American tropics, it originates from the Chiapas region of Mexico or Guatemala, where "wild" avocados may still be found; the soft pulp of the fruit is eaten mashed into guacamole.
The ancient peoples of Central America were the first to cultivate several fruit-bearing species of Annona. These include the custard-apple, sweetsop or sugar-apple, the cherimoya. Both soursop and sweetsop now are grown for their fruits in the Old World as well; some members of the magnoliids have served as important food additives. Oil of sassafras was used as a key flavoring in both root beer and in sarsaparilla; the primary ingredient responsible for the oil's flavor is safrole, but it is no longer used in either the United States or Canada. Both nations banned the use of safrole as a food additive in 1960 as a result of studies that demonstrated safrole promoted liver damage and tumors in mice. Consumption of more than a minute quantity of the oil causes nausea, vomiting and shallow rapid breathing, it is toxic, can damage the kidneys. In addition to its former use as a food additive, safro
Lucknow is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. It is the twelfth most populous urban agglomeration of India. Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub, the seat of power of Nawabs in the 18th and 19th centuries, it continues to be an important centre of governance, education, aerospace, pharmaceuticals, design, tourism and poetry. The city stands at an elevation of 123 metres above sea level. Lucknow district covers an area of 2,528 square kilometres. Bounded on the east by Barabanki, on the west by Unnao, on the south by Raebareli and in the north by Sitapur, Lucknow sits on the northwestern shore of the Gomti River. Lucknow was the capital of the Awadh region, controlled by the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, it was transferred to the Nawabs of Awadh. In 1856, the British East India Company abolished local rule and took complete control of the city along with the rest of Awadh and, in 1857, transferred it to the British Raj.
Along with the rest of India, Lucknow became independent from Britain on 15 August 1947. It has been listed as the 17th fastest growing city in 74th in the world. Lucknow, along with Agra and Varanasi, is in the Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc, a chain of survey triangulations created by the Government of Uttar Pradesh to boost tourism in the state. "Lucknow" is the anglicised spelling of the local pronunciation "Lakhnau". According to one legend, the city is named after Lakshmana, a hero of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana; the legend states that Lakshmana had a palace or an estate in the area, called Lakshmanapuri. However, the Dalit movement believes that Lakhan Pasi, a dalit ruler, was the settler of the city and is named after him; the settlement came to be known as Lakhanpur by the 11th century, Lucknow. A similar theory states; the name changed to Lakhanavati Lakhnauti and Lakhnau. Yet another theory states that the city's name is connected with Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of wealth. Over time, the name changed to Laksmanauti, Lakhsnaut and Lakhnau.
From 1350 onwards and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, the British East India Company and the British Raj. For about eighty-four years, Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Humayun made it a part of the Mughal Empire around 1555. Emperor Jahangir granted an estate in Awadh to a favoured nobleman, Sheikh Abdul Rahim, who built Machchi Bhawan on this estate, it became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzadas, controlled the region. The Nawabs of Lucknow, in reality, the Nawabs of Awadh, acquired the name after the reign of the third Nawab when Lucknow became their capital; the city became North India's cultural capital, its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under their dominion and dance flourished, construction of numerous monuments took place. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chota Imambara, the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples.
One of the Nawab's enduring legacies is the region's syncretic Hindu–Muslim culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb. Until 1719, the subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan known as Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed Nizam of Awadh in 1722 and established his court in Faizabad, near Lucknow. Many independent kingdoms, such as Awadh, were established as the Mughal Empire disintegrated; the third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula, fell out with the British after aiding the fugitive Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim. Roundly defeated at the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, he was forced to pay heavy penalties and surrender parts of his territory. Awadh's capital, Lucknow rose to prominence when Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab, shifted his court to the city from Faizabad in 1775; the British East India Company appointed a resident in 1773 and by early 19th century gained control of more territory and authority in the state.
They were, disinclined to capture Awadh outright and come face to face with the Maratha Empire and the remnants of the Mughal Empire. In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British and was forced to abdicate; the British helped Saadat Ali Khan take the throne. He became a puppet king, in a treaty of 1801, yielded large part of Awadh to the East India Company while agreeing to disband his own troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-controlled army; this treaty made the state of Awadh a vassal of the East India Company, although it continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819. The treaty of 1801 proved a beneficial arrangement for the East India Company as they gained access to Awadh's vast treasuries digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful returns while the territory acted as a buffer state; the Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with show. By the mid-nineteenth century, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and demanded direct control over Awadh.
In 1856 the East India Compa
Angelica archangelica known as garden angelica, wild celery, Norwegian angelica, is a biennial plant from the Apiaceae family, a subspecies of, cultivated for its sweetly scented edible stems and roots. Like several other species in Apiaceae, its appearance is similar to several poisonous species, should not be consumed unless it has been identified with absolute certainty. Synonyms include Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. and Angelica officinalis Moench. During its first year it grows only leaves, during its second year, its fluted stem can reach a height of 2.5 meters, from that stem the root, used in medicinal preparations. Its leaves comprise numerous small leaflets divided into three principal groups, each of, again subdivided into three lesser groups; the edges of the leaflets are finely serrated. The flowers, which blossom in July, are small and numerous, yellowish or greenish, are grouped into large, globular umbels which bear pale yellow, oblong fruits. Angelica grows only in preferably near rivers or deposits of water.
Angelica archangelica grows wild in Russia, Sweden, Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland in the northern parts of the countries. It is cultivated in France in the Marais Poitevin, a marsh region close to Niort in the department Deux-Sèvres. Commercially available sources of angelica are sourced from Hungary, Bulgaria and Poland; some Angelica is sourced from Asia as well, though it may be confused with similar plants like Angelica Glauca, which are sometimes sold as Angelica. From the 10th century on, angelica was cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal plant, achieved popularity in Scandinavia in the 12th century and is still used today in Sami culture. Angelica is a shamanic medicine among the Laplanders. A flute-like instrument with a clarinet-like sound can be made of its hollow stem. Linnaeus reported that Sami peoples used it in reindeer milk, as it is used as a flavouring agent. In 1602, angelica was introduced in Niort, it is used to flavour liqueurs or aquavits and trout, as jam. The long bright-green stems are candied and used as food decoration.
John Gerard's Herball praises the plant and states that "it cureth the bitings of mad dogs and all other venomous beasts". Angelica is unique amongst the Umbelliferae for its pervading aromatic odour, a pleasant perfume different from fennel, anise, caraway, or chervil, it has been compared to juniper. The roots are fragrant, form one of the principal aromatics of European botanical origin. Angelica archangelica roots have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea or tincture for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, nervous system, against fever and flu; the roots are among the most common botanicals used in gin distillation used in concert with Juniper berries and coriander as gin's chief aromatic accord. They are used in absinthes and bitters, in addition to culinary uses such as jams and omelettes; the hollow stems of Angelica archangelica are eaten. The stems are picked clean of their leaves, crystallized in sugar syrup and colored green as cake decoration or as candy.
The fruits are tiny mericarps and are used in the production of absinthes and other alcoholic drinks. Seeds of a Persian spice plant known as Golpar are mislabeled as "angelica seeds," and are not true seeds of Angelica archangelica; the essential oil content of angelica root varies based on the age of the roots. The roots have high levels of terpenes, including α-pinene and β-phellandrene. Studies have found upwards of over eighty different aroma compounds present in samples. Of particular interest to perfumers and aroma chemists is Cyclopentadecanolide, which although present in small quantities, it's responsible for angelica root's distinctive musky aroma and was found in the roots. Though the essential oil yield of Angelica seeds are higher, it's the roots which are preferred for culinary and aroma uses. Angelica seeds have a similar chemical composition to the roots, including α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, β-phellandrene, caryophyllene, borneol and others. Both the seeds and roots contain furocoumarins.
Among these are 2′-angeloyl-3′-isovaleryl vaginate, oxypeucedanin hydrate, byakangelicin angelate, isoimperatorin, isopimpinellin, 8-psoralen, ostruthol, phellopterin and xanthotoxin, can be isolated from a chloroform extract of the roots of A. archangelica as well as several heraclenol derivatives. The water root extract of A. archangelica subsp. Litoralis contains adenosine, the two dihydrofurocoumarin glycosides apterin and 1′-O-β-d-glycopyranosyl--marmesin, 1′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl--3-hydroxymarmesin and 2′-β-d-glucopyranosyloxymarmesin. Archangelica comes from the Greek word "arkhangelos", due to the belief that it was the archangel Michael who told of its use as medicine. In Finnish it is called väinönputki, in Kalaallisut kuanneq, in Northern Sami fádnu, boska and rássi, in English garden angelica, in German Arznei-Engelwurz or Echte Engelwurz, in Dutch grote engelwortel, in French angélique, in Persian Sonbol-e Khatāyi سنبل خطایی, in Swedish kvanne, in Norwegian kvann, in Danish kvan, in Icelandic hvönn, in Polish arcydzie
Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the poppy. The tiny kidney-shaped seeds have been harvested from dried seed pods by various civilizations for thousands of years, it is still used in many countries in Central Europe, where it is grown and sold in shops. The seeds are used whole or ground into meal as an ingredient in many foods – in pastry and bread – and they are pressed to yield poppyseed oil; the poppy seed is mentioned in ancient medical texts from many civilizations. For instance, the Egyptian papyrus scroll named Ebers Papyrus, written c. 1550 BC, lists poppy seed as a sedative. The Minoan civilization, a Bronze Age civilization which arose on the island of Crete, cultivated poppies for their seed, used a milk and honey mixture to calm crying babies; the Sumerians are another civilization. Poppy seeds are less than a millimeter in length, kidney-shaped, have a pitted surface, it takes 3,300 poppy seeds to make up a gram, between 1 and 2 million seeds to make up a pound. The primary flavor compound is 2-Pentylfuran.
The seeds of other poppy types are not eaten. Annual and biennial poppies are considered a good choice to cultivate from seed as they are not difficult to propagate by this method, can be put directly in the ground during January; the California poppy, for example, is a striking orange wildflower that grows in the Western and Northwestern United States. In 2016, world production of poppy seeds was 92,610 tonnes, led by the Czech Republic with 31% of the world total, followed by Turkey and Spain as other major producers; the poppy seed harvest can be a by-product of cultivation of Papaver somniferum for opium, poppy straw, or both opium and poppy straw. However, harvesting for poppy seeds of superior quality is in conflict with harvesting for opium as poppy seeds should be harvested when they are ripe, after the seed pod has dried. Traditionally, opium is harvested while the seed pods are green and the seeds have just begun to grow and their latex is abundant. Poppy straw can be a by-product of cultivation of poppy seeds.
Compared to the seed pod and straw, the seeds contain low levels of opiates. The seeds may be washed to obtain poppy tea but a large amount is needed, around 300-400g depending on the levels of opiates. Since poppy seeds are expensive, they are sometimes mixed with the seeds of Amaranthus paniculatus, which resemble poppy seeds. In a 100 gram amount, poppy seeds provide 525 Calories and are a rich source of thiamin and several essential minerals, including calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc. Poppy seeds are composed of 6% water, 28% carbohydrates, 42% fat, 21% protein. Whole poppy seeds are used as a spice and decoration in and on top of many baked goods and pastries. In North America they are used in and on many food items such as poppyseed muffins, bagels and cakes such as sponge cake. Poppy seeds can be used like sesame seeds, added to hamburger buns or to make a bar of candy; the bars are made from boiled seeds mixed with honey. This is common in the Balkans, Greece and in the cuisines of former Austro-Hungarian countries.
The color of poppy seeds is important in some uses. According to The Joy of Cooking, "the most desirable come from Holland and are a slate-blue color." When used as a thickener in some dishes, white poppy seeds are preferred, having less impact on the color of the food. In other dishes, black poppy seeds are preferred, for maximum impact. Blue poppy seeds are used in desserts as well as in Polish cuisine. Poppy seeds can be ground using a generic tool such as a mortar and pestle or a small domestic type electric blade grinder, or a special purpose poppy seed grinder. A poppy seed grinder is a type of burr grinder with a set aperture, too narrow for intact poppy seeds to pass through. A burr grinder produces a less oily paste than these other tools; the poppy seed paste is used for fillings in pastries, sometimes mixed with butter or milk and sugar. The ground filling is used in poppy seed rolls and some croissants and may be flavored with lemon or orange zest and vanilla with raisins, heavy cream and chopped blanched almonds or walnuts added.
For sweet baked goods, sometimes instead of sugar a tablespoon of jam, or other sweet binding agent, like syrup is substituted. The poppy seed for fillings are best when they are finely and freshly ground because this will make a big difference in the pastry filling's texture and taste. Poppy seed paste is available commercially, in cans. Poppy seeds are high in oil, so commercial pastes contain sugar, an emulsifier such as soy lecithin to keep the paste from separating. Commercial pastes contain food preservatives to keep them from becoming rancid. In the United States, commercial pastes are marketed under brand names including Solo and American Almond. Per 30 gram serving, the American Almond poppy seed paste has 120 calories, 4.5 grams fat, 2 grams protein. Poppy seeds are pressed to form poppyseed oil, a valuable commercial oil that has multiple culinary and industrial uses. Poppy seeds are used as bird seed, in which case they are called maw seeds. Poppy seeds are used around the world in various cuisines.
Across Europe and soft white bread pastries are sprinkled on top with black and white poppy seeds. The seeds of the czech blue poppy are consume
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. Globalized and modernized practices derived from Ayurveda traditions are a type of alternative medicine. In countries beyond India, Ayurvedic therapies and practices have been integrated in general wellness applications and in some cases in medical use; the main classical Ayurveda texts begin with accounts of the transmission of medical knowledge from the Gods to sages, to human physicians. In Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta wrote that Dhanvantari, Hindu god of Ayurveda, incarnated himself as a king of Varanasi and taught medicine to a group of physicians, including Sushruta. Ayurveda therapies have evolved over more than two millennia. Therapies are based on complex herbal compounds and metal substances. Ancient Ayurveda texts taught surgical techniques, including rhinoplasty, kidney stone extractions and the extraction of foreign objects. Although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances used in Ayurveda might be developed into effective treatments, there is no scientific evidence that any are effective as practiced.
Ayurveda medicine is considered pseudoscientific. Other researchers consider it a trans-science system instead. In a 2008 study, close to 21% of Ayurveda U. S. and Indian-manufactured patent medicines sold through the Internet were found to contain toxic levels of heavy metals lead and arsenic. The public health implications of such metallic contaminants in India are unknown; some scholars assert that Ayurveda originated in prehistoric times, that some of the concepts of Ayurveda have existed from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization or earlier. Ayurveda developed during the Vedic period and some of the non-Vedic systems such as Buddhism and Jainism developed medical concepts and practices that appear in the classical Ayurveda texts. Doṣa balance is emphasized, suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness. Ayurveda treatises describe three elemental doṣas viz. vāta, pitta and kapha, state that equality of the doṣas results in health, while inequality results in disease.
Ayurveda treatises divide medicine into eight canonical components. Ayurveda practitioners had developed various medicinal preparations and surgical procedures from at least the beginning of the common era; the earliest classical Sanskrit works on Ayurveda describe medicine as being divided into eight components. This characterization of the physicians' art, "the medicine that has eight components", is first found in the Sanskrit epic the Mahābhārata, ca 4th century BCE; the components are: Kāyachikitsā: general medicine, medicine of the body Kaumāra-bhṛtya: the treatment of children, pediatrics Śalyatantra: surgical techniques and the extraction of foreign objects Śhālākyatantra: treatment of ailments affecting ears, nose, etc. Bhūtavidyā: pacification of possessing spirits, the people whose minds are affected by such possession Agadatantra: toxicology Rasāyantantra: rejuvenation and tonics for increasing lifespan and strength Vājīkaraṇatantra: aphrodisiacs and treatments for increasing the volume and viability of semen and sexual pleasure.
The word "ayurveda" is Sanskrit: Āyurveda, meaning knowledge of life and longevity. The central theoretical ideas of Ayurveda developed in the mid-first millennium BCE, show parallels with Sāṅkhya and Vaiśeṣika philosophies, as well as with Buddhism and Jainism. Balance is emphasized, suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness. For example, to suppress sneezing is said to give rise to shoulder pain. However, people are cautioned to stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure when following nature's urges. For example, emphasis is placed on moderation of food intake and sexual intercourse. Ayurveda names seven basic tissues, which are plasma, muscles, bone and semen. Like the medicine of classical antiquity, Ayurveda has divided bodily substances into five classical elements, viz. earth, fire and ether. There are twenty gunas which are considered to be inherent in all matter; these are organized in ten pairs: heavy/light, cold/hot, unctuous/dry, dull/sharp, stable/mobile, soft/hard, non-slimy/slimy, smooth/coarse, minute/gross, viscous/liquid.
Ama is used to refer to the concept of anything. With regards to oral hygiene, it is claimed to be a toxic byproduct generated by improper or incomplete digestion; the concept has no equivalent in standard medicine. Ayurveda names three elemental bodily humors, the doshas, states that a balance of the doshas results in health, while imbalance results in disease. One Ayurvedic view is that the doshas are balanced when they are equal to each other, while another view is that each human possesses a unique combination of the doshas which define this person's temperament and characteristics. In either case, it says that each person should modulate their behavior or environment to increase or decrease the doshas and maintain their natural state. In medieval taxonomies of the Sanskrit knowledge systems, Ayurveda is assigned a place as a subsidiary Veda; some medicinal plant names from the Atharvaveda and other Ve
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile