Jan Siberechts was a Flemish landscape painter who after a successful career in Antwerp, emigrated in the latter part of his life to England. In his early works, he developed a personal style of landscape painting, with an emphasis on the Flemish countryside and country life, his landscapes painted in England retained their Flemish character by representing a universal theme. Siberechts painted hunting scenes for his English patrons; the topographical views he created in England stand at the beginning of the English landscape tradition. Jan Siberechts was born in the son of a sculptor with the same name, he trained in Antwerp with his father and became a master in the local Guild of Saint Luke by 1648. It is possible but not certain that in the late early 1650s he visited Italy, he married Maria-Anna Croes in Antwerp in 1652. He developed a personal style of painting landscapes, which impressed George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham when he visited Antwerp in 1670; the Duke invited the artist to England.
Siberechts arrived in England around 1672 and spent the first three years in England painting decorations in the Duke’s newly built Cliveden House at Taplow, England. From the second part of the 1670s and in the 1680s he travelled in England completing numerous commissions for aristocratic clients, he lived in London. His younger daughter, married the Flemish émigré sculptor Artus Quellinus III and, after being widowed, John Nost, another Flemish émigré sculptor. Whilst in London he was commissioned to paint the Belsize Estate of goldsmith banker John Coggs in 1696, which now hangs in the Tate Gallery London, he died in London. John Wootton was one of his pupils. About 100 of his works have been preserved, his early works were indebted to Dutch Italianate landscape painters such as Nicolaes Berchem and Karel Dujardin. Siberechts must have become acquainted with their work in Antwerp as these artists were active in Rome and Siberechts did not visit Italy himself although such a visit in the late 1640s, early 1650s cannot be excluded.
In the 1660s he developed a personal style of landscape painting, with an emphasis on the Flemish countryside and country life. He introduced into the foreground of his landscapes figures of robust country girls, dressed in bright red and yellow; these countrywomen are shown traveling in carts, on foot and on the backs of mules and in the act of carrying objects, bundles or baskets or crossing flooded roads or fords. The volumetric modeling and the manner in which they are set against brightly lit areas of the countryside make the figures stand out from the picture; the artist used the figures to play with the visual effects produced by the figures in the water. His landscapes painted in England in the 1670s and 1680s retained their Flemish character by representing a universal theme; this stands in contrast to Dutch landscape paintings of the period, which concentrated on a single aspect of a landscape. Siberechts' landscapes depicted powerful trees and soft light on distant hills while the figures became less important than the landscape itself.
The foreground was kept dark in order to draw attention to the broad, brightly lit vista in the background. Siberechts painted hunting scenes for his English patrons; these are the earliest country house portraits in England. He used a standardised composition for these hunting scenes: the hunting scene with the huntsmen and horsemen in the foreground and a naturalistic view of the stately home as the backdrop, placed in a misty and atmospheric landscape, he adopted a bird's - eye view. These country house portraits had an important influence on English landscape painting and Siberechts can be regarded as the ‘father of British landscape’; these landscapes have an important historic and topographical interest. Siberechts stood at the beginning of a long tradition of Flemish painters who made topographical paintings of the estates of the British nobility; these artists include Pieter Andreas Rijsbrack and Hendrik Frans de Cort. Media related to Jan Siberechts at Wikimedia Commons
Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS was an English anatomist, astronomer and mathematician-physicist, as well as one of the most acclaimed English architects in history. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including what is regarded as his masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral, on Ludgate Hill, completed in 1710; the principal creative responsibility for a number of the churches is now more attributed to others in his office Nicholas Hawksmoor. Other notable buildings by Wren include the Royal Naval College and the south front of Hampton Court Palace; the Wren Building, the main building at the College of William and Mary, Virginia, is attributed to Wren. Educated in Latin and Aristotelian physics at the University of Oxford, Wren was a founder of the Royal Society, his scientific work was regarded by Isaac Newton and Blaise Pascal. Wren was born in East Knoyle in Wiltshire, the only surviving son of Christopher Wren the Elder and Mary Cox, the only child of the Wiltshire squire Robert Cox from Fonthill Bishop.
Christopher Sr. was at that time the rector of East Knoyle and Dean of Windsor. It was, their son Christopher was born in 1632 two years another daughter named Elizabeth was born. Mary must have died shortly after the birth of Elizabeth, although there does not appear to be any surviving record of the date. Through Mary Cox, the family became well off financially for, as the only heir, she had inherited her father's estate; as a child Wren "seem'd consumptive." Although a sickly child, he would survive into robust old age. He was first taught at home by his father. After his father's royal appointment as Dean of Windsor in March 1635, his family spent part of each year there, but little is known about Wren's life at Windsor, he spent his first eight years at East Knoyle and was educated by the Rev. William Shepherd, a local clergyman. Little is known of Wren's schooling thereafter, during dangerous times when his father's Royal associations would have required the family to keep a low profile from the ruling Parliamentary authorities.
It was a tough time in his life, but one which would go on to have a significant impact upon his works. The story that he was at Westminster School between 1641 and 1646 is substantiated only by Parentalia, the biography compiled by his son, a fourth Christopher, which places him there "for some short time" before going up to Oxford; some of Wren's youthful exercises preserved or recorded showed that he received a thorough grounding in Latin and learned to draw. According to Parentalia, he was "initiated" in the principles of mathematics by Dr William Holder, who married Wren's elder sister Susan in 1643, his drawing was put to academic use in providing many of the anatomical drawings for the anatomy textbook of the brain, Cerebri Anatome, published by Thomas Willis, which coined the term "neurology." During this time period, Wren manifested an interest in the design and construction of mechanical instruments. It was through Holder that Wren met Sir Charles Scarburgh whom Wren assisted in his anatomical studies.
On 25 June 1650, Wren entered Wadham College, where he studied Latin and the works of Aristotle. It is anachronistic to imagine. However, Wren became associated with John Wilkins, the Warden of Wadham; the Wilkins circle was a group whose activities led to the formation of the Royal Society, comprising a number of distinguished mathematicians, creative workers and experimental philosophers. This connection influenced Wren's studies of science and mathematics at Oxford, he graduated B. A. in 1651, two years received M. A. Receiving his M. A. in 1653, Wren was elected a fellow of All Souls' College in the same year and began an active period of research and experiment in Oxford. His days as a fellow of All Souls ended when Wren was appointed Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College, London in 1657, he was provided with a set of rooms and a stipend and was required to give weekly lectures in both Latin and English to all who wished to attend. Wren took up this new work with enthusiasm, he continued to meet the men with.
They attended. It was from these meetings that the Royal Society, England's premier scientific body, was to develop, he undoubtedly played a major role in the early life of. In fact, the report on one of these meetings reads: Memorandum November 28, 1660; these persons following according to the usual custom of most of them, met together at Gresham College to hear Mr Wren's lecture, viz. The Lord Brouncker, Mr Boyle, Mr Bruce, Sir Robert Moray, Sir Paule Neile, Dr Wilkins, Dr Goddard, Dr Petty, Mr Ball, Mr Rooke, Mr Wren, Mr Hill, and after the lecture was ended they did according to the usual manner, withdraw for mutual converse. In 1662, they proposed a society "for the promotion of Physico-Mathe
Robert Smythson was an English architect. Smythson designed a number of notable houses during the Elizabethan era. Little is known about his birth and upbringing—his first mention in historical records comes in 1556, when he was stonemason for the house at Longleat, built by Sir John Thynne, he designed Hardwick Hall, Wollaton Hall, Burton Agnes Hall, other significant projects. A number of other Elizabethan houses, such as Gawthorpe Hall have been attributed to him on stylistic grounds. In Britain at this time, the profession of architect was in its most embryonic stage of development. Smythson was trained as a stonemason, by the 1560s was travelling England as a master mason leading his own team of masons. In 1568 he moved from London to Wiltshire to commence work on the new house at Longleat for Sir John Thynne. In 1580 he moved to his next project—Wollaton Hall. At Wollaton he was more a "surveyor" than a stonemason, was in charge of overall construction. Smythson's style was more than a fusion of influences.
Hardwick in particular is noted for its use of glass. Smythson is buried in the parish church there, his son John Smythson and grandson Huntingdon Smithson were architects
A safari park, sometimes known as a wildlife park, is a zoo-like commercial drive-in tourist attraction where visitors can drive their own vehicles or ride in vehicles provided by the facility to observe roaming animals. The main attractions are large animals from Sub-Saharan Africa such as giraffes, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, zebras and antelope. A safari park is smaller than a game reserve. For example, African Lion Safari in Hamilton, Canada is 750 acres. For comparison, Lake Nakuru in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya, is 168 square kilometres, a typical large game reserve is Tsavo East in Kenya, which encompasses 11,747 square kilometres. Safari parks have other associated tourist attractions: golf courses, carnival rides, cafes/restaurants, ridable miniature railways, gift shops; the predecessor of safari parks is Africa U. S. A. Park in Florida; the first lion drive-through opened in 1963 in Tama Zoological Park in Tokyo. In double-glazed buses, visitors made a tour through a one-hectare enclosure with twelve African lions.
The first drive-through safari park outside of Africa opened in 1966 at Longleat in Wiltshire, England. Longleat, Windsor and arguably the whole concept of safari parks were the brainchild of Jimmy Chipperfield, former co-director of Chipperfield's Circus, although a similar concept is explored as a plot device in Angus Wilson's "The Old Men at the Zoo", published five years before Chipperfield set up Longleat. Longleat's Marquess of Bath agreed to Chipperfield's proposition to fence off 40 hectares of his vast Wiltshire estate to house 50 lions. Knowsley, the Earl of Derby's estate outside Liverpool, the Duke of Bedford's Woburn estate in Bedfordshire both established their own safari parks with Chiperfield's partnership. Another circus family, the Smart Brothers, joined the safari park business by opening a park at Windsor for visitors from London; the former Windsor Safari Park was in Berkshire, but closed in 1992 and has since been made into a Legoland. There is Chipperfield's "Scotland Safari Park" established on Baronet Sir John Muir's estate at Blair Drummond near Stirling, the American-run "West Midland Safari and Leisure Park" near Birmingham.
One park along with Jimmy Chipperfield at Lambton Castle in the North East England has closed. Between 1967 and 1974, Lion Country Safari, Inc. opened 6 animal parks, one near each of the following American cities: West Palm Beach, Florida. The first park, in South Florida, is the only Lion Country Safari still in operation. Burgers' Zoo at Arnhem, opened a "safari park" in 1968 within a traditional zoo. In 1995, Burgers' Safari modified this to a walking safari with a 250-metre board walk. Another safari park in the Netherlands is Safaripark Beekse Bergen. Most safari parks were established in a short period of ten years, between 1966 and 1975. Europe Belgium: Aywaille, Pombia, Ravenna Denmark: Givskud, Ebeltoft Scotland: Blair Drummond Sweden: Kolmården, Smålandet Austria: Gänserndorf Spain: Cabárceno Portugal: Badoca Safari Park Russia: Kudykina Gora Americas United States Florida: Loxahatchee California: Escondido Louisiana: Epps Maryland: Largo Nebraska: Ashland New Jersey: Jackson New Jersey: West Milford Texas: Grand Prairie, San Antonio, Glen Rose Oregon: Winston Ohio: Port Clinton, Mason Virginia: Doswell, Natural Bridge Georgia: Pine Mountain Canada Ontario: Flamborough Quebec: Hemmingford Quebec: Montebello Mexico: Puebla Morelos Guatemala: Escuintla Chile: Rancagua Brazil: São Paulo Asia Bangladesh: Gazipur Bangladesh: Cox's Bazar (Du
Horningsham is a small village and civil parish in Wiltshire, England, on the county border with Somerset. The village lies about 4 miles southwest of the town of Warminster and 4 1⁄2 miles southeast of Frome, Somerset; the parish forms part of the Longleat estate and includes the hamlets of Hitcombe Bottom and Newbury. At Baycliffe Farm, in the south of the parish near the boundary with Maiden Bradley, are the site of an early Iron Age settlement and a Bronze Age bowl barrow. Entries in the Domesday Book describe Horningsham as small, being occupied by one cottager and four small holders; the name'Horninges-ham' means'Horning's homestead' in Old English. The personal name comes from the uncomplimentary noun'hornung' meaning'bastard'. A small Augustinian priory was established at Longleat at some point before 1235, continued as a peculiar controlled by the Dean of Salisbury. In 1529, Longleat Priory failed and its land and property were transferred to Hinton, Somerset. Close to the parish boundary on the road to Frome are the remains of Woodhouse Castle, where earthworks and fragmentary ruins cellar walls, survive.
In the 17th century it was owned by the Cavalier Arundel family and attacked during the English Civil War. The damage was so severe; the family built themselves a fine manor house below the church. The manor changed hands several times before the Thynnes purchased it for the second time in 1716; the Vernon family, who held it during the 12th century, were the founders of the village church. The Stantors held it for the next 200 years, selling to Sir John Thynne c. 1550. After the Civil War the manor was in the possession of the Arundels. Sir John Thynne, who built Longleat House on the site of the former priory, had increased the size of the parish by buying more land, his descendant Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath was interested in forestry, engaged Capability Brown to plant large plantations of beech and pine. Forestry and farming were established as the two main sources of employment and this did not change until the late 20th century, when tourism took over. Longleat House, its orangery and boathouse are Grade I listed, as is the archway flanked by two lodges, built c. 1804 to form an impressive approach to the house from Horningsham village.
Lord Bath's School was built to the west of the church in 1844 by Harriet, widow of Henry Thynne, 3rd Marquess of Bath. Forty children attended in 1858, in 1892 the school was enlarged to cater for 200; the school came under the control of Wiltshire County Council in 1926, ceased taking pupils over 11 in 1931. The building continues in use as Horningsham Primary School. Pevsner described Horningsham in 1963 as "a singularly loose village with houses in their own gardens, small or large, no visual cohesion." Horningsham has two places of both of long standing and both Grade II * listed. The Church of England parish church of St John the Baptist was founded in the 12th century; the tower is from the 15th century while the body of the church was rebuilt in 1844 by T. H. Wyatt and D. Brandon. Five of the six bells are dated 1743. Tithes from Horningsham were given to Heytesbury in the 12th century, in that century when Heytesbury became a collegiate church the tithes supported the canons, with the prebendary continuing after the Reformation.
A notable canon was William Bradbridge, prebendary of Horningsham from 1568 to 1576 and Bishop of Exeter from 1571. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners Act 1840 abolished the prebendary, becoming effective on the death of the last canon, the Reverend John Nelson Clerk, in 1855; the ecclesiastical parish was united with Maiden Bradley in 1958 but the two were separated again in 1976. The parish was expanded and renamed The Deverills and Horningsham. A Congregational Chapel was built c. 1700 to the south of the village. Non-conformity came to the parish in the 16th century, when Scotsmen were employed by Sir John Thynne on the construction of Longleat House; the chapel is of rubble stone with a thatched roof, was enlarged in 1754 and 1816. The claim that this is the oldest Free Church in England is unsubstantiated, but it is believed to be the oldest still in use for worship. Horningsham elects a parish council. Most local government services are provided by Wiltshire Council, which has its offices in nearby Trowbridge.
The village is represented in Parliament by the MP for South West Wiltshire, Andrew Murrison and in Wiltshire Council by Fleur de Rhé-Philipe. The parish is within the Cranborne Chase and West Wiltshire Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Horningsham has the P's identified by Country Life as essential to a successful village: a pub, a post office, a place of worship, a primary school and public transport, it has a village hall. Horningsham Cricket Club play in the Three Counties League; every year on the second Sunday in June, Lord Bath opens a well-attended village fete. The village pub, The Bath Arms, is on The Common. Built in the 17th century, it became a public house in 1732, it changed to the Lord Weymouth Arms and the Marquess of Bath's Arms. In 1850 this was one of four pubs in the village, as well as an off-licence; the village lies on middle chalk and Warminster greensand. The stream Redford Water rises in the village and runs into the River Frome; the centre of the village is at 162 metres above sea level.
Horningsham is the home village of the title character in Allan Mallinson's Matthew Hervey book series. Longleat House Animal Park – television programme filmed at Longleat and in Horningsham Media related to Horning
The Royal Pavilion known as the Brighton Pavilion, is a Grade I listed former royal residence located in Brighton, England. Beginning in 1787, it was built in three stages as a seaside retreat for George, Prince of Wales, who became the Prince Regent in 1811, it is built in the Indo-Saracenic style prevalent in India for most of the 19th century. The current appearance of the Pavilion, with its domes and minarets, is the work of architect John Nash, who extended the building starting in 1815; the Prince of Wales, who became George IV, first visited Brighton in 1783, at the age of 21. The seaside town had become fashionable as a result of the residence of George's uncle, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland, whose tastes for fine cuisine, the theatre, general fast living the young prince shared, with whom he lodged in Brighton at Grove House. In addition, the Prince of Wales was advised by his physician that the seawater and fresh air would be beneficial for his gout. In 1786, under a financial cloud with investigation by Parliament for the extravagances incurred in building Carlton House, the Prince rented a modest, erstwhile farmhouse facing the Old Steine, a grassy area of Brighton used as a promenade by visitors.
Remote from the Royal Court in London, the Pavilion was a discreet location for the Prince to enjoy private liaisons with his long-time companion, Maria Fitzherbert. The Prince had wished to marry her, did so in secrecy as her Roman Catholic religion prohibited his marrying her under the Royal Marriages Act 1772. In 1787, the Prince commissioned the designer of Carlton House, Henry Holland, to enlarge the existing building, it became one wing of the Marine Pavilion, flanking a central rotunda, which contained three main rooms: a breakfast room, dining room, library, fitted out in Holland's French-influenced neoclassical style, with decorative paintings by Biagio Rebecca. In 1801–02, the Pavilion was enlarged with a new dining room and conservatory, to designs of Peter Frederick Robinson, who worked in Holland's office; the Prince purchased land surrounding the property, on which a grand riding school and stables were built in an Indian style in 1803–08, to designs by William Porden. These provided dwarfed the Marine Pavilion.
Between 1815 and 1822, the designer John Nash redesigned and extended the Pavilion, it is his work, still visible today. The palace is striking in the middle of Brighton; the fanciful interior design by Frederick Crace and the little-known decorative painter Robert Jones, was influenced by both Chinese and Indian fashion. It is a prime example of the exoticism, an alternative to more classicising mainstream taste in the Regency style. After the death of George IV in 1830, his successor King William IV stayed in the Pavilion on his frequent visits to Brighton. Queen Victoria, disliked Brighton and the lack of privacy at the Pavilion. Brighton became accessible to Londoners by rail in 1841. In addition, the Pavilion was cramped for her growing family. Famously, Queen Victoria disliked the constant attention she attracted in Brighton, saying "the people here are indiscreet and troublesome", she purchased an estate and land, redeveloped for Osborne House in the Isle of Wight, which became the summer home of the royal family.
After her last visit to Brighton in 1845, the Government planned to sell grounds. The Brighton Commissioners and the Brighton Vestry petitioned the Government to sell the Pavilion to the town for £53,000 in 1850 under the Brighton Improvement Act 1850; the sale helped fund furnishing of Osborne House. In 1860, the adjacent royal stables were converted to a concert hall, now known as the Brighton Dome; the town used the building as assembly rooms. Many of the Pavilion's original fixtures and fittings were removed on the order of the royal household at the time of the sale, most ending up either in Buckingham Palace or Windsor Castle. In the late 1860s, Queen Victoria returned to Brighton large quantities of unused fittings. George V and Queen Mary returned more furnishings after the First World War. Since the end of the Second World War, the municipality of Brighton has worked to restore the Pavilion to its state at the time of King George IV; the city was encouraged in the 1950s by the permanent loan of over 100 items of furniture from Queen Elizabeth II.
It has undertaken an extensive programme of restoring the rooms, reinstating stud walls, creating replicas of some original fittings and pieces of furniture. During the First World War, the Pavilion, along with other sites in Brighton, was transformed into a military hospital. From December 1914 to January 1916, sick and wounded soldiers from the Indian Army were treated in the former palace; the Pavilion hospital incorporated the adjacent Dome and Corn Exchange. The Pavilion hospital was set up with over 720 beds. Over 2,300 men were treated at the hospital. Elaborate arrangements were made to cater for the patients' variety of cultural needs. Nine different kitchens were set up in the grounds of the hospital, so that food could be cooked by the soldiers' fellow caste members and co-religionists. Muslims were given space on the eastern lawns to pray facing towards Mecca, while Sikhs were provided with a tented gurdwara in the grounds; the imperial government highlighted the Pavilion as showing that wounded countrymen of India were being well treated.
With the official sanction of
Prodigy house is a term for large and showy English country houses built by courtiers and other wealthy families, either "noble palaces of an awesome scale" or "proud, ambitious heaps" according to taste. The prodigy houses stretch over the periods of Tudor and Jacobean architecture, though the term may be restricted to a core period of 1570 to 1620. Many of the grandest were built with a view to housing Elizabeth I and her large retinue as they made their annual royal progress around her realm. Many are therefore close to major roads in the English Midlands; the term originates with the architectural historian Sir John Summerson, has been adopted. He called them "...the most daring of all English buildings." The houses fall within the broad style of Renaissance architecture, but represent a distinctive English take on the style reliant on books for their knowledge of developments on the Continent. Andrea Palladio was dead before the prodigy houses reached their peak, but his much more restrained classical style did not reach England until the work of Inigo Jones in the 1620s.
For ornament and Flemish Northern Mannerist decoration was more influential than Italian. Elizabeth I travelled southern England in annual summer "progresses", staying at the houses of wealthy courtiers; the hosts were expected to house the monarch in style, provide sufficient accommodation for about 150 travelling members of the court, for whom temporary buildings might need to be erected. Elizabeth was not slow to complain if she felt her accommodation had not been appropriate, did so about two of the largest prodigy houses, Theobalds House and Old Gorhambury House; as a result of this imperative, but general increasing wealth, there was an Elizabethan building boom, with large houses built in the most modern styles by courtiers, wealthy from acquired monastic estates, who wished to display their wealth and status. A characteristic was the large area of glass – a new feature that superseded the need for defended external walls and announced the owners' wealth. Hardwick Hall, for example was proverbially described as "Hardwick Hall, more glass than wall."
Many other smaller prodigy houses were built by businessmen and administrators, as well as long-established families of the nobility and gentry. The large Doddington Hall, Lincolnshire was built between 1593 and 1600 by Robert Smythson for Thomas Tailor, the recorder to the Bishop of Lincoln; some recent uses of the term extend the meaning to describe large ostentatious houses in America of periods, such as colonial mansions in Virginia, first so described by Cary Carson. In many respects the style of the houses varies but consistent features are a love of glass, a high elevation, symmetrical exteriors, consistency between all sides of the building, a rather square plan with tower pavilions at the corners that rise above the main roofline, a decorated skyline. Altogether "...a strange amalgam of exuberant pinnacles and turrets, native Gothic mullioned windows, Renaissance decoration." Many houses stand alone, with other outbuildings at a discreet distance. Glass was an expensive material, its use on a large scale a demonstration of wealth.
The large windows required mullions in stone in houses in brick. For the main structure, stone is preferred as a facing over brick, but some buildings use brick, for example Hatfield House, following the precedent of Hampton Court and other earlier houses. Though there were reminiscences of the medieval castle, the houses were exceptionally without defences, compared to contemporary Italian and French equivalents. To have two internal courtyards, requiring a large building, was a status symbol, found at Audley End, Blickling Hall, others. By the end of the Elizabethan period this sprawling style developing the form of late medieval buildings like Knole in Kent, many Oxbridge colleges, was giving way to more compact high-rising structures with a coherent and dramatic structural plan, making the whole form of the building visible from outside the house. Hardwick Hall, Burghley House, on a smaller scale Wollaton Hall, exemplify this trend; the outer exteriors of the house are more decorated than internal exteriors such as courtyards, the reverse of the usual priority in medieval houses.
The common E and H-shaped plans, in effect incorporating an imposing gatehouse into the main facade, rather than placing it across an initial courtyard, increased the visibility of the most grandly decorated parts of the exterior. The classical orders were used as decoration, piled up one above the other on the storeys over the main entrance. But, with a few exceptions such as Kirby Hall, columns were restricted to such individual features. At Longleat and Wollaton shallow pilasters are used across the facades. A crib-book, The First and Chief Grounds of Architecture by John Shute had been commissioned or sponsored by "Protector Somerset", John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, is recorded in the libraries of many important clients of buildings, along with Sebastiano Serlio's Architettura in Italian or another language until 1611, when Robert Peake published four of the volumes in English; the heavily-illustrated books on ornament by the Netherlander Hans Vredeman