Guanyin or Guan Yin is the most used Chinese translation of the bodhisattva known as Avalokiteśvara. In English usage, Guanyin refers to the Buddhist bodhisattva associated with compassion and venerated chiefly by followers of Mahayana Buddhist schools as practiced in the sinosphere. Guanyin refers to the bodhisattva as adopted by other Eastern religions such as Taoism, where she is revered as an immortal, as well as Chinese folk religions, where the mythical accounts about Guanyin's origins do not associate with the Avalokiteśvara described in Buddhist sutras.. In English, she is known as the "Goddess of Mercy" or the Mercy Goddess; the Chinese name Guanyin, is short for Guanshiyin, which means " Perceives the Sounds of the World". In Nepal Mandal Guanyin is worshipeed as Jana Baha Dyah, Seto Machindranath; some Buddhists believe that when one of their adherents departs from this world, they are placed by Guanyin in the heart of a lotus, sent to the western Pure Land of Sukhāvatī. Guanyin is referred to as the "most beloved Buddhist Divinity" with miraculous powers to assist all those who pray to her, as is said in the Lotus Sutra and Karandavyuha Sutra.
Several large temples in East Asia are dedicated to Guanyin including Shitennō-ji, Sensō-ji, Kiyomizu-dera, Sanjūsangen-dō, Dharma Drum Mountain. Guanyin is beloved by all Buddhist traditions in a non-denominational way and found in most Tibetan temples under the name Chenrezig, found in some influential Theravada temples such as Gangaramaya and Kelaniya in Sri Lanka. Statues are a depicted subject of Asian art and found in the Asian art sections of most museums in the world. Guānyīn is a translation from the Sanskrit Avalokitasvara or Avalokiteśvara, referring to the Mahāyāna bodhisattva of the same name. Another name for this bodhisattva is Guānzìzài, it was thought that the Chinese mis-transliterated the word Avalokiteśvara as Avalokitasvara which explained why Xuanzang translated it as Guānzìzài instead of Guānyīn. However, the original form was indeed Avalokitasvara with the ending svara, which means "sound perceiver" "he who looks down upon sound"; this is the exact equivalent of the Chinese translation Guānyīn.
This etymology was furthered in the Chinese by the tendency of some Chinese translators, notably Kumarajiva, to use the variant Guānshìyīn "he who perceives the world's lamentations"—wherein lok was read as meaning both "to look" and "world". Direct translations from the Sanskrit name Avalokitasvara include: Chinese: Guanyin, Guanshiyin The name Avalokitasvara was supplanted by the Avalokiteśvara form containing the ending -īśvara, which does not occur in Sanskrit before the seventh century; the original form Avalokitasvara appears in Sanskrit fragments of the fifth century. The original meaning of the name "Avalokitasvara" fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva; the reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Śaivism, as the term īśvara was connected to the Hindu notion of Śiva as a creator god and ruler of the world. While some of those who revered Avalokiteśvara upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god, Encyclopædia Britannica does cite Avalokiteśvara as the creator god of the world.
This position is taken in the used Karandavyuha Sutra with its well-known mantra Oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ. In addition, the Lotus Sutra is the first time. Chapter 25 refers to him as Lokeśvara and Lokanātha and ascribes extreme attributes of divinity to him. Direct translations from the Sanskrit name Avalokiteśvara include: Chinese: 觀自在. In Hokkien, she is called Kuan Im or Kuan Se Im In Japanese, Guanyin is pronounced Kannon Kan'on, or more formally Kanzeon; this rendition was used for an earlier spelling of the well-known camera manufacturer Canon Inc., named for Guanyin. When iconography of Kannon depicts her with the Nyoihōju wishing gem she is known as Nyoirin Kannon, the Japanese adaptation of the Hindu deity Cintamanicakra. In Korean, Guanyin is called Gwanse-eum. In Thai's pronunciation duplicate from Hokkien Kuan Im, Phra Mae Kuan Im or Chao Mae Kuan Im. In Burmese, the name of Guanyin is Kwan Yin Medaw meaning Mother Kwan Yin. In Vietnamese, the name is Quán Thế Âm. In Indonesian, the name is Dewi Kwan Im.
She is called Mak Kwan Im "Mother Guanyin". In Malaysian Mandarin, the name is Guan Shi Yin Pusa. In Khmer, the name is Preah Mae Kun Ci Iem. In Sinhalese, the name is Natha Deviyo. In Tibetan, the name is Chenrézik. In Hmong, the name is Kab Yeeb. In these same countries, the variant Guanzizai "Lord of Contemplation" and its equivalents are used, such as in the Heart Sutra, among other sources; the Lotus Sūtra
Hall of Shanmen
The Hall of Shanmen or Shanmen Hall known as Hall of Three Liberation or Hall of Mount Gate, is the gate of a Chinese Chan Buddhist temple. In ancient times, nearly all Chinese Buddhist temples had a Shanmen, as an important gate of the temple. After successive wars and cultural discontinuity, with only one gate, most of the existing ancient Buddhist temples follow the hall style or change the middle gate of the three main gates into a hall called "Hall of Shanmen"; each niche on both sides of Shanmen Hall enshrines a statue of a heavenly deity with a Vajra in his hand, namely Nio, Buddha's warrior attendant known as "Yakasha Deity" or "Zhijingang". Vajra refers to the short metal weapon of king of all heavenly deities Indra in Indian mythology and symbolizes solidness and sharpness in Buddhism. Nio is a Dharmapala. There is only one Nio. However, in order to meet Chinese custom of being in pairs, Chinese people cast two Nio to safeguard the mount gate after the introduction of Buddhism from India to China in the Eastern Han Dynasty.
The Nio are wearing crowns, ethereal clothes with their upper bodies exposed, with well-developed muscles and short skirts. The Nio have open eyes and protruding noses, holding weapons in their hands, glaring the ground awesomely and angrily; the Nio, the right one, has its mouth open to pronounce the sound "a", while the other has it closed to utter the sound "hong". The symbolism is the same seen; the generic name for statues with an open mouth is General Ha, that for those with a closed mouth General Heng. "A" and "Hong", are the start and end sounds in Sanskrit, symbolizing the basis of sounds and bearing the profound theory of Dharma. Wang Guixiang. 《中国汉传佛教建筑史——佛寺的建造、分布与寺院格局、建筑类型及其变迁》. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press. ISBN 9787302427056. Zhang Yuhuan. 《图解中国佛教建筑、寺院系列》. Beijing: Contemporary China Publishing House. ISBN 9787515401188
Gautama Buddha known as Siddhārtha Gautama in Sanskrit or Siddhattha Gotama in Pali, Shakyamuni Buddha, or the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was a monk, sage, philosopher and religious leader on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught in the northeastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region, he taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, he is believed by Buddhists to be an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarised after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most people accept that the Buddha lived and founded a monastic order during the Mahajanapada era during the reign of Bimbisara, the ruler of the Magadha empire, died during the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara. While the general sequence of "birth, renunciation, search and liberation, death" is accepted, there is less consensus on the veracity of many details contained in traditional biographies; the times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE. More his death is dated between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium on this question held in 1988, the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death; these alternative chronologies, have not been accepted by all historians.
The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama was born into the Shakya clan, a community, on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE. One of his usual names was "Sakamuni" or "Sakyamunī", it was either a small republic, or an oligarchy, his father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch. According to the Buddhist tradition, Gautama was born in Lumbini, now in modern-day Nepal, raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, which may have been either in what is present day Tilaurakot, Nepal or Piprahwa, India. According to Buddhist tradition, he obtained his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath, died in Kushinagar. Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha's lifetime coincided with the flourishing of influential Śramaṇa schools of thought like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Ajñana. Brahmajala Sutta records sixty-two such schools of thought. In this context, a śramaṇa refers to one who toils, or exerts themselves.
It was the age of influential thinkers like Mahavira, Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, as recorded in Samaññaphala Sutta, whose viewpoints the Buddha most must have been acquainted with. Indeed and Moggallāna, two of the foremost disciples of the Buddha, were the foremost disciples of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, the sceptic. There is philological evidence to suggest that the two masters, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, were indeed historical figures and they most taught Buddha two different forms of meditative techniques. Thus, Buddha was just one of the many śramaṇa philosophers of that time. In an era where holiness of person was judged by their level of asceticism, Buddha was a reformist within the śramaṇa movement, rather than a reactionary against Vedic Brahminism; the life of the Buddha coincided with the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley during the rule of Darius I from about 517/516 BCE. This Achaemenid occupation of the areas of Gandhara and Sindh, to last for about two centuries, was accompanied by the introduction of Achaemenid religions, reformed Mazdaism or early Zoroastrianism, to which Buddhism might have in part reacted.
In particular, the ideas of the Buddha may have consisted of a rejection of the "absolutist" or "perfectionist" ideas contained in these Achaemenid religions. No written records about Gautama were found from his lifetime or from the one or two centuries thereafter. In the middle of the 3rd century BCE, several Edicts of Ashoka mention the Buddha, Ashoka's Rummindei Minor Pillar Edict commemorates the Emperor's pilgrimage to Lumbini as the Buddha's birthplace. Another one of his edicts mentions the titles of several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist tradition at least by the time of the Maurya era; these texts may be the precursor of the Pāli Canon. "Sakamuni" in mentioned in the reliefs of Bharhut, dated to circa 100 BCE, in relation with his illumination and the Bodhi tree, with the inscription Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho. The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts are the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, repor
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, literature, philosophy and material culture. The translation of a large body of Indian Buddhist scriptures into Chinese and the inclusion of these translations together with works composed in China into a printed canon had far-reaching implications for the dissemination of Buddhism throughout the East Asian cultural sphere, including Korea, Japan and Vietnam. Chinese Buddhism is marked by the interaction between Indian religions, Chinese religion, Taoism. Various legends tell of the presence of Buddhism in Chinese soil in ancient times. Nonetheless, the scholarly consensus is that Buddhism first came to China in the first century CE during the Han dynasty, through missionaries from India. Generations of scholars have debated whether Buddhist missionaries first reached Han China via the maritime or overland routes of the Silk Road; the maritime route hypothesis, favored by Liang Qichao and Paul Pelliot, proposed that Buddhism was practiced in southern China, the Yangtze River and Huai River region, where prince Ying of Chu was jointly worshipping the Yellow Emperor and Buddha in 65 CE.
The overland route hypothesis, favored by Tang Yongtong, proposed that Buddhism disseminated through Central Asia – in particular, the Kushan Empire, known in ancient Chinese sources as Da Yuezhi, after the founding tribe. According to this hypothesis, Buddhism was first practiced in China in the Western Regions and the Han capital Luoyang, where Emperor Ming of Han established the White Horse Temple in 68 CE. In 2004, Rong Xinjiang, a history professor at Peking University, reexamined the overland and maritime hypotheses through a multi-disciplinary review of recent discoveries and research, including the Gandhāran Buddhist Texts, concluded: The view that Buddhism was transmitted to China by the sea route comparatively lacks convincing and supporting materials, some arguments are not sufficiently rigorous. Based on the existing historical texts and the archaeological iconographic materials discovered since the 1980s the first-century Buddhist manuscripts found in Afghanistan, the commentator believes that the most plausible theory is that Buddhism reached China from the Greater Yuezhi of northwest India and took the land route to reach Han China.
After entering into China, Buddhism blended with early Daoism and Chinese traditional esoteric arts and its iconography received blind worship. A number of popular accounts in historical Chinese literature have led to the popularity of certain legends regarding the introduction of Buddhism into China. According to the most popular one, Emperor Ming of Han precipitated the introduction of Buddhist teachings into China; the Mouzi Lihuolun first records this legend: In olden days Emperor Ming saw in a dream a god whose body had the brilliance of the sun and who flew before his palace. The next day he asked his officials: "What god is this?" the scholar Fu Yi said: "Your subject has heard it said that in India there is somebody who has attained the Dao and, called Buddha. The emperor sent an envoy to Tianzhu to inquire about the teachings of the Buddha. Buddhist scriptures were said to have been returned to China on the backs of white horses, after which White Horse Temple was named. Two Indian monks returned with them, named Dharmaratna and Kaśyapa Mātaṅga.
An 8th-century Chinese fresco at Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in Gansu portrays Emperor Wu of Han worshiping statues of a golden man. However, neither the Shiji nor Book of Han histories of Emperor Wu mentions a golden Buddhist statue; the first documented translation of Buddhist scriptures from various Indian languages into Chinese occurs in 148 CE with the arrival of the Parthian prince-turned-monk An Shigao. He worked to establish Buddhist temples in Luoyang and organized the translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese, testifying to the beginning of a wave of Central Asian Buddhist proselytism, to last several centuries. An Shigao translated Buddhist texts on basic doctrines and abhidharma. An Xuan, a Parthian layman who worked alongside An Shigao translated an early Mahāyāna Buddhist text on the bodhisattva path. Mahāyāna Buddhism was first propagated in China by the Kushan monk Lokakṣema, who came from the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Gandhāra. Lokakṣema translated important Mahāyāna sūtras such as the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, as well as rare, early Mahāyāna sūtras on topics such as samādhi, meditation on the buddha Akṣobhya.
These translations from Lokakṣema continue to give insight into the early period of Mahāyāna Buddhism. This corpus of texts includes emphasizes ascetic practices and forest dwelling, absorption in states of meditative concentration: Paul Harrison has worked on some of the texts that are arguably the earliest versions we have of the Mahāyāna sūtras, those translated into Chinese in the last half of the second century CE by the Indo-Scythian translator Lokakṣema. Harrison points to the enthusiasm in the Lokakṣema sūtra corpus for the extra ascetic practices, for dwelling in the forest, above all for states of meditative absorption. Meditation and meditative states seem to have occupied a central place in early Mahāyāna because of their spiritual efficacy but a
East Asian hip-and-gable roof
In East Asian architecture, the hip-and-gable roof consists of a hip roof that slopes down on all four sides and integrates a gable on two opposing sides. It is constructed with two large sloping roof sections in the front and back while each of the two sides is constructed with a smaller roof section; the style has spread across East Asia. The original style and similar styles are found in the traditional architecture of Japan, Vietnam, Tibet, Sri Lanka and Kalmykia, it influenced the style of the bahay na bato of the Philippines. It is known as xiēshān in Chinese, irimoya in Japanese, paljakjibung in Korean. Irimoya arrived from China to Japan in the 6th century; the style was used in the main and lecture halls of a Buddhist temple compound. It started to be used for the honden at shrines during the Japanese Middle Ages, its gable is right above the moya, or core, while the hip covers the hisashi, a veranda-like aisle surrounding the core on one or more sides. It is still in wide use in Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan, in palaces and folk dwellings.
In the last case, it is called moya-zukuri. In Sri Lanka, a style known as the Kandyan roof bears many similarities to the original East Asian hip-and-gable roof; the Kandyan roof is used for religious, royal buildings. Its roots however lie in the traditions of the "Sri Lankan village". Gablet roof
The Dharma Hall known as Lecture Hall, is an important building in Han Chinese Buddhist temples. The Dharma Hall is the place for senior monks to preach and ranks right after the Mahavira Hall. With the similar architecture form with other halls, the Dharma Hall is more spacious. In the central back, there is a high platform with a sitting chair putting in the middle. In front of the chair is a table with a small sitting Buddha on it, behind the platform is a screen or a picture of lion, known as "Roaring lion" in Buddhism Dharma hung on the wall. Seats are placed on both sides of the platform with bells and drums for senior monks to beat when they are preaching. There are seats on both sides of the monks' seats for laymen to listen to theBuddha Dharma by senior monks. Wang Guixiang. 《中国汉传佛教建筑史——佛寺的建造、分布与寺院格局、建筑类型及其变迁》. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press. ISBN 9787302427056. Zhang Yuhuan. 《图解中国佛教建筑、寺院系列》. Beijing: Contemporary China Publishing House. ISBN 9787515401188