King Narai the Great or Ramathibodi III was the 27th monarch of Ayutthaya Kingdom, the 4th and the last monarch of the Prasat Thong dynasty. He was the king of Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1656 to 1688 and arguably the most famous king of the Prasat Thong dynasty, his reign was the most prosperous during the Ayutthaya period and saw the great commercial and diplomatic activities with foreign nations including the Middle East and the West. During the years of his reign, Narai gave his favorite – the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon – so much power that Phaulkon technically became the chancellor of the state. Through the arrangements of Phaulkon, the Siamese kingdom came into close diplomatic relations with the court of Louis XIV and French soldiers and missionaries filled the Siamese aristocracy and defense; the dominance of French officials led to frictions between them and the native mandarins and led to the turbulent revolution of 1688 towards the end of his reign. Narai’s reign was known for the 1662–1664 invasion of Burma, the destruction of the independent port city of the Sultanate of Singgora, the conflict with the East India Company as a result of piratical activities carried out by Ayutthaya’s English subjects.
The presence of numerous foreigners from the French Jesuits to the Persian delegates has left historians with rich sources of material on the city of Ayutthaya and its conflicts and courtly life in the seventeenth century that otherwise would not have survived the complete destruction of the capital in 1767. Prince Narai was born on 16 February 1633 to King Prasat Thong and his consort, Princess Sirithida, a daughter of Songtham. Prasat Thong had just usurped the throne from the ruling Sukhothai dynasty in 1629 and founded a dynasty of his own. Narai had an siblings younger sister Princess Si Suphan, elder half-brother Prince Chai, an uncle Prince Si Suthammaracha; the Royal Chronicle of Ayutthaya: Royal Recension Version recorded that "In that year, the princess consort gave birth to a son. When the royal family glanced at the infant, they saw the baby had four arms before having two arms as normal. Upon learning this, the king thought, he therefore named his son Narai." The name Narai is from a name of Hindu god Vishnu who has four arms.
Upon Prasat Thong’s death in 1656, Prince Chai succeeded his father as King Sanpet VI. However, it was a Thai tradition to give brothers a higher priority over sons in succession. Prince Sudharmmaraja plotted with Prince Narai, to bring Sanpet VI down. After nine months of ascension, Sanpet VI was executed following a coup. Narai and his uncle marched into the palace, Si Suthammaracha crowned himself king. Si Suthammaracha appointed the Front Palace. However, Narai was an ambitious prince and had requested Dutch support against his uncle. Si Suthammaracha’s rule was weak and he fell under the control of Chao Phraya Chakri, an ambitious mandarin who wanted the throne. In 1656, Narai and his uncle alienated each other. Si Suthammaracha lusted after Princess Ratcha Kanlayani, he entered the house. The princess hid in the book chest and thus was moved to the Front Palace, where she met her brother. Enraged at his uncle's behavior, Narai decided to take action, he drew his support from the Persian and Japanese mercenaries, persecuted during his father's reign.
He was supported by the Dutch East India Company, as well as his brothers and the Okya Sukhothai, a powerful nobleman. On the Day of Ashura, the Persians and Dutch stormed the palace; the prince engaged in single combat with his uncle. Si Suthammaracha was captured and was executed at Wat Khok Phraya on 26 October 1656. Domestic policies in King Narai's reign were affected by the interference of foreign powers most notably the Chinese to the north, the Dutch to the South, the English who were making their first forays into India to the west. Policies revolved around either directly countering the influence, or creating a delicate balance of power between the different parties. In 1660, the Chinese invaded the Burmese capitol at Ava to capture Zhu Youlang, the last Southern Ming emperor. Sensing a possible weakening of Burmese influence in the northern vassal states, King Narai began the Burmese–Siamese War of 1662–64 to bring Chiang Mai under the direct control of Ayutthya. Although the expedition was successful in taking control of Lampang and other smaller cities, a second expedition had to be conducted to bring Chiang Mai under control in 1662.
After stopping a Burmese army incursion in 1663 at Sai Yok, Narai led an army of 60,000 in an invasion of Burma, capturing Martaban, Rangoon, in 1664 laid siege to Pagan. After "causing many casualties in dead and wounded and capturing many prisoners of war", the Siamese retreated. Nadia handed control of Mergui over to French officer Chevalier de Beauregard and his small French garrison. At the same time, he granted a concession of the strategic port of Bangkok to Beauregard, with the view of countering Dutch influence. King Narai built a new palace at present-day Lopburi utilising the expertise of Jesuit architects and engineers. European influences are evident in the architectural style the use of wide windows; the move to Lopburi was arguably prompted by the Dutch naval blockade of Ayutthaya in 1664 to enforce a fur monopoly. Although Catholic missions had been present in Ayutthaya as early as 1567 under Portuguese Domini
Mueang Lopburi District
Mueang Lopburi is the capital district of Lopburi Province, central Thailand. The district is home to Khok Kathiam Air Force Base. Lopburi is an ancient city. In the Khmer era, it was Lavo or Lava Pura, the important city of the eastern part of the Chao Phraya River valley. In the Ayuthaya kingdom, it was a northeastern frontier city; the glorious period of Lopburi was during the reign of King Narai the Great. He stayed in his palace eight to nine months a year, making Lopburi the second capital of the kingdom. After his reign, the city was nearly deserted, only to be enriched again when King Mongkut visited and renovated King Narai's Palace. Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram set up Lopburi as the military center of Thailand, he reformed Lopburi city, with its modern center located about 4 km east from the historical center. His predominant building style, Art Deco shows along Narai Maharat Road; the southwestern part of the district is low alluvial plain. The rest is intermixed hills. Besides the Lopburi River, the important water resources are the Sap Lek Reservoir and Khlong Raphiphat.
Neighboring districts are Tha Wung, Ban Mi, Khok Samrong and Phatthana Nikhom of Lopburi Province, Phra Phutthabat, Nong Don and Don Phut of Saraburi Province, Ban Phraek of Ayutthaya Province, Chaiyo of Ang Thong Province. The district is divided into 24 sub-districts; the town Lopburi covers parts of Thale Chup Son. There are two further sub-district municipalities: Khao Phra Ngam covering tambon Khao Phra Ngam, Khok Tum covering tambons Khok Tum and Nikhom Sang Ton Eng. There are a further 19 tambon administrative organizations. Geocode 13 not used; the district is served by the State Railway of Thailand's Khok Kathiam Railway Station. Amphoe.com
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
The Mon are an ethnic group native to Myanmar's Mon State, Bago Region, the Irrawaddy Delta and the southern border with Thailand. One of the earliest peoples to reside in Southeast Asia, the Mon were responsible for the spread of Theravada Buddhism in Indochina; the Mon were a major source of influence on the culture of Myanmar. They speak the Mon language, an Austroasiatic language, share a common origin with the Nyah Kur people of Thailand; the eastern Mon include the current royal family of Thailand. The Mon assimilated to Thai culture long ago, yet the royal women of the Chakri dynasty perform and keep their Mon heritage alive in the Thai court; the western Mon of Myanmar were absorbed by Bamar society. They have worked to preserve their language and culture and to regain a greater degree of political autonomy. Recent studies have adduced evidence indicating that the Mon and Bamar share some common genetic ancestry. A genetic study done on Mon from Southern Myanmar and Bamar from Southern Myanmar showed a high prevalence of a particular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutation not found among Khmers, Laotians or Thais.
In the Burmese language, the term Mon မွန် is used. During the pre-colonial era, the Burmese used the term Talaing, subsequently adopted by the British, who invariably referred to the Mon as Peguans, during the colonial era; the etymology of Talaing is debated. The use of "Talaing" predates the Burmese conquest of the Hanthawaddy Kingdom in the 1700s and has been found on inscriptions dating to the reign of Anawrahta in the 1000s. In 1930 and 1947, Mon ethnic leaders, who considered the term "Talaing" to be pejorative, petitioned against the use of the term. "Talaing" is now obsolete in modern Burmese, except in the context of specific historical terms, such as the eponymous song genre in the Mahagita, the corpus of Burmese classical songs. The Burmese term "Mon" is synonymous with the Burmese word for "noble." In the Mon language, the Mon are known as the Mon, based on the Pali term Rāmañña, which refers to the Mon heartland along the Burmese coast. In classical Mon literature, they are known as the Raman.
The Mon of Myanmar are divided into three sub-groups based on their ancestral region in Lower Myanmar: Mon Nya from Pathein in the west Mon Tang. The Mon were believed to be one of the earliest peoples of Indochina, they founded some of the earliest civilizations there, including Dvaravati in Central Thailand, Sri Gotapura in central Laos and Northeastern Thailand, Hariphunchai in Northern Thailand and the Thaton Kingdom. They were the first receivers of Theravada missionaries from Sri Lanka, in contrast to their Hindu contemporaries like the Khmer and Cham peoples; the Mon adopted the Pallava alphabet and the oldest form of the Mon script was found in a cave in modern Saraburi dating around 550 AD. Though no remains were found belonging to the Thaton Kingdom, it was mentioned in Bamar and Lanna chronicles; the legendary Queen Camadevi from the Chao Phraya River Valley, as told in the Northern Thai Chronicle Cāmadevivaṃsa and other sources, came to rule as the first queen of Hariphunchai kingdom around 800 AD.
After 1000 AD onwards the Mon were under constant pressure. With the Tai peoples migrating from the north and Khmer invasions from the east, the Mons of Dvaravati gave their way to the Lavo Kingdom by around 1000 AD. Descendants of the Dvaravati Mon people are the Nyah Kur people of Isan; the Mon were transported as captives, or assimilated into new cultures. The Mon as an entity disappeared in Chao Phraya Valley. However, Hariphunchai kingdom survived as a Mon outpost in northern Thailand under repeated harassment by the Northern Thai people. In 1057, King Anawrahta of Pagan Kingdom conquered the Thaton Kingdom; the Mon culture and the Mon script were absorbed by the Burmese and the Mons, for the first time, came under Bamar rule. The Mon remained a majority in Lower Burma. Hariphunchai prospered in the reign of King Aditayaraj, who waged wars with Suryavarman II of Angkor and constructed the Hariphunchai stupa. In 1230, the Northern Thai chief, conquered Hariphunchai and the Mon culture was integrated into Lanna culture.
The Lanna adopted religion. In 1287, the Pagan Kingdom collapsed. Wareru, born from a Mon mother and a Tai father, at Domwon Village in the Thaton District, went to Sukhothai for merchandise and eloped with a daughter of the king, he was proclaimed king of the Mon.. The capital was moved to Bago, his Hanthawaddy Kingdom was a prosperous period for the Mon in both culture. The Mon were consolidated under King Rajathiraj, who fended off invasions by the Bamar Ava Kingdom; the reigns of Queen Shin Sawbu and King Dhammazedi were a time of prosperity. The Bamar, regained their momentum at Taungoo in the early sixteenth century. Hanthawaddy fell to the invasion of King Tabinshwehti of Taungoo in 1539. After the death of the king, the Mon were temporarily freed from Bamar rule by Smim Htaw, but they were defeated by King Bayinnaung in 1551
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Tambon is a local governmental unit in Thailand. Below district and province, they form the third administrative subdivision level; as of 2016 there were 7,255 tambons, not including the 180 khwaeng of Bangkok, which are set at the same administrative level, thus every district contains eight to ten tambon. Tambon is translated as "township" or "subdistrict" in English — the latter is the recommended translation, though often used for king amphoe, the designation for a subdistrict acting as a branch of the parent district. Tambon are further subdivided into about ten per tambon. Tambon within cities or towns are not subdivided into villages, but may have less formal communities called chumchon that may be formed into community associations; the tambon as a subdivision has a long history. It was the second-level subdivision of the area administered by a provincial town in the 19th century; the governor of the province was supposed to appoint a communal kamnan or phan. In the administrative reforms started in 1892 under Prince Damrong Rajanubhab, the first Thai Minister of the Interior, the three levels of subdivision of provinces were continued, i.e. starting from district to tambon to the lowest level called muban.
The subdistricts are subdivided into administrative villages as the lowest administrative subdivision. These are referred to much more by the village number than the actual name as an administrative village may contain more than one settlement, or a large settlement may be split into more than one administrative village. One of the elected village headmen is elected as the subdistrict headman. With the Tambon Council and Tambon Administrative Authority Act BE 2537 and by the constitution of 1997, tambon were decentralized into local government units with an elected tambon council. Depending on its size and tax income a tambon may either be administered by a Subdistrict Administrative Organization or a Tambon Council. However, since 2001 all of the Tambon Councils have been upgraded to Tambon Administrative Organizations; the TAO council consist of two representatives from each administrative village in the subdistrict, one directly elected president. The subdistrict area which belongs to a municipality is administered by the municipal council.
In the event only part of the subdistrict is within a municipality, the remaining part is administrated by a TAO. Adjoining subdistricts of a single district can have a joint TAO. In 2001, Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra started a project in which every tambon would select a typical, distinctive local product; the project aids in promoting the product, as well as assisting in modernizing production. Shops selling OTOP products are located in each provincial capital. Administrative divisions of Thailand List of tambon in Thailand ThaiTambon.com – One Tambon One Product
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such