Lorca is a municipality and city in the autonomous community of the Region of Murcia in southeastern Spain, 58 kilometres southwest of the city of Murcia. The municipality had a population of 91,849 in 2010, up from the 2001 census total of 77,477. Lorca is the municipality with the largest surface area in Spain, 1,675.21 km2. The city is home to the Collegiate church dedicated to St. Patrick. In the Middle Ages Lorca was the frontier town between Muslim Spain. Earlier to that during the Roman period it was ancient Ilura or Heliocroca of the Romans; the city was damaged by a magnitude 5.1 earthquake on 11 May 2011, killing at least nine people. Due to a shallow hypocenter, the earthquake was much more destructive than usual for earthquakes with similar magnitude. Archaeological excavations in the Lorca area have revealed that it has been inhabited continuously since Neolithic times, 5,500 years ago; the earliest permanent settlement is in the Guadalentín River valley because of its presence of water sources, mineral resources, lying along a natural communication route in Andalusia.
On the hillside below the castle and the town archaeological digs have revealed the remains of an important population of the El Argar culture during the Bronze Age. During the Roman period, a settlement here was called Eliocroca, detailed in the Antonine Itinerary and located right on Via Augusta. Elicroca was important enough to become a bishopric, suffragan of the primatial Metropolitan Archbishopric of Toledo, but it was to fade under Islam. In 713, the Teodomiro Pact was signed, referring to the place with the name "Lurqa." Under this pact, the population was integrated into an autonomous territory, along with six other cities, governed by Theudimer. This lasted until his death when a Muslim reorganization of the state occurred, carried out by Abb-al-Rahman II, who turned the territory into a Córdoba dependency, it led to the formation of the Taifa kingdoms, with the Taifa of Lorca as one of these kingdoms, first created in 1042, when Lorca declared its independence from the emirate of Valencia.
Its first governor was its power extending from the city to Jaén and Baza. During the Arab period it was known as Lurka and the old part of the town, made up of narrow streets and alley-ways, achieved its present shape under Moorish rule; the taifa was shortly recreated in 1228, after the fall of the Almoravids, until it conquered by the Taifa of Murcia. The main tower of the fortress of Lorca was named Torre Alfonsina in honour of the King; the city continued to grow, as in Arab times, became the main town in an emerging rich agricultural region, although the border hindered economic development. Lorca, known as the city of 100 Coat of Arms, is where the Moors and the Visigoths battled for control of the land. During the late Middle Ages, Lorca was a dangerous border town, spearhead of the Christian kingdom of Murcia against the Moorish Kingdom of Granada. Lorca served as a base for launching raids into enemy territory; the Battle of Los Alporchones, took place here in 1452, during the reign of Juan II of Castile, who ten years earlier had granted the Lorca the title of "ciudad."
The Kingdom of Murcia took Granada in 1492. After the War of Granada and the Muslim threat disappeared, the city changed in appearance, carrying out a series of urban reforms and developing trade; the numerous public works to be carried out attracted labourers from elsewhere, resulting in an increase in the population to 8,000 people. Among the new buildings include the Colegiata de San Patricio, erected in 1553, the religious centre of the city, as well as numerous convents of La Merced, Santo Domingo and San Francisco. In the seventeenth century, Lorca took shape as a modern city, but still had defensive duties due to the Ottoman threat along the coast; this century witnessed the expulsion of the Moors, the plague, which killed half the population, droughts and locust plagues. From 1660 a spectacular recovery and development began; the eighteenth century is of vital importance for the city, being one of the regions favoured by the Bourbon reforms. Lorca became a modern city, losing its medieval character.
The population grew, urban sprawl began as immigrants settled in the suburbs of San Cristóbal and San José. The defensive wall disappeared, indicative of the greater security of the times; the city became a haven for painters and engravers. On 30 April 1802, a great calamity struck the town of Lorca; the walls of a nearby reservoir gave way, flooding the town and destroying many buildings and killing up to 700 people. In the nineteenth century, the War of Independence and yellow fever epidemics and recurring droughts brought famine to the region and brought about the emigration of more than twelve thousand people. By 1845 Lorca had become the largest and most populous municipality in Murcia. Trade declined during the first half of the century, although in 1865 it received its first steam engine, the Sewer-Lorca railway opened in 1885 and the Baza-Lorca railway opened in 1890, bringing integration of the region in the domestic market, enabling the movement of mineral deposits and people. Restoration in the late 19th century brought with it
The Ehrenfeld Group was an anti-Nazi resistance group, active in the summer and autumn of 1944. The group, which consisted of over one hundred people, centered on Hans Steinbrück, an escaped concentration camp prisoner, its members included young people, including teens active in the local Edelweiss Pirates group, escaped detainees from forced labor camps, Jews. On November 10, 1944, thirteen members of the group were publicly hanged in Cologne. Destroyed by Allied bombings, the district of Ehrenfeld, Cologne was a sanctuary for enemies of the Nazi regime, including escaped prisoners, forced laborers and Jews. Steinbrück, who escaped from a concentration subcamp in Cologne in July 1943, came to Ehrenfeld and met a woman who took him in, he began to stockpile weapons and foodstuffs in the cellar of a bombed-out house and stayed in close contact with escaped forced laborers and criminals, with whom he did business, fencing stolen goods. His nickname was "Black Hans"; the cellar served as temporary shelter for Jews and others who had gone into hiding.
In the summer of 1944, a number of young people, including teenagers, came into contact with Steinbrück. Although being 23 and quite young himself, Steinbrück could function as a father figure for some due to the massive rise in the number of orphans in those years; some of the teenagers had been Edelweiss Pirates and they began to form a core group around Steinbrück. The activities of the group began to gain momentum, they sold goods on the black market. They bought guns; as the group expanded, so did the number and scope of the thefts. One particular heist was the butter robbery; the first time, they stole a few quintals of butter, selling it afterward on the black market for 12,000 reichmarks, at a time when the average wage was 50 reichmarks a week. The second time, they got 123,000 marks for it. Several people Communists, but some young people, left Steinbrück over this because the activity drew attention and they felt Steinbrück's behavior was reckless, increasing the risk of arrest. During a general identification check on September 29, 1944, an army patrol was informed about the group's cellar warehouse.
The patrol confiscated numerous weapons. Steinbrück and a Russian forced laborer were able to escape, but the next day, the criminal police searched the apartment where Steinbrück had been staying, arresting the woman whose place it was. Two Jewish women who were in hiding in the building were arrested. In order to arrest the fugitives, the police posted a guard in front of the house. On the run, Steinbrück met a deserter, Roland Lorent, who had just killed a local Nazi leader and was looking to hide; the two teamed up and conceived a plan to go on a "Nazi hunt". They gathered weapons, they collected a few teenaged members of the group and went to get Cilli, Steinbrück's girlfriend, but without having investigated the situation at her place. When they got there, they found a police guard. Both Steinbrück and Lorent opened fire injuring the guard. A member of the SA, riding toward them on a bicycle, was killed, as was a man wearing boots, who they assumed was a Nazi, they went to an embankment by the train tracks to wait.
While there, they fired into a group of people. That evening, they tried to steal some explosives. On October 3, 1944, Lorent was arrested. On October 8, 1944, the Gestapo began arresting members of the group, Steinbrück as well. By October 15, they had had made 63 arrests, including 19 teenagers. Of those, thirteen German males, including several teenagers, were executed without trial in a public hanging next to the Ehrenfeld train station on November 10, 1944. Steinbrück described the goals of his group to the Gestapo as, He and his accomplices would have done everything possible to end the war as soon as possible to the detriment of Germany; this is the reason. The factories necessary to the war effort and train routes were to be blown up, to bring the front closer; the most recent members of our hard-scrabble club supported them. Steinbrück and twelve of his followers were executed without trial on November 10, 1944, in front of hundreds of curious onlookers. Among the victims were six teenagers, members of the Edelweiss Pirates: Hans Steinbrück, born April 12, 1921, age 23 Günther Schwarz, born August 26, 1928, age 16 Gustav Bermel, born August 11, 1927, age 17 Johann Müller, born January 29, 1928, age 16 Franz Rheinberger, born February 22, 1927, age 17 Adolf Schütz, born January 3, 1926, age 18 Barthel Schink, born November 25, 1927, age 16 Roland Lorent, born March 12, 1920, age 24 Peter Hüppeler, born January 9, 1913, age 31 Josef Moll, born July 17, 1903, age 41 Wilhelm Kratz, born January 6, 1902, age 42 Heinrich Kratina, born January 15, 1906, age 38 Johann Krausen, born January 10, 1887, age 57 A plaque in Ehrenfeld honors the memory of those executed there on October 25, 1944, November 10, 1944.
A street next to the Ehrenfeld S-bahn station in Cologne, is named after Schink. List of Germans who resisted Nazism German Resistance Resistance during World War II Herbert, Ulrich. Hitler's Foreign Workers: Enforced Foreign Labor in Germany Under the Third Reich. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-521-47000-5. "The Edelweiss Pirates: A Story of Freedom and Life". The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation, official website. Retrieved April 1, 2010
Chris Okafor, is a Christian minister and faith healer. He is leader and founder of Mountain Of Liberation and Miracle Ministry known as Liberation City. Besides his primary spiritual assignment, Okafor works to empower the underprivileged with skills acquisition and scholarship via The Chris Okafor Humanity Foundation, he has received numerous recognitions, notably The Most accurate Seer of the Year. Okafor is known across Africa through Chris Okafor World Outreach Ministry, which has taken the message of liberation to countless homes in crusades and via the Liberation TV. Changing Family Altars and Patterns Volume 1 ISBN 978-978-935-407-8 Changing Family Altars and Patterns Volume 2 ISBN 978-978-935-408-5 Dealing with Enemies Behind The Scene ISBN 978-978-935-406-1 The Jinx Breaker ISBN 978-978-939-394-7 "Chris Okafor's Foundation empowers 150 Trained artisans with Cash"/ Chikeroonline.com Full Length messages by Dr Chris Okafor/ The Official Liberation City YouTube Channel Liberation City on Facebook Liberation City on Twitter
The Poison Boyfriend is the second album by Scottish musician Momus, released in 1987 on Creation Records. After the critical success of Momus' Biblical-themed and stripped down debut album Circus Maximus, Momus left él Records and signed with Creation Records after he bonded with record label boss Alan McGee, his first release for the label, The Poison Boyfriend is a song cycle. Lyrically, The Poison Boyfriend is broad in its subject matter, though psychosexual, with lyrics including themes of sexual depravity and voyeurism and writing styles such as character sketches. "Murderers, the Hope of Women" was released as a single ahead of the album's release. Upon its release, The Poison Boyfriend garnered favourable reviews from critics. NME named the album one of the best of 1987, while Fact Magazine named the album the 81st best album of the 1980s. Momus would develop upon the album's sexual themes on recordings. Momus released his debut album, Circus Maximus, on él Records in 1986, which, in addition to being a critical success, became the label's most commercially successful release.
Stylistically, the album was featured heavy Biblical references. Circus Maximus caught the attention of Creation Records boss Alan McGee, who signed Momus to Creation. While the signing was "something of a leap for Creation," given how Momus' literate and caustic lyrics departed from the vaguer lyrics typical of those on the label's roster, Momus and McGee had shared interests in decadence and sex; the Poison Boyfriend was engineered by Douglas Morris. Momus used a full band on The Poison Boyfriend, consisting of bassist Fein O'Lochlainn, drummer Terry Neilson, keyboardist Dean Klerat and extra percussionist Arun G. Shendurnikar. With Momus enlisting a backup band for The Poison Boyfriend, the album is a departure from his debut album, has been described by writer Richard King as a "Gallic-flavoured song cycle." The first seven songs on the album add elements of cabaret pop, such as French accordion and waltzes, to Momus' singer-songwriter format influenced by Leonard Cohen, a style described by The Rough Guide to Rock as subdued and sometimes reminiscent of Nick Drake, whereas the last four songs are more upbeat and energetic, featuring synthesisers and drum machines.
Several songs, such as "Sex for the Disabled", are said to border on synthpop. Lyrically, The Poison Boyfriend departs from the obscure religious themes of Circus Maximus, instead displaying a wider frame of lyrical reference, most notably incorporating a psychosexual theme that Momus would develop on releases. King felt the album "shone a light into a meditative and reflective voyeur's idea of romance." Subjects throughout the album include sexual depravity, prurient postcards, "nested despair" and acerbic tale-telling, with the lyrical style incorporating character sketches, complex symbolism, flowery language and elaborate metaphors. Momus felt his exploring of taboo subjects was due to "being ashamed of my proper, middle-class upbringing.""What Will Death Be Like?" makes use of repetition, with a simplistic pattern repeated throughout its seven-minute duration. Of the songs on side two, "Situation Comedy Blues" incorporates a mock-Motown Sound, while "Sex for the Disabled" is a quasi-soul "horny sex rap" in a Phil Spector-style Wall of Sound arrangement that Doug Brod of Trouser Press felt was a pastiche of Barry White, which Huey compared to Prince's "Purple Rain".
Lyrically, the "comically torchy" song is a surreal allegory concerning Thatcher's Britain, making note of Margaret Thatcher's contemporary "swerve in priorities." Described by Huey as "disarming" and the album's biggest stylistic change, "Closer to You" is a deliberate self-parody in which Momus "croons horny, confessional come-ons like a bookish Barry White." One writer felt the song was "a claustrophobic and uncomfortably personal exploration of obsession and longing." In 1986, the album was promoted with the "Murderers, the Hope of Women" twelve-inch single, containing the first three songs from the album. Released in July 1987 on Creation Records, his first album on the label, The Poison Boyfriend received favourable critical reception, in his book How Soon is Now?: The Madmen and Mavericks who made Independent Music 1975–2005, Richard King, noting Momus' ambitions of the album, felt that the opening lyrics to "Closer to You"–"Maybe you're the Circle Line girl,"– were muttered "with a claustrophobic intensity" that confirmed Momums' ambitions were "set in an different context from the rest of Creation's roster."
Momus would expand upon the sexual themes of The Poison Boyfriend on albums. In a retrospective review, Doug Brod of Trouser Press wrote that "on The Poison Boyfriend, Currie dispenses with the religious imagery and enlists a backup band, while taking a less studied approach to ace material," while finding Momus' "bayonet wit" to be most obvious on
With the outbreak of war, Great Britain and Canada planned to expand the RCN. Government and commercial vessels were pressed into naval service, vessels were transferred, loaned or purchased from the Royal Navy, many smaller vessels were constructed in Canada; the List of Royal Canadian Navy ships of the First World War lists the surface warships and auxiliary vessels in service during the war. It includes all commissioned, non-commissioned, hired ships, and all ships crewed by RCN personnel under the command of the RCN. HMCS Rainbow HMCS Niobe HMCS Aurora HMCS Patriot HMCS Patrician * HMCS Tuna HMCS CC-1 HMCS CC-2 HMCS CH-14 HMCS CH-15 Royal Canadian Navy Origins of the Royal Canadian Navy History of the Royal Canadian Navy List of ships of the Royal Canadian Navy Hull classification symbol Her Majesty's Canadian Ship List of aircraft of the Royal Canadian Navy List of Royal Canadian Navy ships of the Second World War List of Royal Canadian Navy ships of the Cold War
Nancy Ponzi is a pioneer of the Oregon wine industry and the Oregon brewing industry, the founder of Ponzi Vineyards, one of the Willamette Valley's founding wineries. She and her husband Dick Ponzi established Oregon's first craft brewery, Bridgeport Brewing Company. Ponzi was born in the Southern Californian town of Fullerton and spent her childhood traveling all over the world, she met Dick Ponzi after he moved to California for a job in the aerospace industry and the couple married in 1962. While living in California, Ponzi worked as a teacher at a Montessori school. After several research trips to Burgundy and her husband moved their family to the Willamette Valley and purchased 20 acres of land southwest of Portland, Oregon, in 1969, they established Ponzi Vineyards in 1970. At the time, there were just four other wineries in the state; the location was close to Portland, an important factor as they expected the city to be their main market. In 1974, they produced their first vintage of 100 cases of Pinot noir and became known as innovators in enology and viticulture.
In the early years of the vineyard, Ponzi continued to work as a teacher while marketing the wine they produced. The Ponzis planted a two-acre plot of Pinot noir clones in 1975 in a joint venture with Oregon State University to test the clones. In 1981, they purchased a 20-acre parcel that included these two acres, creating their Abetina vineyard; the same year they purchased 10 acres downslope from Abetina. Eight acres on the Madrona site were planted with Pinot noir in 1985. Ponzi Vineyards was among the first to plant Pinot gris commercially in Oregon in 1978, releasing the first bottling in 1984. In 1991, the Ponzis purchased a 65-acre vineyard named Aurora, which included plantings that used to study stocks and clones. In 2008, the Ponzis designed and built a four-level, gravity-flow winery measuring 30,000 square feet, it is noted for its high level of sustainability. Ponzi's vineyards are LIVE certified. Ponzi and her husband founded Oregon's first craft brewery, Bridgeport Brewing Company, in 1984, a move, credited with launching the area's craft brewing craze and helping to popularize India Pale Ale in the United States.
They sold the brewery in 1995 to The Gambrinus Company. Ponzi remains active in community and charitable efforts, she co-founded the Consumers' Food Council, was a founding director of the Washington County Wineries Association and held various offices in the Oregon Winegrowers Association. She co-founded the International Pinot Noir Celebration in 1987, a yearly international event that draws thousands of attendees to McMinnville, Oregon. In 1991, Ponzi partnered with Tuality Healthcare and founded ¡Salud!, an organization that assists vineyard workers and their families with accessing healthcare and provides wellness screenings via a mobile medical unit. She serves on Tuality Healthcare's Board of Directors, she co-founded Oregon Pinot Camp in 2000, an annual trade-education event that attracts wine industry professionals to the Willamette Valley. On December 1, 2009, Ponzi published The Ponzi Vineyards Cookbook, a collection of recipes she developed after decades of feeding family and vineyard crews.
Interspersed throughout the book are anecdotes about life in the vineyard. She had published recipes in The Vintner's Kitchen by Bill King. Ponzi married Dick Ponzi in 1962 in California; the entire family was involved in the vineyards and winemaking from the start, with the Ponzi children helping after school and on weekends. Once grown, the children pursued other interests: Anna Maria worked in the magazine business on the East Coast before returning to the winery in 1992, she went on to train in Burgundy and earn a degree in viticulture and enology. In 1993, Dick Ponzi passed the title and duties of Winemaker to her. In 2007, the Oregon Wine Board awarded Nancy Ponzi a Lifetime Achievement Award. In 1985, Ponzi was among a group that authored a bill that led to the legalization of brewpubs and tasting rooms in Oregon. History of Oregon Wine Oregon Wine Women in Wine - Nancy Ponzi, by Linfield College Archives