SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lord

Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others, acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can denote certain persons who hold a title of the peerage in the United Kingdom, or are entitled to courtesy titles; the collective "Lords" can refer to a body of peers. According to the Oxford Dictionary of English, the etymology of the word can be traced back to the Old English word hlāford which originated from hlāfweard meaning "loaf-ward" or "bread keeper", reflecting the Germanic tribal custom of a chieftain providing food for his followers; the appellation "lord" is applied to men, while for women the appellation "lady" is used. However, this is no longer universal: the Lord of Mann, a title held by the Queen of the United Kingdom, female Lord Mayors are examples of women who are styled Lord. Under the feudal system, "lord" had a wide and varied meaning. An overlord was a person from whom a landholding or a manor was held by a mesne lord or vassal under various forms of feudal land tenure.

The modern term "landlord" is a vestigial survival of this function. A liege lord was a person. Neither of these terms were titular dignities, but rather factual appellations, which described the relationship between two or more persons within the stratified feudal social system. For example, a man might be Lord of the Manor to his own tenants but a vassal of his own overlord, who in turn was a vassal of the King. Where a knight was a lord of the manor, he was referred to in contemporary documents as "John, lord of". A feudal baron was a true titular dignity, with the right to attend Parliament, but a feudal baron, Lord of the Manor of many manors, was a vassal of the King; the substantive title of "Lord of the Manor" came into use in the English medieval system of feudalism after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The title "Lord of the Manor" was a titular feudal dignity which derived its force from the existence and operation of a manorial court or court baron at which he or his steward presided, thus he was the lord of the manorial court which determined the rules and laws which were to govern all the inhabitants and property covered by the jurisdiction of the court.

To the tenants of a certain class of manor known in Saxon times as Infangenthef their lord was a man who had the power of exercising capital punishment over them. The term invariably used in contemporary mediaeval documents is "lord of X", X being the name of the manor; the term "Lord of the Manor" is a recent usage of historians to distinguish such lords from feudal barons and other powerful persons referred to in ancient documents variously as "Sire", "Dominus", "Lord" etc. The title of "Lord of the Manor" is recognised by the British Government for any such title registered at Her Majesty's Land Registry before 13 October 2003 but after that date titles can no longer be registered, any such titles voluntarily de-registered by the holder cannot be re-registered; however any transfer of ownership of registered manors will continue to be recorded in the register, on the appropriate notification. Thus in effect the register is closed for new registrations; such titles are classified as "incorporeal hereditaments" as they have no physical existence, have no intrinsic value.

However a lucrative market arose in the 20th century for such titles for purposes of vanity, assisted by the existence of an official register, giving the purchaser the impression of a physical existence. Whether a title of "Lord of the Manor" is registered or unregistered has no effect on its legal validity or existence, a matter of law to be determined by the courts. Modern legal cases have been won by persons claiming rights as lords of the manor over village greens; the heads of many ancient English land-owning families have continued to be lords of the manor of lands they have inherited. The UK Identity and Passport Service will include such titles on a British passport as an "observation", provided the holder can provide documentary evidence of ownership, as will Passport Canada; the United States however, forbids the use of all titles on passports. Australia forbids the use of titles on passports if those titles have not been awarded by the Crown or the Commonwealth; the Scottish title Laird is a shortened form of'laverd', an old Scottish word deriving from an Anglo-Saxon term meaning'Lord' and is derived from the middle English word'Lard' meaning'Lord'.

The word is used to refer to any owner of a landed estate and has no meaning in heraldic terms and its use is not controlled by the Lord Lyon. Lord is used as a generic term to denote members of the peerage. Five ranks of peer exist in the United Kingdom: in descending order these are duke, earl and baron; the appellation "Lord" is used most by barons, who are addressed by their formal and legal title of "Baron". The most formal style is "The Lord": for example, Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, can be referred to as "The Lord Tennyson", although the most common appellation is "Lord Tennyson". Marquesses and viscounts are also addressed as Lord. Dukes use the style "The Duke of", are not referred to as "Lord". Dukes are formally addressed as "Your Grace", rather than "My Lord". In the Peerage of Scotland, the members of the lowest level of the peerage have the substantive title "Lord of Parliament" rather than Baron. "Lord" is used as a

Huck PAC

Huck PAC is the political action committee of former Arkansas Governor, Mike Huckabee. It was founded in April 2008 by Huckabee, during the 2008 United States Republican presidential primaries, its mission statement was, "Huck PAC is committed to helping Republicans regain control of the House and Senate, regain a majority of governorships and elect John McCain as the 44th president of the United States." It endorses candidates for various offices organizes into local groups in every U. S. assists the candidate. On February 16, 2009, HuckPAC announced that Hogan Gidley would become the new director of HuckPAC. Official website

McMillan Memorial Library, Nairobi

The McMillan Memorial Library is a public library situated in Nairobi, Kenya. It is the oldest library in Nairobi, the second oldest in Kenya after the Seif bin Salim Library in Mombasa; the library was built by the McMillan family to celebrate William Northrup McMillan, who died in 1925. Conceived by Lucie McMillan, construction of the building was financed by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, close family friends of the McMillans; the Library was opened on 5 June 1931 by Sir Joseph A. Byrne, Governor of Kenya; the building is a neo-classical design featuring granite-clad columns along the façade and a grand white marble trapezoidal stairway leading up to the portico. Two lions statues guard either side of the entrance; the statues were donated by cousins of McMillan. The external walls were constructed of smooth rendered stone under a flat roof and the internal walls are clad in polished timber panels; the windows are glazed in tall steel casements allowing for ample natural lighting and the doors are made of heavy hardwood panels hung in timber frames, pedimented to the lintels.

The floors are finished in parquet to the main areas with terrazzo to the entrance way. The library holds more than 400,000 books including East African newspapers and periodicals dating back to 1901, it has been home to the proceedings of Parliamentary since its inception. The McMillan Memorial Library is the only building in Kenya protected by a specific Act of Parliament, the McMillan Memorial Library Act Cap 217 of 1938 which provided that the library was for the exclusive use of Europeans in addition to the usual conditions for preservation of monuments; the library was bequeathed to the Nairobi City Council and was opened to the general public in 1962