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Lord Chancellor

The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among the Great Officers of State who are appointed in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, appointed only for the day of coronations; the Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate lord chancellors for Scotland; the Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. In 2007, there were a number of changes to the legal system and to the office of the Lord Chancellor; the Lord Chancellor was the presiding officer of the House of Lords, the head of the judiciary in England and Wales and the presiding judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker, the Lord Chief Justice and the Chancellor of the High Court respectively.

The current Lord Chancellor, as at January 2020, is Robert Buckland, Secretary of State for Justice. One of the Lord Chancellor's responsibilities is to act as the custodian of the Great Seal of the Realm, kept in the Lord Chancellor's Purse. A Lord Keeper of the Great Seal may be appointed instead of a Lord Chancellor; the two offices entail the same duties. Furthermore, the office of Lord Chancellor may be exercised by a committee of individuals known as Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal when there is a delay between an outgoing chancellor and their replacement; the seal is said to be "in commission". Since the 19th century, only lord chancellors have been appointed, the other offices having fallen into disuse; the office of Lord Chancellor of England may trace its origins to the Carolingian monarchy, in which a Chancellor acted as the keeper of the royal seal. In England, the office dates at least as far back as the Norman Conquest, earlier; some give the first Chancellor of England as Angmendus, in 605.

Other sources suggest that the first to appoint a Chancellor was Edward the Confessor, said to have adopted the practice of sealing documents instead of signing them. A clerk of Edward's, was named "chancellor" in some documents from Edward's reign. In any event, the office has been continuously occupied since the Norman Conquest; the staff of the growing office became separate from the king's household under Henry III and in the 14th century located in Chancery Lane. The chancellor headed chancery; the Lord Chancellor was always a churchman, as during the Middle Ages the clergy were amongst the few literate men of the realm. The Lord Chancellor performed multiple functions—he was the Keeper of the Great Seal, the chief royal chaplain, adviser in both spiritual and temporal matters. Thus, the position emerged as one of the most important ones in government, he was only outranked in government by the Justiciar. As one of the King's ministers, the Lord Chancellor attended Royal Court. If a bishop, the Lord Chancellor received a writ of summons.

The curia regis would evolve into Parliament, the Lord Chancellor becoming the prolocutor of its upper house, the House of Lords. As was confirmed by a statute passed during the reign of Henry VIII, a Lord Chancellor could preside over the House of Lords if not a Lord himself; the Lord Chancellor's judicial duties evolved through his role in the curia regis. Petitions for justice were addressed to the King and the curia, but in 1280, Edward I instructed his justices to examine and deal with petitions themselves as the Court of King's Bench. Important petitions were to be sent to the Lord Chancellor for his decision. By the reign of Edward III, this chancellery function developed into a separate tribunal for the Lord Chancellor. In this body, which became known as the High Court of Chancery, the Lord Chancellor would determine cases according to fairness instead of according to the strict principles of common law; the Lord Chancellor became known as the "Keeper of the King's Conscience." Churchmen continued to dominate the Chancellorship until the 16th century.

In 1529, after Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of York, was dismissed for failing to procure the annulment of Henry VIII's first marriage, laymen tended to be more favoured for appointment to the office. Ecclesiastics made a brief return during the reign of Mary I, but thereafter all Lord Chancellors have been laymen. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury was the last Lord Chancellor, not a lawyer, until the appointment of Chris Grayling in 2012; the three subsequent holders of the position, Michael Gove, Elizabeth Truss and David Lidington are not lawyers. However, the appointment of David Gauke in January 2018 meant that once again the Lord Chancellor was a lawyer; when the office was held by ecclesiastics, a "Keeper of the Great Seal" acted in the Lord Chancellor's absence. Keepers were appointed when the office of Lord Chancellor fell vacant, discharged the duties of the office until an appropriate replacement could be found; when Elizabeth I became queen, Parliament passed an Act providing that a Lord Keeper of the Great Seal would be entitl

Victor Cheng

Victor Cheng is a former McKinsey & Company management consultant, strategic planning consultant, public speaker, author of several business books. He is a graduate of Stanford University with a BA in MA in Sociology. Victor started his career as a management consultant with McKinsey & Company and held senior management positions with Live Person and Art Technology Group; as a business consultant, Victor advises owners and CEOs of small businesses and Inc 500 caliber companies. He is a contributor to and writes on topics of leadership and human capital in fast growing small businesses. Victor serves as expert source for media outlets including MSNBC, Fox Business Network, TIME, Fortune Small Business, Inc Magazine and The Wall Street Journal, he is the author of "Case Interview Secrets: A Former McKinsey Interviewer Reveals How to Get Multiple Job Offers in Consulting" and founder of, a blog catering to aspiring management consultants. He is a cited expert on the case interview, a job interview format used by the management consulting industry, serves as a commentator on the management consulting industry.

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Jonathan E. Aviv

Jonathan E. Aviv is an American otolaryngologist–head and neck surgeon and a professor of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, New York, he is Clinical Director of the Voice and Swallowing Center at ENT and Allergy Associates in New York City, New York. An inventor, educator and surgeon, he is best known for his invention of Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing with Sensory Testing, a medical device that allows office-based assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia, or swallowing disorders, without the use of X-ray, he is known for his development of Transnasal Esophagoscopy, a method of examining the esophagus without using conscious or intravenous sedation. From 1991 to 2009, he was a full-time academic surgeon and director of the division of head and neck surgery at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Jonathan Aviv, an American, was born in New York City New York and raised in Los Angeles, California.

He graduated from Beverly Hills High School and received his bachelor's degree in Chemistry at Columbia College of Columbia University, his Doctor of Medicine from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University in 1985. He completed his residency in Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York and completed a fellowship in micro-vascular head and neck reconstruction in 1990-1991. Aviv had an 18-year academic career as an attending physician at the Columbia University Medical Center and as a Professor of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. In the Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery he served as Director of Microvascular Head and Neck Reconstruction, Director of Head and Neck Surgery and Director of the Voice and Swallowing Center, he has published medical journal articles on microvascular head and neck reconstruction, tongue reconstruction and developed a method of restoring sensation to the throat using microsurgical techniques.

He has published numerous journal articles related to Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing with Sensory Testing,Transnasal esophagoscopy, acid reflux disease and cough. He has authored or co-authored two textbooks and most a health and wellness book designed for the lay public called Killing Me Softly From Inside: The Mysteries and Dangers of Acid Reflux and Its connection to America's Fastest Growing Cancer with a Diet that may save your life, he is licensed to practice medicine in New Jersey. In 2009 he left Columbia to join the largest Ear and Throat practice in the United States, ENT and Allergy Associates LLP, in New York City, NY. There he became clinical director of the practices Voice and Swallowing Division. In 1997, Aviv was appointed to be a Technical Advisor to the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research branch of the Department of Health & Human Services, now Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services regarding the diagnosis and treatment of swallowing disorders in older patients, which dovetailed with his appointment from 1996-2001 to the Functional Outcomes Task Force on Dysphagia by the American Speech and Hearing Association.

He represented the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery as Chairman of its Committee on Speech and Swallowing Disorders from 1997-2003. One of the significant accomplishments during these years was the development of a new series of CPT codes for office-based evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders which carry on to this day. Aviv was President of the American Broncho-Esophagological Association 2005-2006, the New York Laringological Society in 2004. Aviv was awarded the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center- Clinical Trials Award in 1993 as well as the Florence and Herbert Irving Scholarship Award from Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons 1993-1996, he was awarded the American Broncho-Esophagological Association- Broyles-Maloney Award-1995, the Honor Award- American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery in 1997, The Maxwell Abramson Memorial Award for Excellence in Teaching and Service- Columbia University- 1997/1998. In 2004 he was selected to give the Chevalier Jackson Lecture to the American Broncho-Esophagological Association, in 2005 gave the State of the Art Lecture- American Laryngological Association 2005.

In 2006, Aviv was made a Lifetime Honorary Member of the Israeli Society of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery. Jonathan Aviv has been in New York Magazine's “Best Doctors” for 15 consecutive years 1998-2013 and been in Best Doctors in America for the last 10 consecutive years 2004-2013. In 1998, Aviv married daughter of Victor Kiam in a Jewish ceremony in Manhattan, they have three children. Aviv JE, Murry T. FEESST. Plural Publishing Co. San Diego, CA. 2005. Postma G, Belafsky P, Aviv JE. Atlas of Transnasal Esophagoscopy. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Phildaelphia, PA. 2006. Aviv JE. Killing Me Softly From Inside; the Mysteries and Dangers of Acid Reflux and Its Connection to America's Fastest Growing Cancer with a Diet That May Save Your Life. Create Space Independent Publishing Platform. North Charleston, SC. 2014

José Quaglio

José Quaglio, real name Giuseppe Quaglio, was an Italian actor and theater director. He has directed four, he acted in a dozen films in France. 1946: Les Incendiaires by Maurice Clavel, mise en scène Jean Vernier, Théâtre des Noctambules 1950: Henri IV by Luigi Pirandello, mise en scène André Barsacq, Théâtre de l'Atelier 1951: Cymbeline by William Shakespeare, mise en scène Maurice Jacquemont, théâtre National de Bretagne 1954: Colombe by Jean Anouilh, mise en scène André Barsacq, théâtre des Célestins, théâtre de l'Atelier 1955: La Grande Felia by Jean-Pierre Conty, mise en scène Christian-Gérard, théâtre de l'Ambigu 1957: L'Autre Alexandre by Marguerite Liberaki, mise en scène Claude Régy, théâtre de l'Alliance française 1958: Plainte contre inconnu by Georges Neveux, mise en scène José Quaglio, théâtre du Vieux-Colombier 1958: Plainte contre inconnu by Georges Neveux, théâtre du Vieux-Colombier 1958: Ils ont joué avec des allumettes by Marcelle Routier, théâtre de l'Alliance française 1959: The Killer by Eugène Ionesco, théâtre Récamier 1961: Le Square by Marguerite Duras, théâtre des Mathurins José Quaglio on IMDb

The Buddha of Suburbia (TV serial)

The Buddha of Suburbia is a British four-part television serial, directed by Roger Michell broadcast on BBC Two in November 1993. Based on the novel of the same name by Hanif Kureishi, the series starred Naveen Andrews as the main character, Karim Amir, its theme song, as well as other original music for the series, was written and performed by David Bowie. Unable to find distribution in America, the series was given a limited engagement screening at The Public Theater in Manhattan from December 1994 to January 1995. Karim Amir is a mixed-race 17-year-old. With an English mother and a Pakistani father, Karim is uncertain of his cultural identity; as his father becomes a kind of spiritual guru to the surrounding middle-class neighbours, Karim begins to explore his cultural roots with hopes that he will achieve sexual and racial self-realisation. Naveen Andrews as Karim Amir Roshan Seth as Haroon Amir Susan Fleetwood as Eva Kay Steven Mackintosh as Charlie Kay Brenda Blethyn as Margaret Amir Harish Patel as Changez Nisha K. Nayar as Jamila David Bamber as Shadwell John McEnery as Uncle Ted Vicky Murdoch as Helen David Bradley as Helen's Father Jemma Redgrave as Eleanor Jason Watkins as Terry Richard Leaf as Photographer Amanda Root as First TV Producer Mark Strong as Second TV Producer Segments for the series were filmed at Naveen Andrews' old school Emanuel School.

The extras used in the series were real punks, suedeheads and musicians cast by actress Barbie Wilde. The series features many songs from the seventies, as well as music written and performed for the series by David Bowie. While a soundtrack album by Bowie was released under the same name on 8 November 1993, the music on the album is reworked, with the exception of the programme's theme song "The Buddha of Suburbia". A promotional music video was made for the song, featuring Bowie performing the song while strolling around an English suburb as scenes from the series are intercut throughout; the rest of the original television soundtrack remained unreleased. The Buddha of Suburbia on IMDb British Film Institute Screen Online The Buddha of Suburbia at the British Library - includes related articles and items from Kureishi's archive

Clara Rugaard

Clara Rugaard is a Danish actress and singer. Rugaard made her film debut in the 2013 Danish movie Min søsters børn i Afrika. Prior to this, she was known for singing the Danish theme song to Violetta for the Disney Channel. Since her acting debut, she has appeared in the television series The Lodge and Still Star-Crossed, multiple films, including Good Favour, Teen Spirit, I Am Mother. Rugaard is set to star opposite Lewis Pullman, Danny Glover, Lyrica Okano in the 2020 film Press Play, directed by Greg Björkman, she has received favorable reviews of her performance in I Am Mother, with SyFy describing her as the "heart and humanity" of the film and The New York Post describing her as "a new sci-fi star". Clara Rugaard on IMDb Clara Rugaard on Twitter Clara Rugaard on Instagram