Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey de Wilton
The Rt Hon. Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey de Wilton, KG, was a baron in the Peerage of England. Lord Grey de Wilton is now remembered for his memoir of his father, for participating in the last defence of Calais, for his involvement in the massacre after the Siege of Smerwick on Corca Dhuibhne in County Kerry, he served as Lord Deputy of Ireland from 1580 until 1582. Arthur Grey was the eldest son of The 13th Baron Grey de Wilton and Mary, daughter of The 1st Earl of Worcester, he was a Knight and he was recorded as being Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire on two separate occasions, in both 1569 and 1587, though it is not recorded if he held that title for all the years in between. He went with his father to Guisnes in 1553. Like his father he was ransomed a year later, he succeeded his father as 14th Baron in 1562. Elizabeth I, restored the property forfeited by his father for his part in the Lady Jane Grey affair. In 1580, he recruited a force of 6,000 and was sent as Lord Deputy of Ireland to quell the Second Desmond Rebellion, replacing the notoriously brutal Sir William Pelham.
His first main encounter was when he led an army of about 3,000 in the Battle of Glenmalure, County Wicklow in August, where his army was slaughtered by Fiach McHugh O' Byrne, with casualties of 800. In the same year, he led a force of 800 to Ard na Caithne in County Kerry where he massacred 600 Irish and Spanish troops who surrendered, a notorious incident known as the Siege of Smerwick. According to some versions of this event, Lord Grey de Wilton promised the garrison their lives in return for their surrender, a promise which he broke – this resulted in the Irish proverb'Grey's faith'. By 1582, the rebellion was in its last throes and he was recalled to England, leaving Munster devastated by famine, he had been successful in restoring order, but the justice of some of his actions was criticised, including the Smerwick massacre, the hanging of the former Chief Justice, Nicholas Nugent, on what seems to have been no more than a suggestion that he had been complicit in the Desmond Rebellion.
Lord Grey married after 1572 Jane Sibella Morrison, who died in July 1615 and whose last will was dated of 6 March 1614/1615 and probated on 14 July 1615. She naturalized as an English subject in 1575/1576, was the widow of Edward Russell, Baron Russell, whom she married c. 1571. Jane's parents were Sir Richard Morrison of Cashiobury and Bridget Hussey, who married secondly before 1563 Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland, without issue, thirdly, as his second wife Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford on 25 June 1566 without issue. Bridget was a daughter of John Hussey, 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford by Lady Anne Grey. Arthur and Jane were the parents of Thomas Grey, 15th Baron Grey de Wilton, Hon. Elizabeth Grey de Wilton, who would have become the 16th Baroness Grey de Wilton upon the death of her brother, the 15th Baron. Not long after his father's death, Lord Grey de Wilton wrote an affectionate memoir of him, Commentary on the Services and Charges of William Lord Grey de Wilton, not published until the nineteenth century.
It deals with his father's military campaigns in Scotland and France, has been praised by historians for the vivid first-hand account of the last days of English rule in Calais and Guisnes. Bibliography Dunlop, Robert. "Grey, Arthur". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 23. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Nicholas Arnold (1507–1580)
Sir Nicholas Arnold was an English courtier and politician, who held office as Lord Deputy of Ireland. He was born at Churcham in Gloucestershire, the eldest surviving son of John Arnold, Lord of the Manor of Highnam and Over, his wife Isabel Hawkins. In 1530 he entered the service of Thomas Cromwell and assisted him in the Dissolution of the Monasteries, he was by 1526 a gentleman pensioner in 1538 one of the King's Bodyguard. In 1546 he was sent to take charge of the English fort of Boulogneberg near Boulogne in France. In May 1549 the fort was attacked by the French but they were defeated. After a second attack the following August, Arnold realised defence was hopeless and, dismantling the fort, withdrew to Boulogne, he was spent time travelling in Italy. He was the Member of Parliament for Gloucestershire in 1545-47, 1553 and 1555, he was MP for Gloucester in the Parliaments of 1559 and 1563 to 1567 and in 1571 MP for Cricklade. From 1558 to 1580, he was the Custos Rotulorum of Gloucestershire and in 1558 and 1559 the High Sheriff of Gloucestershire.
He was appointed one of the Council of the Marches of Wales in June 1574. He was Lord Deputy of Ireland 1564-65, he had seen service in Ireland as member of a commission of inquiry into the conduct of the previous Deputy, Thomas Radcliffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, which dragged on for two years but ended inconclusively. As Lord Deputy he was regarded as a failure, being described as "quarrelsome and credulous", within a year he was replaced by Sir Henry Sidney; the most serious charge against him was that he had done nothing to curb the growing power of Shane O'Neill, Prince of Ulster, thus making inevitable the clash between O'Neill and the Crown which broke out after his departure. He unwisely quarrelled with the youthful, but powerful, Adam Loftus, Archbishop of Armagh, shortly to be Archbishop of Dublin. On his return a vengeful Earl of Sussex brought articles of impeachment against him, but these were ignored. From 1572 he again served until his death as MP for Gloucestershire, he died at the end of 1580, was buried at Churcham.
He was an exceptionally devout Protestant and, although he outwardly welcomed the accession of the Catholic Queen Mary, was suspected of involvement with Wyatt's Rebellion. He was twice committed to the Tower of London, but nothing could be proved against him, for the last two years of Mary's reign he was allowed to live on his estates; the informer William Thomas claimed that he had discussed Mary's assassination with Arnold, but at Wyatt's trial the Crown accepted that the conspirators has aimed only at preventing the Queen's marriage to Philip II of Spain, had not planned to kill her. In personality he was described as a "hard, pitiless man", but resolute and hard-working. Most of his leisure time was dedicated to horse breeding, he was credited with doing much to improve English bloodstock, he married twice: Firstly Margaret Denys, daughter of Sir William Denys of Dyrham, Gloucestershire. Secondly Margaret Isham, daughter and co-heir of John Isham of Bryanstown and widow of Nicholas Hore of Harpersdown, Wexford.
He had a daughter by his first marriage and one son by his second. His granddaughter Dorothy, daughter of his eldest son Rowland, was the first wife of Thomas Lucy, son of the courtier Sir Thomas Lucy, famous for his clashes with the young William Shakespeare. "Arnold, Nicholas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1901
Thomas FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Kildare
Thomas FitzJohn FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Kildare, was an Irish peer and statesman of the fifteenth century who held the office of Lord Chancellor of Ireland. Kildare was the son of John Fitzmaurice FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Kildare, Margaret de la Herne. John succeeded to the estates of his brother, Gerald FitzGerald, 5th Earl of Kildare. John enlarged Maynooth Castle, the principal residence of the Earls of Kildare. In 1421, the 6th Earl defeated the native Irish at Kilkea. In 1426 he restored and enlarged the stronghold of Kilkea Castle, sacked by the Irish. John FitzGerald died 17 October 1427, was buried at the Augustinian Priory of All Hallows, just outside Dublin. Thomas was still a young man when he succeeded his father, who died in 1427, it took some years for him to defeat the rival claim to his inheritance launched by James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormonde as son-in-law of the 5th Earl. Kildare was Lord Justice of Ireland in 1454, again between 1461 and 1470. In about 1463 he was appointed Lord Chancellor of Ireland, a post he held until 1468.
By a decree of Edward IV of England he was allowed, as a mark of royal favour, to hold the title of Lord Chancellor for life and continued to receive the salary of the position and exercise some of its functions until his death in 1478. He was appointed Deputy to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Duke of York in 1455. Thomas succeeded in making an Irish Parliament a reality: he assembled Parliament four times and got legislative independence for the Parliament which assembled at Drogheda in 1460, he was Justiciar of Ireland until 1462. Both Thomas and his cousin Thomas FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Desmond were leaders of the home rule party. In 1468 both Desmond and Kildare were attainted and their lands forfeited and Desmond was beheaded at Drogheda on 14 February 1468 at the age of 42. Kildare was more fortunate: he escaped to England. Edward IV discovered Ireland was ungovernable without the support of Kildare, replacing the now deceased Desmond, Kildare's attainder was reversed. Thomas became Lord Deputy again under George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence from 1470 until the Duke's death in 1478.
FitzGerald was concerned for the defence of the Pale, the only part of Ireland securely under English rule. He was responsible for the foundation of the Brotherhood of Saint George, a military guild dedicated to the defence of the Pale, in 1474, was its first captain; the Earls of Kildare, most notably Thomas's eldest son Gerald, the "Great Earl", over the next 60 years exercised supreme power in Ireland. The attitude of the English Crown is expressed in the saying that "since all Ireland cannot control the Earl of Kildare Kildare must control all of Ireland". Gerald was allowed to marry as his second wife a connection of the Tudor dynasty. Only when Silken Thomas, the 10th Earl of Kildare, rebelled against Henry VIII did they fall from power, they regained some of their influence under the Tudors. The Fitzgerald Desmonds on the other hand became Gaelised and fought with great enmity against the English Crown, thus bringing about their own destruction in the Desmond Rebellions of the early 1580s.
Kildare married firstly Dorothy O'More the daughter of Owny O'More, Chief of Leix from whom he got an annulment so that he could marry his kinswoman the Lady Joan, daughter of James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond."Others alledge that Thomas the 7th Earl of Kildare before he came to the Earldom was first married to Dorothy, daughter of Owny or Anthony O'More, Lord of Leix, by whom he had one son called John, but after he attained the Earldom, he turned off and repudiated the said Dorothy and sent her home to her father, so resented by him that he resolved a severe revenge. However they said John put aside from his right as eldest son, yet was ancestor to a great many worthy families of the name."His children included: from the first marriage with Dorothy O More John known as Shane FitzGerald of Osberstown who married Margaret Flatesbury of Osberstown with whom he had 3 sons: Gerald macShawn FitzGerald of Osberstown, ancestor of the FitzGeralds of Osbertstown, Co. Kildare, Cullentry Co. Meath and Killeanmore Kings Co. etc.
Raymond/Redmond FitzGerald, ancestor of the FitzGeralds of Rathangan and Timahoe, Nurney, Clonbulloge King Co. and Peircetown Co. WestMeath Richard FitzGerald of Brownestown, ancestor of the of Brownestown alias Irishtown, Walterstown Co. Kildareand from the 2nd marriage with Lady Joan FitzGerald Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, known as "the Great Earl", who became the dominant political figure in Ireland, was all-powerful until his death in 1513. Sir Thomas FitzGerald of Laccagh, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, died 1487, killed at the Battle of Stoke Sir James FitzGerald Lady Eleanor FitzGerald d. 14 Nov 1497 – married Conn More O'Neill, King of Ulster and had issue: Conn Bacach O'Neill Lady Anne FitzGeraldKildare died in March 1478
Thomas FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Desmond
Thomas FitzJames FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Desmond, called'Thomas of Drogheda', known as the Great Earl, was the son of James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond and Mary de Burgh. He was Lord Deputy of Ireland for the Duke of Clarence from 1463 to his death, in 1464 founded the College of Youghal, his plan to found a University at Drogheda failed due to his judicial assassination. Upon the death of his father, James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond, in 1462, Thomas FitzJames FitzGerald, became the 7th Earl of Desmond; that same year Desmond, having sided, as had his father, with the House of York, put down a Lancastrian invasion of Ireland by John and Thomas Butler, brothers of the Earl of Ormond. Local memory claims that the Battle of Piltown was so violent that the local river ran red with blood, hence the names Pill River and Piltown. Piltown was the only battle of the Wars of the Roses fought in Ireland. In appreciation, the following year King Edward IV appointed Desmond Lord-Deputy under the Duke of Clarence.
Desmond built castles around the Pale, continued the hereditary feud with the Butlers. In 1464 he founded the collegiate church at Youghal. In 1466 he was badly defeated in an expedition to Offaly, which permanently weakened the defence of the Pale, he was beloved in Ireland for his defence of the Irish people against the difficulties of English law – the parliament in the Dublin Pale passed an act in 1465 that every Irishman dwelling in the Pale was to dress and shave like the English, take an English surname such as the name of a town, or of a colour such as Black, Green or White, or of a trade such as Smith, Thatcher, or forfeit his goods. Another measure forbade ships from fishing in the seas off Ireland, because the dues went to make the Irish people prosperous. Another provided that it was lawful to decapitate'thieves' found robbing "or going or coming anywhere" unless they had an Englishman in their company. On bringing the head to the mayor of the nearest town,'head money' was paid. Desmond was the main defender of the Irish against such exactions.
Following his assassination, in 1468 Edward IV replaced Desmond as Lord Deputy with John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester, a Crown servant notorious for cruelty and ruthlessness, nicknamed "the Butcher of England". Accused by his political enemies of treason, for aiding the Irish against the King's subjects, as well as extortion, Desmond attended a Parliament held in Drogheda. He, along with 7th Earl of Kildare, was attainted for treason; the fact that Desmond had been seized in a Priory, in breach of the right of sanctuary, caused particular indignation. Desmond was summarily beheaded, while Kildare managed to escape to England to plead his case before the King. Desmond was buried at St. Peter's Church, Drogheda afterwards removed to Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin. Desmond's death shocked the nation: "slain by the swords of the wicked, or may I say a martyr" wrote one chronicler; some accounts claim that Tiptoft murdered two of Desmond's young sons, who were attending school in Drogheda. The Munster Geraldines invaded the Pale.
Not wishing to see a similar uprising in Leinster, Edward revoked the attainder against both Kildare and Desmond. Although Desmond's heir was allowed to succeed to his father's lands and title, relations between the Crown and the Desmonds were strained for decades; the precise cause of his downfall remains something of a mystery. There were vague rumours that he was involved in a plot against Tiptoft, not a man to give his enemies the benefit of the doubt, vaguer rumours that Desmond might be planning to become King of Ireland. Apart from Tiptoft, he had another powerful enemy in William Sherwood, Bishop of Meath, a man as ruthless as Tiptoft himself, believed by many to have poisoned Tiptoft's mind against Desmond. Accounts suggested that Edward IV's Queen, Elizabeth Woodville, was the prime mover, having taken offence at some tactless remarks of Desmond; the Queen was undoubtedly a formidable enemy: her husband's biographer describes her as a woman, cold and calculating by nature, "quick to take offence and reluctant to forgive" but there is no contemporary evidence of any quarrel between her and Desmond.
One account claims. Desmond has been praised by modern historians as a attractive figure, he was handsome, affable and learned: "a Renaissance magnate with an Irish tinge". On 22 August 1455, Thomas married Ellice de Barry, daughter of William Barry, 8th Baron Barry, Ellen de la Roche, they had issue seven sons and two daughters: James FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Desmond. Maurice FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Desmond. Lady Katherine Fitzgerald, married Finghin MacCarthy Reagh, 8th Prince of Carbery Thomas Fitzgerald, 11th Earl of Desmond. Unnamed boy #1, murdered by John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester. Unnamed boy #2, murdered by John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester. John FitzGerald, de facto 12th Earl of Desmond. Ellen Fitzgerald, married 1) Thomas Butler of Caher, 2) Turlogh Mac I Brien Ara, of Duharra, Bishop of Killaloe. Gerald Oge Fitzgerald of Macollop, c.1464 whose male descendants became extinct in 1743. Battle of Piltown Battle of Piltown and The Execution of ” Great Earl” of Desmond Ireland’s Wars: Roses At Piltown
Sir Edward Poynings KG was an English soldier and diplomat, Lord Deputy of Ireland under King Henry VII of England. Edward Poynings was the only son of Sir Robert Poynings and Elizabeth Paston, the only daughter of William Paston, he was born at his father's house in Southwark, afterwards the Crosskeys tavern, the Queen's Head. His father had been carver and sword-bearer to Jack Cade, was killed at the Second Battle of St Albans on 17 February 1461, his mother, who married Robert Poynings in December 1459, inherited her husband's property in Kent in spite of opposition from her brother-in-law, Edward Poynings, master of Arundel College. Before 1472 she married a second husband, Sir George Browne of Betchworth Castle, Surrey, by whom she had a son, a daughter, she died in 1487. Some of her correspondence is included in the Paston Letters. Poynings was brought up by his mother. In October 1483 he was a leader of the rising in Kent planned to second Buckingham's insurrection against Richard III, he escaped abroad to follow Henry, Earl of Richmond.
He was in Brittany in October 1484, in August 1485 landed with Richmond at Milford Haven. He was at once made a knight banneret, in the same year was sworn of the Privy Council. In 1488 he was on a commission to inspect the ordnance at Calais, in 1491 was made a Knight of the Garter. In the following year he was placed in command of fifteen hundred men sent to aid the Emperor Maximilian against his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands; the rebels, under the leadership of Ravenstein, held Bruges and Sluys, where they fitted out ships to prey on English commerce. Poynings first cleared the sea of the privateers, laid siege to Sluys in August, while the Duke of Saxony blockaded it on land. After some hard fighting the two castles defending the town were taken, the rebels entered into negotiations with Poynings to return to their allegiance. Poynings joined Henry VII before Boulogne, but the French war was closed without bloodshed by the treaty of Etaples on 3 November. In 1493 Poynings was acting as governor of Calais.
In July he was sent with Warham on a mission to Archduke Philip to gain Perkin Warbeck's expulsion from Burgundy, where he had been welcomed by the dowager duchess Margaret. The envoys obtained from Philip a promise that he would abstain from aiding Warbeck, but the duke asserted that he could not control the actions of the duchess, the real ruler of the country. Meanwhile, in Ireland, a Yorkist stronghold, the struggles between the Butlers and Geraldines had reduced royal authority to a shadow within the English Pale, Gerald Fitzgerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, the head of the Geraldines and Lord Deputy, was in treasonable relations with Warbeck. Henry appointed Prince Henry as viceroy, made Poynings the prince's deputy. Poynings landed at Howth on 13 October 1494 with a thousand men, Henry Deane, bishop of Bangor, to act as chancellor, Hugh Conway as treasurer, others to control the courts of king's bench, common pleas, exchequer. Poynings's first measure was an expedition into Ulster, in conjunction with Kildare, to punish O'Donnell, O'Hanlon and other chieftains who had abetted Warbeck's first invasion of Ireland.
His progress was stopped by the news. Poynings abandoned the Ulster invasion, turned south, with some difficulty reduced Carlow, it opened on 1 December 1494, after attainting Kildare, proceeded to pass for Poynings numerous acts tending to make Irish administration directly dependent on the Crown and privy council. Judges and others were to hold office during pleasure, not by patent as hitherto. Further the statutes of Kilkenny passed in 1366, forbidding marriage or intercourse between the English colonists and the Irish, the adoption by Englishmen of Irish laws, customs, or manners, were re-enacted. Constitutionally, no parliament should be summoned in Ireland except under the Great Seal of England, or without notice to the English privy council, that no acts of the Irish parliament should be valid unless submitted. Another act declared all recent laws in England to be of force in Ireland; these two measures, subsequently known as "Poynings's Law", or "The Statutes of Drogheda", rendered the Irish parliament subordinate to that of England.
A slight modification of them was introduced in Mary I's reign, during the rebellion of 1641 Charles promised their repeal. While this parliament was sitting, Poynings made another expedition into Ulster, leaving a commission with his chancellor to continue, prorogue, or dissolve it as he thought fit; the Irish retreated, the second expedition was less successful than the first. Poynings now negotiated alliances with various septs, chiefly by money payments, enforced on the inhabitants of the Pale the duty of protecting
Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare
Gerard FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare known in Irish as Gearóid Óg, was a leading figure in 16th-century Irish History. In 1513 he inherited the title of Earl of Kildare and position of Lord Deputy of Ireland from his father, he was the son of Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare and his first wife Alison FitzEustace, daughter of Rowland FitzEustace, 1st Baron Portlester. In 1503, he married Elizabeth Zouche, daughter of Sir John Zouche of Codnor and Elizabeth St John, a first cousin of King Henry VII, with whom he had: Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare and Lady Allice/Ellis FitzGerald, who married Christopher Fleming, 8th Baron Slane.. This was her aunt. See Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of KildareHe married secondly Lady Elizabeth Grey, like his first wife a cousin of the King, though a more distant one, had a further six children: Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare, Elizabeth FitzGerald, Countess of Lincoln, Edward FitzGerald, Anne FitzGerald, Margaret FitzGerald, Catherine FitzGerald, who married firstly Jenico Preston, 3rd Viscount Gormanston.
Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare was born in 1487 in County Kildare. He is referred to in the Irish annals as Gearóit Óge and as Garrett McAlison, after his mother, Alison FitzEustace, daughter of Rowland FitzEustace, 1st Baron Portlester. In 1496, Gerald was detained by Henry VII at his court as a hostage for his father's fidelity. In April 1502, at the age of 15, he played the principal role in the funeral ceremony for Henry VII's eldest son Arthur, Prince of Wales in Worcester Cathedral. In 1503, he was permitted to return with his father to Ireland, having married Henry VII's cousin Elizabeth Zouche; the next year he was appointed Lord Treasurer. In August 1504 he commanded the reserve at the Battle of Knockdoe, where his rashness and impetuosity were the cause of some loss of life. On the death of his father in 1513 he succeeded to the title, was by the council chosen Lord-Justice. Henry VIII soon afterwards appointed, his brother-in-law, Lord Slane succeeded him as Lord Treasurer. Some of the Irish chiefs at the end of 1513 having ravaged parts of the Pale, the Earl, early in the following year, defeated O'More and his followers in Leix, marching north, took the Castle of Cavan, killed O'Reilly, chased his followers into the bogs, returned to Dublin laden with booty.
This energetic action was so approved by the King that he granted the Earl the customs of the ports in the County of Down – rights repurchased by the Crown from the 17th Earl in 1662. In 1516 the Earl invaded Imayle in the Wicklow Mountains, sent the head of Shane O'Toole as a present to the Lord Mayor of Dublin, he marched into Ely O'Carroll, in conjunction with his brother-in-law the Earl of Ormond, James, son of the Earl of Desmond. They captured and razed the Castle of Lemyvannan, took Clonmel, in December he returned to Dublin " laden with booty and honour."In March 1517 he called a parliament in Dublin, invaded Ulster, stormed the Dundrum Castle, marched into Tyrone, took, the Castle of Dungannon, "and so reduced Ireland to a quiet condition." On the 6 October of the same year his Countess died at Lucan, County Dublin, was buried at Kilcullen. Next year, 1518, his enemies having accused him of maladministration, he appointed a deputy and sailed for England, he was removed from the government, the Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk appointed in his stead.
He appears to have accompanied the King to France in June 1520, was present at "the Field of the Cloth of Gold", where he was distinguished by his bearing and retinue. On this occasion he met the King's first cousin, Lady Elizabeth Grey, whom he married a few months afterwards, thereby gained considerable influence at court. Reports now came from Ireland that he was secretly striving to stir up the chieftains against the new Deputy. After inquiries, the King wrote to Surrey that, as they had "noon evident testimonies" to convict the Earl, he thought it but just to "release hym out of warde, putt hym under suretie not to departe this our realme without our special lisense." He was permitted to return in January 1523. At about this date he founded the College of Maynooth, which flourished until suppressed in 1538, he signaled his return to Ireland by an expedition into Leix in company with the Lord Mayor of Dublin. Having burnt several villages, they were caught in an ambuscade, after considerable loss retreated with some difficulty to Dublin.
In consequence of disputes and misunderstandings between the Earl of Kildare and Ormond, now Lord-Deputy, they appealed to the King, accusing each other of malpractices and treasons. Arbitrators were appointed, who ordered that both the Earls should abstain from making war without the King's assent, that they should cease levying coigne and livery within "the four obeysant shires – Meath, Urgell and Kildare, " that the two Earls should persuade their kinsmen to submit to the laws, that they should be bound by a bond of 1,000 marks each to keep the peace for one year. Before long, their mutual hatred blazed forth again in consequence of the murder of James Talbot, one of Ormond's followers, by the retainers of Kildare. Again the Earls appealed to the King, again commissioners were sent over, who conducted an inquiry at Christ Church, Dublin, in June 1524, their decision was in the main in favour of Kildare, an indenture was drawn up, by which the Earls agreed to forgive each other, to be friends, to make common cause for the future.
He was reconciled with the Vice-Treasurer, Sir William Darcy, a former ally of the FitzGeralds who had become one of Gea
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was a prominent Tudor politician. He was an uncle of two of the wives of King Henry VIII of England, namely Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, both of whom were beheaded, played a major role in the machinations affecting these royal marriages. After falling from favour in 1546, he was stripped of the dukedom and imprisoned in the Tower of London, avoiding execution when King Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, he was released on the accession of the Roman Catholic queen, Mary I of England, whom he aided in securing her throne, thus setting the stage for tensions between his Catholic family and the Protestant royal line that would be continued by Queen Mary's half-sister, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Thomas was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk by his first wife, Elizabeth Tilney, the daughter of Sir Frederick Tilney and widow of Sir Humphrey Bourchier, he was descended in the female line from Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, the sixth son of King Edward I of England.
In 1485, both his father and his grandfather, John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, had fought for the Yorkist king, Richard III of England, at the Battle of Bosworth, in which his grandfather was killed, thus bringing the Tudor king, Henry VII of England, to the throne. Due to their alliegance to the losing side, the Howard family's titles became forfeit. Thomas Howard was an able soldier, was employed in military operations. In 1497, he served in a campaign against the Scots under the command of his father, who knighted him on 30 September 1497, he was made a Knight of the Garter after the accession of King Henry VIII, became the King's close companion, with lodgings at court. On 4 May 1513, he was appointed Lord Admiral, on 9 September, he helped to defeat the Scots at the Battle of Flodden, his first wife, Anne of York, died in 1511, early in 1513, Howard married Lady Elizabeth Stafford, the daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Lady Eleanor Percy, the daughter of Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland.
On 1 February 1514, Howard's father Earl of Surrey, was created Duke of Norfolk, by letters patent issued on the same day, Thomas Howard was created Earl of Surrey for life. Over the next few years, he served King Henry VIII in a variety of ways. In September 1514, he escorted the King's sister, Princess Mary Tudor, to France for her forthcoming marriage to King Louis XII of France. In 1517, he quelled a May day riot in London with the use of soldiers. On 10 March 1520, the Earl of Surrey was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland. By July 1520, Surrey entered upon the thankless task of endeavoring to keep Ireland in order, his letters contain accounts of attempts to pacify the rival factions of the Earl of Kildare and the Earl of Ormonde, are full of demands for more money and troops. At the end of 1521, the Earl of Surrey was recalled from Ireland to take command of the English fleet in naval operations against France, his ships were ill-provisioned, his warfare consisted of a series of raids upon the French coast for the purpose of inflicting all the damage possible.
When Surrey abandoned the siege of Brest, he left Vice-Admiral William FitzWilliam on station to blockade the port. The English navy patrolled the coast of Brittany for the next three months, but was unable to score a decisive victory with their Spanish allies. In July 1522, Surrey had burned Morlaix, in September, he had laid waste the country around Boulogne, spreading devastation on every side until the winter brought back the fleet to England; the sea patrol was abandoned with little achieved. On 4 December 1522, Thomas Howard was made Lord Treasurer upon his father's resignation of the office, on 21 May 1524, he succeeded his father as Duke of Norfolk, his liking for war brought him into conflict with Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, who preferred diplomacy in the conduct of foreign affairs. In 1523, Wolsey had secured to the Duke of Suffolk the reversion of the office of Earl Marshal by Howard's father, in 1525, he was replaced as Lord Admiral by Duke of Richmond. Finding himself pushed aside, Howard spent considerable time away from court in 1525–1527 and 1528.
In the mid 1520s, Thomas Howard's niece, Anne Boleyn, had caught the eye of King Henry VIII, thereby reviving the Duke of Norfolk's political fortunes with his involvement in the King's attempt to annul his marriage to Queen Catherine of Aragon. By 1529, matters of state were being handled by the Duke of Norfolk, the Duke of Suffolk, the Boleyns, who pressed King Henry VIII to remove Cardinal Wolsey. In October, the King sent the Duke of Suffolk to obtain the great seal from the Cardinal. In November, Wolsey died before trial. Howard benefited from Wolsey's fall, becoming the King's leading Councillor and applying himself energetically in the King's efforts to find a way out of his marriage to Queen Catherine, his loyalty and service to King Henry VIII brought him ample rewards in the form of monastic lands in Norfolk and Suffolk, employment on diplomatic missions, being named a knight of the French Order of St Michael in 1532 and Earl Marshal of England on 28 May 1533. In May 1536, when King Henry VIII arrested his second wife, Queen Anne Boleyn, Howard presided at the trial of his niece as Lord High Steward.
The Duke of Norfolk's marriage to his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Stafford, mutually affectionate at first, deteriorated in 1527 when he took a mistress, Elizabeth Holland, whom he installed in the Howard household. Lady Elizabeth formally separated from her husband in the 1530s, she claimed that in March 1534, the Duke ‘locked me up in a chamber, took away my jewels and apparel'. Howa