Lord Howe Island is an irregularly crescent-shaped volcanic remnant in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, 600 km directly east of mainland Port Macquarie, 780 km northeast of Sydney, about 900 km southwest of Norfolk Island. It is about 10 km long and between 0.3 and 2.0 km wide with an area of 14.55 km2, though just 3.98 km2 of that comprise the low-lying developed part of the island. Along the west coast is a sandy semi-enclosed sheltered coral reef lagoon. Most of the population lives in the north, while the south is dominated by forested hills rising to the highest point on the island, Mount Gower; the Lord Howe Island Group comprises 28 islands and rocks. Apart from Lord Howe Island itself, the most notable of these is the volcanic and uninhabited Ball's Pyramid about 23 km to the southeast of Howe. To the North lies a cluster of seven small uninhabited islands called the Admiralty Group; the first reported sighting of Lord Howe Island took place on 17 February 1788, when Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, commander of the Armed Tender HMS Supply, was en route from Botany Bay to found a penal settlement on Norfolk Island.
On the return journey, Ball sent a party ashore on Lord Howe Island to claim it as a British possession. It subsequently became a provisioning port for the whaling industry, was permanently settled in June 1834; when whaling declined, the 1880s saw the beginning of the worldwide export of the endemic kentia palms, which remains a key component of the Island's economy. The other continuing industry, began after World War II ended in 1945; the Lord Howe Island Group is part of the state of New South Wales and is regarded as an unincorporated area administered by the Lord Howe Island Board, which reports to the New South Wales Minister for Environment and Heritage. The island's standard time zone is UTC +11 when daylight saving time applies; the currency is the Australian dollar. Commuter airlines provide flights to Sydney and Port Macquarie. UNESCO records the Lord Howe Island Group as a World Heritage Site of global natural significance. Most of the island is untouched forest, with many of the plants and animals found nowhere else in the world.
Other natural attractions include the diversity of the landscapes, the variety of upper mantle and oceanic basalts, the world's southernmost barrier coral reef, nesting seabirds, the rich historical and cultural heritage. The Lord Howe Island Act 1981 established a "Permanent Park Preserve"; the island was added to the Australian National Heritage List on 21 May 2007 and the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The surrounding waters are a protected region designated the Lord Howe Island Marine Park. Lord Howe Island is part of the IBRA region Pacific Subtropical Islands and is subregion PSI01 with an area of 1,909 ha. Prior to European discovery and settlement, Lord Howe Island was uninhabited, unknown to Polynesian peoples of the South Pacific; the first reported European sighting of Lord Howe Island was on 17 February 1788 by Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, commander of the Armed Tender HMS Supply, on its way from Botany Bay with a cargo of nine male and six female convicts to found a penal settlement on Norfolk Island.
On the return journey of 13 March 1788, Ball observed Ball's Pyramid and sent a party ashore on Lord Howe Island to claim it as a British possession. Numerous turtles and tame birds were returned to Sydney. Ball named Mount Lidgbird and Ball's Pyramid after himself and the main island after Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, First Lord of the Admiralty at the time. Many names on the island date from this time, from May of the same year, when four ships of the First Fleet, HMS Supply, Lady Penrhyn and Scarborough, visited it. Much of the plant and animal life was first recorded in the journals and diaries of visitors such as David Blackburn, Master of Supply, Arthur Bowes Smyth, surgeon of the Lady Penrhyn. Smyth was in Sydney, his journal entry for 19 March 1788 noted that "the Supply, in her return, landed at the island she in going out, all were agreeably surprised to find great numbers of fine turtle on the beach and, on the land amongst the trees, great numbers of fowls like a guinea hen, another species of fowl not unlike the landrail in England, all so tame that you could take hold of them with your hands but could, at all times, knock down as many as you thought proper, with a short stick.
Inside the reef there were fish innumerable, which were so taken with a hook and line as to be able to catch a boat full in a short time. She brought thirteen large turtle to Port Jackson and many were distributed among the camp and fleet."Watercolour sketches of native birds including the Lord Howe woodhen, white gallinule, Lord Howe pigeon, were made by artists including George Raper and John Hunter. As the latter two birds were soon hunted to extinction, these paintings are their only remaining pictorial record. Over the next three years, the Supply returned to the island several times in search of turtles, the island was visited by ships of the Second and Third Fleets. Between 1789 and 1791, the Pacific whale industry was born with British and American whaling ships chasing sperm whales along the equator to the Gilbert and Ellice archipelago south i
The Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Liaison Committee is composed of representatives from government departments and private consultancies. The ADMLC's main aim is to review current understanding of atmospheric dispersion and related phenomena for application in the authorization or licensing of pollutant emissions to the atmosphere from industrial, commercial or institutional sites; the ADMLC is concerned with atmospheric pollutant discharges from regulated emission sites and other fixed sources. Their review and study interests include routine discharges as well as accidental releases or releases cause by operational upsets, their interests include modelling dispersion at all scales from on-site short range to long range distances. The ADMLC does not get involved with pollutant emissions from roadway traffic or other non-fixed sources. Nor does it get involved with air pollution topics such as acid rain and ozone formation. In 1977, a meeting of representatives from UK government departments and research organisations was held to discuss atmospheric dispersion calculation methods for radioactive releases.
Those present agreed on the need for a review of recent developments in atmospheric dispersion modelling and formed an informal Steering Committee, which operated for a number of years. That Steering Committee subsequently became the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Liaison Committee in 1995. Although the ADMLC was formed to consider radioactive releases from the nuclear industry, it has expanded its range of interests and its membership to more reflect the needs of industrial and regulatory organisations; as listed on the ADMLC's web site, the membership of the ADMLC includes the following entities: Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston Defence Science and Technology Laboratory Department for Energy and Climate Change Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs Environment Agency Environmental Protection Agency Food Standards Agency Health and Safety Executive Methodology and Standards Development Unit, Hazardous Installations Directorate Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Health and Safety Laboratory Home Office Met Office Amec Foster Wheeler Nuclear Department, HMS Sultan Public Health England Scottish Environment Protection AgencyThe Chairman of ADMLC is provided by the Met Office and the Secretariat of the ADMLC are provided by Public Health England.
ADMLC highlights where there are gaps in knowledge. It tries to provide guidance to, to endorse good practice in, the dispersion modelling community; the ADMLC has hosted workshops and welcomes ideas for joint meetings or joint workshops with other organisations. The ADMLC members pay an annual subscription, used to fund reviews on topics agreed on by the members. Reviews funded by ADMLC include: Dispersion at low wind speed Dispersion from sources near groups of buildings, or in urban areas Plume rise Dispersion in coastal areas, The use of old meteorological data or data obtained at some distance from the release point The possible use of data from numerical weather prediction programs Uncertainty of dispersion model predictions as a result of deriving atmospheric stability indicators from meteorological data Proceedings of a workshop on the reliability of dispersion models for regulatory applications Review of the Royal Meteorological Society guidelines for atmospheric dispersion modelling Calculation of air pollutant concentrations indoors Dispersion following explosionsA complete list of projects, links to each report, can be found on the ADMLC website.
Accidental release source terms Bibliography of atmospheric dispersion modeling Air pollution dispersion terminology Air Quality Modeling Group Air Quality Modelling and Assessment Unit Air Resources Laboratory AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors Atmospheric dispersion modeling Category:Atmospheric dispersion modeling List of atmospheric dispersion models Finnish Meteorological Institute Met Office National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark NILU, Norwegian Institute of Air Research Royal Meteorological Society UK Dispersion Modelling Bureau Turner, D. B.. Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling. CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X. Beychok, M. R.. Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion. Self-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Liaison Committee Air Resources Laboratory Air Quality Modeling Group Met Office web site Error propagation in air dispersion modeling
The Diet of Porvoo, was the summoned legislative assembly to establish the Grand Principality of Finland in 1809 and the heir of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates. The session of the Diet lasted from March to July 1809. During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of Russian occupied Finland were assembled at Porvoo by Tsar Alexander I, the new Grand Prince of Finland, between 25 March and 19 July 1809; the central event at Porvoo was the sovereign pledge and the oaths of the Estates in Porvoo Cathedral on 29 March. Each of the Estates swore their oaths of allegiance, committing themselves to accepting the Emperor as Grand Prince of Finland as the true authority, to keeping the constitution and the form of government unchanged. Alexander I subsequently promised to govern Finland in accordance with its laws and let the Finnish keep their religion and rights; this was thought to mean that the emperor confirmed the Swedish Instrument of Government from 1772 as the constitution of Finland, although it was interpreted to mean respecting the existing codes and statutes.
The diet had required that it would be convened again after the Finnish War, which separated Finland from Sweden, had been concluded. On 17 September, the conflict was settled by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn but it would be another five decades until the Finnish Estates would be called again. During the rise of Finnish nationalism in the 19th century, it was claimed that the Diet implied that a Treaty between states had been signed at the Diet between Finland and Russia. According to Emeritus Professor Jussila of Helsinki University, it is true that Alexander said that Finland had been raised to the status of a nation among nations, but the claim of a treaty between equals was a device invented for the political realities of the struggle for independence. Diet had participants from different estates as follows: Nobility 75 representatives, chairman lantmarskalk count Robert Wilhelm De Geer. Clergy 8 representatives, chairman bishop of Turku Jakob Tengström Burghers 20 representatives, chairman merchant Kristian Trapp, Turku Peasants 31 representatives, chairman Pehr Klockars UusikaarlepyyOut of 205 noble families 130 were not represented in the diet, 60 of the representatives did not attend the opening ceremony.
The burghers were represented by merchants. Diet of Finland Parliament of Finland Senate of Finland Governor-General of Finland Finnish nobility Finnish House of Knights and Nobility Kingdom of Finland History of the Finnish Parliament - Official site Kejsarens tal vid lantdagens avslutande den 19 juli 1809 - in Swedish at Wikisource The Porvoo Diet 1809 - The Beginning of Autonomous Finland Porvoo Town The Diet of Porvoo 1809