County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, in the northeast of the island of Ireland. It covers an area of 2,448 km2 and has a population of 531,665, it is one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland and is within the province of Ulster. It borders County Antrim to the north, the Irish Sea to the east, County Armagh to the west, County Louth across Carlingford Lough to the southwest. In the east of the county is Strangford Lough and the Ards Peninsula; the largest town is Bangor, on the northeast coast. Three other large towns and cities are on its border: Newry lies on the western border with County Armagh, while Lisburn and Belfast lie on the northern border with County Antrim. Down contains both the easternmost point of Ireland, it was one of two counties of Northern Ireland to have a Protestant majority at the 2001 census. The other Protestant majority County is County Antrim to the North. In March 2018, The Sunday Times published its list of Best Places to Live in Britain, including five in Northern Ireland.
The list included three in County Down: Holywood and Strangford. County Down takes its name from dún, the Irish word for dun or fort, a common root in Gaelic place names; the fort in question was in the historic town of Downpatrick known as Dún Lethglaise. During the Williamite War in Ireland the county was a centre of Protestant rebellion against the rule of the Catholic James II. After forming a scratch force the Protestants were defeated by the Irish Army at the Break of Dromore and forced to retreat, leading to the whole of Down falling under Jacobite control; the same year Marshal Schomberg's large Williamite expedition arrived in Belfast Lough and captured Bangor. After laying siege to Carrickfergus Schomberg marched south to Dundalk Camp, clearing County Down and much of the rest of East Ulster of Jacobite troops. Down contains two significant peninsulas: Lecale peninsula; the county has a coastline along Carlingford Lough to the south. Strangford Lough lies between the mainland. Down contains part of the shore of Lough Neagh.
Smaller loughs include Lough Island Reavy. The River Lagan forms most of the border with County Antrim; the River Bann flows through the southwestern areas of the county. Other rivers include the Quoile. There are several islands off the Down coast: Mew Island, Light House Island and the Copeland Islands, all of which lie to the north of the Ards Peninsula. Gunn Island lies off the Lecale coast. In addition there are a large number of small islands in Strangford Lough. County Down is where, in the words of the famous song by Percy French, "The mountains of Mourne sweep down to the sea", the granite Mourne Mountains continue to be renowned for their beauty. Slieve Donard, at 849 m, is the highest peak in the Mournes, in Northern Ireland and in the province of Ulster. Another important peak is Slieve Croob, at 534 m, the source of the River Lagan. An area of County Down is known as the Brontë Homeland, after Patrick Brontë, father of Anne, Charlotte and Branwell. Patrick Brontë was born in this region.
The city of Newry in the south of the county contains St Patrick's, overlooking the city centre from Church street, on the east side of the city, considered to be Ireland's first Protestant church. The Newry Canal is the first summit-level canal to be built in the British Isles. Castlewellan Forest Park. Down is home to Exploris, the Northern Ireland Aquarium, located in Portaferry, on the shores of Strangford Lough, on the Ards Peninsula; the Old Inn in Crawfordsburn is one of Ireland's oldest hostelries, with records dating back to 1614. It is predated however by Donaghadee's Grace Neill's, opened in 1611; the Old inn claims that people who have stayed there include Jonathan Swift, Dick Turpin, Peter the Great, Lord Tennyson, Charles Dickens, Anthony Trollope, former US president George H. W. Bush, C. S. Lewis, who honeymooned there. Tollymore Forest Park. Scrabo Tower, in Newtownards, was built as a memorial to Charles Stewart, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry. Saint Patrick is reputed to be buried at Down Cathedral in Downpatrick, reputedly alongside St. Brigid and St. Columcille.
Saul, County Down – where Saint Patrick said his first eucharist in Ireland Baronies Ards Lower Ards Upper Castlereagh Lower Castlereagh Upper Dufferin Iveagh Lower, Lower Half Iveagh Lower, Upper Half Iveagh Upper, Lower Half Iveagh Upper, Upper Half Kinelarty Lecale Lower Lecale Upper Lordship of Newry Mourne Parishes Townlands Belfast - the eastern suburbs of the city lie in County Down but County Antrim Lisburn - the eastern suburbs of the city lie in County Down but County Antrim Newry - the eastern suburbs of the city lie in County Down but County Armagh Bangor Dundonald Newtownards Banbridge Downpatrick Holywood Carryduff (Population of 4,500 or more and under 10,000 at
Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry
Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry, styled Viscount Castlereagh between 1872 and 1884, was a British Conservative politician and benefactor, who served in various capacities in the Conservative administrations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After succeeding his father in the marquessate in 1884, he was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland between 1886 and 1889, he held office as Postmaster General between 1900 and 1902 and as President of the Board of Education between 1902 and 1905. A supporter of the Protestant causes in Ulster, he was an opponent of Irish Home Rule and one of the instigators of the formal alliance between the Conservative Party and the Liberal Unionists in 1893.. Born Charles Vane-Tempest in London, UK, he was the eldest son of George Vane-Tempest, 5th Marquess of Londonderry, by Mary Cornelia, only daughter of Sir John Edwards, 1st Baronet, who lived at Plas Machynlleth, he was the grandson of the third Marquess and the great-nephew of the second Marquess, better known as the statesman Lord Castlereagh.
To mark his 21st birthday, the people of Machynlleth erected a clock tower in the centre of the town. George Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough and his brother Lord Randolph Churchill were his first cousins, he was educated at the National University of Ireland and Christ Church, Oxford. He became known by the courtesy title of Viscount Castlereagh when his father succeeded to the marquessate of Londonderry in 1872. In 1885, he assumed the additional surname of Stewart by Royal licence, he was returned to parliament as one of two representatives for Down in 1878, a seat he held until 1884, when he succeeded his father in the marquessate and entered the House of Lords. After the Conservatives came to power in 1886 under Lord Salisbury, Lord Londonderry was sworn of the Privy Council and appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland; this was a time of difficulties in Ireland. Gladstone's first Home Rule Bill had just been rejected by parliament and national feelings ran high in Ireland. According to the Dictionary of National Biography, Londonderry "... filled the viceroyalty with tact and courage, so that when he left Dublin in 1889 the discontent had abated and some measure of prosperity had been restored."
He was appointed a Knight of the Garter in 1888 and admitted to the Irish Privy Council in 1892. He opposed Gladstone's second Home Rule Bill in 1893 and presided over the meeting which led to the formal political alliance between the Conservatives and the Liberal Unionists. From 1895 to 1897, Londonderry was Chairman of the London School Board, he returned to the government in April 1900, when Salisbury made him Postmaster General, became a member of the cabinet in November of that year. After Arthur Balfour became prime minister in August 1902, Londonderry became President of the Board of Education. In this role he oversaw the Education Act 1902. Between 1903 and 1905, he was Lord President of the Council; the Unionists fell in December 1905, Londonderry subsequently focused on Irish affairs. He was one of the "scuttlers" who did not vote against the Parliament Act 1911; as president of the Ulster Unionist council, he opposed the third Home Rule Bill proposed by the Liberal government in 1912 and was the second signatory to the Ulster Covenant after Sir Edward Carson.
Lord Londonderry was Lord-Lieutenant of Belfast from 1900 to 1904 and Lord-Lieutenant of Down from 1902 to 1915, a Deputy Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire and County Durham and a Justice of the Peace for County Durham. On 24 June 1869, just before his 17th birthday, he was commissioned as Major in the 2nd Durham Artillery Volunteer Corps a part-time unit commanded by his father and recruited from the family's Seaham Colliery, he succeeded his father in command in 1876 and was still in command of the unit when it transferred to the Territorial Force in 1908 as the 3rd Northumbrian Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, of which he became Honorary Colonel on 7 December 1910. He was appointed to the Honorary Colonelcy of the 3rd Battalion of the Royal Irish Rifles on 26 March 1902; as a large coal-owner in County Durham, he played a major role there. In 1910, he was Mayor of Durham, he received an honorary degree from the University of Durham in recognition of his public services, he was patron of agriculture and race-horse owner.
King Edward VII was a guest at Londonderry's County Durham seat Wynyard Park on five occasions. In 1903 Londonderry was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, he married Lady Theresa Susey Helen Talbot, daughter of Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 19th Earl of Shrewsbury, at the private chapel of Alton Hall in 1875. Like her husband, she was a leading Unionist campaigner, President of the Ulster Women's Unionist Council, they had one daughter. The second son, Lord Charles Stewart Reginald Vane-Tempest-Stewart, died in October 1899, aged 19; the daughter, Lady Helen, married the 6th Earl of Ilchester. Lady Londonderry had an affair with Harry Cust. Another of Cust's lovers, Countess de Grey, found Lady Londonderry's passionate love letters to Cust in his bedroom. In an act of jealousy and vengeance, she had a servant deliver those letters to Lord Londonderry. Thus, he may have wanted to divorce his wife initially. However, the matrons of society convinced him to withdraw from his divorce plans.
Instead, it has been alleged, as a form of punishment to his wife for her past adultery, he never spoke to her again in private, only in p
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la
Frederick Stewart, 4th Marquess of Londonderry
Frederick William Robert Stewart, 4th Marquess of Londonderry, styled Viscount Castlereagh between 1822 and 1854, was a British nobleman and Tory politician. He was Vice-Chamberlain of the Household under Sir Robert Peel between December 1834 and April 1835. Frederick Stewart was born on 7 July 1805 at Grosvenor Square, London, the eldest son of Charles Stewart, by his first wife, Lady Catherine Bligh, daughter of John Bligh, 3rd Earl of Darnley, his mother died when he was seven and while his father was serving in the army in the Peninsular War. Stewart was looked after by his uncle and aunt and Lady Castlereagh, he went to Eton in 1814, where he stayed until 1820. After his father succeeded to the marquessate of Londonderry in 1822, Frederick Stewart became known by the courtesy title Viscount Castlereagh, to be his title for 32 years until 1854. Lord Castlereagh sat as Member of Parliament for County Down from 1826 to 1852, he served under the Duke of Wellington as a Lord of the Admiralty from 1828 to 1830 and under Sir Robert Peel as Vice-Chamberlain of the Household from December 1834 to April 1835.
On 23 February 1835 he was sworn of the Privy Council. He was one of the Members of Parliament for County Down from 1826 until 1852. From 1845 until 1864 he was Lord Lieutenant of Down. In 1856 he was made a Knight of the Order of St Patrick. In 1838, Count Gérard de Melcy, the husband of the Italian operatic singer Giulia Grisi, discovered a letter written to Giulia by Frederick Stewart, the two men fought a duel on 16 June of that year. Lord Castlereagh was wounded in the wrist. After the duel, Grisi began an affair with Lord Castlereagh, their son, George Frederick Ormsby, was brought up by his father. By 1852, he "had fallen out with his father, the 3rd Marquess of Londonderry over their views on the land question was obliged to retire because of these differences". Frederick Stewart married Lady Elizabeth Frances Charlotte Jocelyn, widow of Viscount Powerscourt and daughter of Robert Jocelyn, 3rd Earl of Roden, at the British Embassy in Paris on 2 May 1846. There were no children from the marriage.
In 1855 his wife converted to Roman Catholicism. He succeeded his father in 1854 as the 4th Marquess of Londonderry, he built Scrabo Tower as a monument to the memory of his father. In 1857 he and his wife attended the ceremony of the laying of the foundation stone. In 1862 Londonderry was diagnosed as mentally ill, he was secluded in an mental institution at White Rock Pavillion in Hastings. He aged 67 and was buried in the Newtownards Priory, his wife, the dowager Marchioness of Londonderry died on 2 September 1884, aged 70, was buried with him in the double grave in Newtownards Priory. As he had no legitimate children, he was succeeded in the marquessate by his half-brother, George Vane-Tempest, 2nd Earl Vane; this had the effect that the fortunes of the Stewart and the Vane side of the Londonderry family were reunited in a single hand. Burke, John, A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, London: HarrisonFleming, N. C. Marquess of Londonderry: Aristocracy and Politics in Britiain and Ireland, London: I B Tauris, ISBN 1-85043-726-2Hyde, Harford Montgomery, The Londonderrys - A Family Portrait, London: Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 0241101530 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Marquess of Londonderry
Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 7th Marquess of Londonderry
Charles Stewart Henry Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 7th Marquess of Londonderry, styled Lord Stewart until 1884 and Viscount Castlereagh between 1884 and 1915, was a British peer and politician. He is best remembered for his tenure as Secretary of State for Air in the 1930s and for his'understanding' of Nazi Germany in the 1930s. In 1935 he was removed from the Air Ministry but retained in the Cabinet as Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords, his main record at the Air Ministry included: He preserved the core of the RAF at a time when this was under threat from the Treasury. He encouraged the planning of vital new fighter aircraft such as the Spitfire, it was under his tutelage that radar was developed for use by the RAF. The Staff College at Cranwell was opened in the last months of his time as air minister.... Badly astray over the issue of German air strength in 1934–5." The eldest son of The 6th Marquess of Londonderry and Lady Theresa Susey Helen, daughter of The 19th Earl of Shrewsbury, he was educated at Eton College and at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.
His father's family were of partial East Donegal Ulster-Scots descent. On 22 May 1895, Lord Castlereagh was appointed a second lieutenant in the 2nd Durham Artillery Volunteer Corps, a corps within the Volunteer Force attached to the Royal Garrison Artillery and at the time commanded by his father who owned Seaham Colliery from which many of the part-time gunners were recruited. After passing out from Sandhurst, he was commissioned into the Royal Horse Guards as a second lieutenant on 8 September 1897, he was promoted lieutenant on 30 August 1899, appointed adjutant on 9 May 1900. In early 1901 he was appointed by King Edward VII to take part in a special diplomatic mission to announce the King's accession to the governments of Austria-Hungary, Romania and Turkey. In August 1903, following the King's visit to Ireland, he was appointed a Member Fourth Class of the Royal Victorian Order, his father being honoured with the Knight Grand Cross of the Order at the same time, he resigned his position of adjutant in the Royal Horse Guards on 24 March 1904, was promoted to captain on 6 April.
Castlereagh was subsequently pressed by his parents to stand for election to the House of Commons at the 1906 general election for Maidstone. He retained his army commission, but was placed on the half-pay list from January 1910, his unsuccessful career on the depleted Unionist backbenches was broken by a return to the British Army during the First World War. As Captain Castlereagh MP he travelled to northern France in the first weeks of the war and reached Paris on 29 August 1914, having been gazetted ADC to General William Pulteney the previous day. Although a staff officer, Castlereagh saw plenty of fighting and believed he had shot and killed one of the enemy on 2 September 1914. In the following months of 1914 Castlereagh extensively witnessed the destruction of war, the terrible suffering of the British wounded, he was promoted to the temporary rank of major in his old regiment on 1 November, to the substantive rank on the 7th. Hitherto reluctant to involve himself like his father in Irish politics, the war prompted him to take up the cause of recruitment in Ireland.
With his father's death in 1915 he ceased to be MP for Maidstone and inherited the Londonderry title and the immense wealth and status that went with it. His exalted position helped his political career, not least in Ireland, which brought him favourable attention at Westminster. In 1915 Lord Londonderry was mentioned in despatches and rejoined his regiment, the Royal Horse Guards, he saw in 1915 for the first time the horrific effects of gas attack upon human beings when visiting soldiers gassed at the first Battle of Ypres. In 1916 Londonderry was appointed second-in-command of part of the 8th Cavalry Brigade, he served at the front during the Battle of the Somme. He was an acting lieutenant-colonel from 15 December 1916 until 20 January 1917. In 1917 Londonderry took command of a composite battalion drawn from the 8th Cavalry Brigade with the brevet rank of Lt-Colonel, the Royal Horse Guards took part in the massed mounted cavalry attacks on Monchy-le-Preux on the morning of 11 April 1917, during the Battle of Arras.
Monchy-le-Preux was one of the keys to the northern end of the Hindenburg Line. While reconnoitring the enemy near Monchy that the GOC 8th Cavalry Brigade, Brigadier-General Charles Bulkeley-Johnson, was shot in the face; this put Brevet Lt-Colonel Londonderry temporarily in command of the 8th Cavalry Brigade during their charge in the Battle of Arras. At Monchy 600 cavalrymen were casualties and many more horses died; the animals were tethered in the open. For Londonderry these experiences of war, carnage of his brother officers and the family and school friends he grew up with, would, as Professor Kershaw comments, "leave an indelible mark on him". After serving in the Irish Convention of 1917–18, Lord Londonderry served on the short-lived Viceroy's Advisory Council, meeting at Dublin Castle in the autumn of 1918. Promoted to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 7 November 1918, he retired from the army on 10 September 1919 as a major and brevet lieutenant-colonel. On 13 August 1920 he was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 55t
Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava
Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava was a British public servant and prominent member of Victorian society. In his youth he was a popular figure in the court of Queen Victoria, became well known to the public after publishing a best-selling account of his travels in the North Atlantic, he is now best known as one of the most successful diplomats of his time. His long career in public service began as a commissioner to Syria in 1860, where his skilful diplomacy maintained British interests while preventing France from instituting a client state in Lebanon. After his success in Syria, Dufferin served in the Government of the United Kingdom as the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and Under-Secretary of State for War. In 1872 he became the third Governor General of Canada, bolstering imperial ties in the early years of the Dominion, in 1884 he reached the pinnacle of his diplomatic career as eighth Viceroy of India. Following his retirement from the diplomatic service in 1896, his final years were marred by personal tragedy and a misguided attempt to secure his family's financial position.
His eldest son was another son badly wounded. He was chairman of a mining firm that went bankrupt after swindling people, although he was ignorant of the matter, his biographer Davenport-Hines says he was "imaginative, warm-hearted, gloriously versatile." He was an effective leader in Lebanon and India, averted war with Russia, annexed Burma. He was charming in high society on three continents, he was born Frederick Temple Blackwood into the Ascendancy, Ireland's Anglo-Irish aristocracy, the son of Price Blackwood, 4th Baron Dufferin and Claneboye. On his father's side, Dufferin was descended from Scottish settlers who had moved to County Down in the early 17th century; the Blackwood family became prominent landowners in Ulster over the following two hundred years, were created baronets in 1763, entering the Peerage of Ireland in 1800 as Baron Dufferin. The family had influence in parliament because they controlled the return for the borough of Killyleagh. Marriages in the Blackwood family were advantageous to their landowning and high-society ambitions.
His mother, Helen Selina Sheridan, was the granddaughter of the playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan and through her the family became connected to English literary and political circles. Dufferin was born in 1826 in Florence the capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the Italian peninsula, with great advantages, he was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, where he became president of the Oxford Union Society for debate, although he left Oxford after only two years without obtaining a degree. While still an Oxford undergraduate, he visited Skibbereen in County Cork to see the impact of the Irish Famine first-hand, he was appalled by. In 1841, while still at school, he succeeded his father as Baron Dufferin and Claneboye in the Peerage of Ireland and in 1849 was appointed a Lord-in-Waiting to Queen Victoria. In 1850 he was additionally created Baron Claneboye, of Clandeboye in the County of Down, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In 1856, Dufferin set off on a journey around the North Atlantic.
He first made landfall on Iceland, where he visited the very small Reykjavík, the plains of Þingvellir, Geysir. Returning to Reykjavík, Foam was towed north by Prince Napoleon, on an expedition to the region in the steamer La Reine Hortense. Dufferin sailed close to Jan Mayen Island, but was unable to land there due to heavy ice and caught only a brief glimpse of the island through the fog. From Jan Mayen, Foam sailed on to northern Norway, stopping at Hammerfest before sailing for Spitzbergen. On his return, Dufferin published a book about Letters From High Latitudes. With its irreverent style and lively pace, it was successful and can be regarded as the prototype of the comic travelogue, it remained in print for many years and was translated into French and Urdu. The letters were nominally written to his mother, with whom he had developed a close relationship after the death of his father when he was 15. Despite the great success of Letters From High Latitudes, Dufferin did not pursue a career as an author, although he was known for his skilful writing throughout his career.
Instead he became a public servant, with his first major public appointment in 1860 as British representative on a commission to Syria to investigate the causes of a civil war earlier that year in which the Maronite Christian population had been subject to massacres by the Muslim and Druze populations. In light of this work in June 1861 he was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. Working with French, Russian and Turkish representatives on the commission, Dufferin proved remarkably successful in achieving the objectives of British policy in the area, he upheld Turkish rule in the area, prevented the French from establishing a client state in Lebanon securing the removal of a French occupying force in Syria. He defended the interests of the Druze community, with whom Britain had a long association; the other parties on the commission were inclined to repress the Druze population, but Dufferin argued that had the Christians won the war they would have been just as bloodthirsty.
The long-term plan agreed by the commission for the governance of the region was that proposed by Dufferin — that Lebanon should be governed separately from the rest of Syria, by a Christian Ottoman, not a native of Syria. He was appointed a Knight of the Order of Saint Patrick on 28 January 1864. Du
Francis Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey
Captain Francis Charles Adelbert Henry Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey, styled Viscount Newry until 1915, was a Royal Navy officer and Anglo-Irish peer. In 1916 he was appointed as an Irish representative peer, to sit in the House of Lords for life representing Ireland. No more such peers were appointed after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, when Kilmorey died in 1961 he was the last survivor. Kilmorey was the eldest son of Francis Needham, 3rd Earl of Kilmorey, Ellen Constance Baldock, he was educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He was from a prominent Ulster family with roots in Cheshire, he was commissioned into the 3rd Battalion, King's Shropshire Light Infantry in 1901, in March 1902 transferred to the 1st Life Guards as a Second Lieutenant. He was promoted Lieutenant again in 1904 and Captain in 1907, he resigned his commission in 1911. He returned to the Army during the First World War. In 1930 he was appointed Captain in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve and was the second Commanding Officer of HMS Caroline, the RNR base in Belfast, where his photograph can be seen today.
From 1930 to his retirement in 1946 he was commanding officer of the Ulster Division of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve. He was appointed an Officer of the Military Division of the Order of the British Empire in the 1936 Birthday Honours, he served as High Sheriff of County Down in 1913, as Lord Lieutenant of County Down from 1949 to 1959 and as Vice-Admiral of Ulster from 1937 to 1961. From 1916 until his death, Kilmorey sat in the House of Lords as an Irish Representative Peer, becoming the last surviving Irish representative Peer. In 1936 he was admitted to the Privy Council of Northern Ireland. Lord Kilmorey married Lady Norah Frances Hastings, daughter of Warner Francis John Plantagenet Hastings, 15th Earl of Huntingdon, in 1920, they had two daughters. He died in January 1961, aged 77, at the family seat of Mourne Park, he was succeeded in his titles by his nephew Francis. The ancestral Mourne Park Estate, of some 800 acres, in County Down, Northern Ireland was not, inherited by the 5th Earl who opted to inherit contents to the value of the estate as he lived in England.
It is owned by the Anley family, descendants of the late Lady Eleanor Needham, elder daughter of the 4th Earl of Kilmorey