Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 until the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This spanned the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the office, under its various names, was more known as the viceroy, his wife was known as the vicereine. The government of Ireland in practice was in the hands of the Lord Deputy up to the 17th century, of the Chief Secretary for Ireland. Although in the Middle Ages some Lords Deputy were Irish noblemen, only men from Great Britain peers, were appointed to the office of Lord Lieutenant; the Lord Lieutenant possessed a number of overlapping roles. He was the representative of the King. Grand Master of the Order of St. PatrickPrior to the Act of Union 1800 which abolished the Irish parliament, the Lord Lieutenant formally delivered the Speech from the Throne outlining his Government's policies, his Government exercised effective control of parliament through the extensive exercise of the powers of patronage, namely the awarding of peerages and state honours.
Critics accused successive viceroys of using their patronage power as a corrupt means of controlling parliament. On one day in July 1777, Lord Buckinghamshire as Lord Lieutenant promoted 5 viscounts to earls, 7 barons to viscounts, created 18 new barons; the power of patronage was used to bribe MPs and peers into supporting the Act of Union 1800, with many of those who changed sides and supported the Union in Parliament awarded peerages and honours for doing so. The Lord Lieutenant was advised in the governance by the Irish Privy Council, a body of appointed figures and hereditary title holders, which met in the Council Chamber in Dublin Castle and on occasion in other locations; the chief constitutional figures in the viceregal court were: Chief Secretary for Ireland: From 1660 the chief administrator, but by the end of the 19th century the prime minister in the administration, with the Lord Lieutenant becoming a form of constitutional monarch. Under-Secretary for Ireland: The head of the civil service in Ireland.
Lord Justices: Three office-holders who acted in the Lord Lieutenant's stead during his absence. The Lord Justices were before 1800 the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh as Primate of All Ireland. Lords Lieutenant were appointed for no set term but served for "His/Her Majesty's pleasure"; when a ministry fell, the Lord Lieutenant was replaced by a supporter of the new ministry. Until the 16th century, Irish or Anglo-Irish noblemen such as the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare traditionally held the post of Justiciar or Lord Deputy. Following the plantations, noblemen from Great Britain were given the post; the last Irish Catholic to hold the position was Lord Tyrconnell from 1685–91, during the brief Catholic Ascendancy in the reign of James II, ended by the Williamite war in Ireland. Until 1767 none of the latter lived full-time in Ireland. Instead they resided in Ireland during meetings of the Irish Parliament.
However the British cabinet decided in 1765 that full-time residency should be required to enable the Lord Lieutenant to keep a full-time eye on public affairs in Ireland. In addition to the restriction that only English or British noblemen could be appointed to the viceroyalty, a further restriction following the Glorious Revolution excluded Roman Catholics, though it was the faith of the overwhelming majority on the island of Ireland, from holding the office; the office was restricted to members of the Anglican faith. The first Catholic appointed to the post since the reign of the Catholic King James II was in fact the last viceroy, Lord FitzAlan of Derwent, in April 1921, his appointment was possible because the Government of Ireland Act 1920 ended the prohibition on Catholics being appointed to the position. FitzAlan was the only Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to hold office when Ireland was partitioned into Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland; the post ebbed and flowed in importance, being used on occasion as a form of exile for prominent British politicians who had fallen afoul of the Court of St. James's or Westminster.
On other occasions it was a stepping stone to a future career. Two Lords Lieutenant, Lord Hartington and the Duke of Portland, went from Dublin Castle to 10 Downing Street as Prime Minister of Great Britain, in 1756 and 1783 respectively. By the mid-to-late 19th century the post had declined from being a powerful political office to that of being a symbolic quasi-monarchical figure who reigned, not ruled, over the Irish administration. Instead it was the Chief Secretary for Ireland who became central, with he, not the Lord Lieutenant, sitting on occasion in the British cabinet; the official residence of the Lord Lieutenant was the Viceregal Apartments in Dublin Castle, where the Viceregal Court was based. Other summer or alternative residences used by Lord Lieutenant or Lords Deputy included Abbeville in Kinsealy, Chapelizod House, in which the Lord Lieutenant lived while Dublin Castle was being rebuilt following a fire but which he left due to the building being haunted, Leixlip Castle and St. Wolstan's in Celbridge.
The Geraldine Lords Deputy, the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare, being native Irish, both lived in, among other locations, their cast
John Carlyle was a Scottish merchant who immigrated to British Colony of Virginia and became a leading landowner and social and political figure in Northern Virginia. He was the first overseer of Alexandria, Virginia. Born in Carlisle, England, Carlyle was the second surviving son of William Carlyle, an apothecary-surgeon, of a landed Scottish family from Dumfrieshire descended from the Lords Carlyle of Torthorwald and Rachel Murray of Murraythwaite, Dumfriesshire, he immigrated to Virginia in 1741 as a factor of English merchant William Hicks. He established himself as a merchant at Belhaven, a settlement that had grown up around a tobacco warehouse on the bluff overlooking the Potomac River that would become Alexandria, Virginia, in 1749. Carlyle met with financial success and, in 1747, married Sarah Fairfax, cousin of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, from one of the most influential families in Virginia. From 1751–53, he built his house, now Carlyle House, in Alexandria and he owned thousands of acres of land throughout Virginia, including three plantations.
His business ventures included trading with England and the West Indies, retail operations in Alexandria, a foundry in the Shenandoah Valley and operation of a forge. He undertook a number of civic and religious positions typical of a man of his status. On 26 January 1754, he was appointed by Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie and commissary of the Virginia forces in the French and Indian War, he was politically well-connected at the time and was friends with future President of the United States George Washington. In 1755, Carlyle's house was the initial headquarters for Major-General Edward Braddock in Virginia during the French and Indian War; the Congress of Alexandria convened at the house, most in the dining room, here Braddock decided to make an expedition to Fort Duquesne which would result in his death. He was urged not to undertake the expedition by Washington, a volunteer aide-de-camp to Braddock. Following the death of his wife Sarah on 22 January 1761, Carlyle married Sybil West, daughter of prominent Alexandrian Hugh West.
Around 1770, Caryle constructed a plantation house and summer residence in what is now Fairlington, Virginia first called Torthorwald and changed to Morven which stood until 1942. He used this plantation as a stud farm and operated a grist mill on Four Mile Run above what is now Arlandria. Carlyle is buried at the Old Presbyterian Meeting House in Alexandria. John Carlyle's only son to survive beyond childhood was George William Carlyle, born in 1766, he served in the cavalry and was killed in South Carolina in the American Revolutionary War Battle of Eutaw Springs on 8 September 1781 at age 15, less than one year after the death of his father. John Carlyle's grandson through his daughter Sarah Carlyle, John Carlyle Herbert, inherited Carlyle House in 1781. Had George William Carlyle lived, he would have been entitled to the dormant barony as Lord Carlyle, after the death of his first cousin Joseph Dacre Carlyle who died without a son in 1804. "About John Carlyle" at Carlyle House Historic Park website Richard Henry Spencer.
"The Carlyle Family." William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine. Vol.18, No.3.. Pp. 201–212. Richard Henry Spencer; the Carlyle House and its Associations--Braddock's Headquarters--Here the Colonial Governors met in Council, April, 1755." William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine. Vol.18, No.1.. Pp. 1–17
Cyril Jeunechamp is a French former professional footballer who played as a right-back or midfielder. Born in Nîmes, Cyril Jeunechamp began his career at hometown club Nîmes Olympique playing for AJ Auxerre and SC Bastia when they made their way to the finals of the French Cup. In 2003, he joined Rennes, staying there for four years before moving to Côte d'Azur based side OGC Nice in 2007, he left the club on 30 June 2009. On 18 June 2009, Montpellier HSC signed the Jeunechamp on a free transfer until June 2012. For the first time in the club's history, on 20 May 2012, it won the Ligue 1 title. In December 2012, Jeunechamp was banned from football for a year for punching a journalist in the face following a Ligue 1 match against Valenciennes FC; the defender was unhappy with an article. He left Montpellier the following year and joined FC Istres, where he made 31 appearances before retiring in 2015, aged 39. Cyril Jeunechamp's profile, stats & pics Cyril Jeunechamp – French league stats at LFP