Lord Protector

Lord Protector is a title, used in British constitutional law for the head of state. It is a particular title for the British heads of state in respect to the established church, it is sometimes used to refer to holders of other temporary posts, for example, a regent acting for the absent monarch. The title of "The Lord Protector" was used by royal princes or other nobles exercising an individual regency while the English monarch was still a minor or otherwise unable to rule. Notable cases in England are: John, Duke of Bedford, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, were jointly Lords Protector for Henry VI; the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland was the title of the head of state during the Commonwealth, following the first period when a Council of State held executive power. The title was held by Oliver Cromwell and subsequently his son and designated successor Richard Cromwell during what is now known as The Protectorate; the 1653 Instrument of Government stated that— Oliver Cromwell, Captain-General of the forces of England and Ireland, shall be, is hereby declared to be, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland, the dominions thereto belonging, for his life.

The replacement constitution of 1657, the Humble Petition and Advice, gave "His Highness the Lord Protector" the power to nominate his successor. Cromwell chose the politically inexperienced Richard; this was a non-representative and de facto dynastic mode of succession, with royal connotations in both styles awarded, many other monarchic prerogatives, such as that of awarding knighthoods. The younger Cromwell, who succeeded on his father's death in September 1658, held the position for only eight months before resigning in May 1659, being followed by the second period of Commonwealth rule until the Restoration of the exiled heir to the Stuart throne Charles II in May 1660. Since the Restoration the title has not been used in either of the above manners. George, Prince of Wales, appointed to the regency in 1811, was referred to as "His Royal Highness the Prince Regent". George exercised the powers of the monarchy, just as Lords Protector had, but the title's republican associations had rendered it distasteful.

Lord Protector has been used as a rendering of the Latin Advocatus in the sense of a temporal Lord who acted as the protector of the secular interests of a part of the church. United Kingdom at


Fingerspelling is the representation of the letters of a writing system, sometimes numeral systems, using only the hands. These manual alphabets, have been used in deaf education, have subsequently been adopted as a distinct part of a number of sign languages. Manual alphabets have had a number of additional applications—including use as ciphers, as mnemonics, in silent religious settings; as with other forms of manual communication, fingerspelling can be comprehended visually or tactually. The simplest visual form of fingerspelling is tracing the shape of letters in the air, or tactually, tracing letters on the hand. Fingerspelling can be one-handed such as in American Sign Language, French Sign Language and Irish Sign Language, or it can be two-handed such as in British Sign Language. There are two families of manual alphabets used for representing the Latin alphabet in the modern world; the more common of the two is produced on one hand, can be traced back to alphabetic signs used in Europe from at least the early 15th century.

The alphabet, first described by Spanish monks, was adopted by the Abbé de l'Épée's deaf school in Paris in the 18th century, was spread to deaf communities around the world in the 19th and 20th centuries via educators who had learned it in Paris. Over time, variations have emerged, brought about by natural phonetic changes that occur over time, adaptions for local written forms with special characters or diacritics, avoidance of handshapes that are considered obscene in some cultures; the most used modern descendant is the American manual alphabet. Two-handed manual alphabets are used by a number of deaf communities; some of the letters are represented by iconic shapes, in the BANZSL languages the vowels are represented by pointing to the fingertips. Letters are formed by a dominant hand, on top of or alongside the other hand at the point of contact, a subordinate hand, which uses either the same or a simpler handshape as the dominant hand. Either the left or right hand can be dominant. In a modified tactile form used by deafblind people, the signer's hand acts as the dominant hand, the receiver's hand becomes the subordinate hand.

Some signs, such as the sign used for the letter C, may be one-handed. Manual alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet, the Ethiopian Ge'ez script and the Korean Hangul script use handshapes that are more or less iconic representations of the characters in the writing system; some manual representations of non-Roman scripts such as Chinese, Devanagari, Greek and Russian alphabets are based to some extent on the one-handed Latin alphabet described above. In some cases however, the "basis" is more theory than practice. Thus, for example, in the Japanese manual syllabary only the five vowels and the Ca letters derive from the American manual alphabet. In the Nepali Sign Language it is only four "letters" which derive from the American manual alphabet: अ /a/, ब /b/, म /m/, र /r/); the Yugoslav manual alphabet represents characters from the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet as well as Gaj's Latin alphabet. Fingerspelling has been introduced into certain sign languages by educators, as such has some structural properties that are unlike the visually motivated and multi-layered signs that are typical in deaf sign languages.

In many ways fingerspelling serves as a bridge between the sign language and the oral language that surrounds it. Fingerspelling registers for different purposes, it may be used to represent words from an oral language which have no sign equivalent, or for emphasis, clarification, or when teaching or learning a sign language. In American Sign Language, more lexical items are fingerspelled in casual conversation than in formal or narrative signing. Different sign language speech communities use fingerspelling to a lesser degree. At the high end of the scale, fingerspelling makes up about 8.7% of casual signing in ASL, 10% of casual signing in Auslan. The proportion is higher in older signers, suggesting that the use of fingerspelling has diminished over time. Across the Tasman Sea, only 2.5% of the corpus of New Zealand Sign Language was found to be fingerspelling. Fingerspelling has only become a part of NZSL since the 1980s. Fingerspelling does not seem to be used much in the sign languages of Eastern Europe, except in schools, Italian Sign Language is said to use little fingerspelling, for foreign words.

Sign languages that make no use of fingerspelling at all include Kata Kolok and Ban Khor Sign Language. The speed and clarity of fingerspelling varies between different signing communities. In Italian Sign Language, fingerspelled words are slow and produced, whereas fingerspelling in standard British Sign Language is rapid so that the individual letters become difficult to distinguish, the word is grasped from the overall hand movement. Most of the letters of the BSL alphabet are produced with two hands, but when one hand is occupied, the dominant hand may fingerspell onto an "imaginary"

William Moule

William Henry Moule was an Australian lawyer and cricketer. Moule was useful bowler and excellent fieldsman, his cricket career was short, though he played a few times for Victoria, most of his first-class appearances were on the 1880 tour of England with the Australian team under Billy Murdoch. He played in the one Test match of the tour, a hastily arranged match at The Oval, the first Test in England. Moule's success to that point had been modest – no innings of note and only one wicket – and he played only because Fred Spofforth was injured. In the Test he was the sixth bowler tried. With three wickets for 23 runs he was the most successful bowler in England's first innings and his 34 in Australia's second innings helped in a last-wicket partnership of 88 with his captain that avoided an innings defeat, he was the last surviving player on either side from the 1880 Test. Moule resided in Melbourne at Clarence House in 1876 whilst being educated at Melbourne Grammar School and took a law degree at Melbourne University, being called to the bar in 1879 and going into practice the following year.

He rose to become a county court judge specialising in insolvency cases, retiring in April 1935, at which point he was the longest-serving member of the bench. Moule had a sensational career as a politician. Standing on a free trade platform in the Victoria state election of 1894, he beat the sitting member, the long-time minister and future premier of Victoria, Sir Thomas Bent. Bent was accused of various forms of corruption, there had been some difficulty finding a candidate who would stand against him; as a member of the legislature until 1900, Moule chaired royal commissions on law reform and on factory and shop law. Moule married Jessie Osborne in 1885. One of their sons, Humphrey Osborne Moule, was killed in the First World War at Lone Pine, one of the main actions of the ill-fated Gallipoli campaign. Moule died in August 1939 at the age of 81, he was survived by a daughter and a son. List of Victoria first-class cricketers Cricinfo article on William Moule William Henry Moule Gravesite at Brighton General Cemetery