The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom. The post dates from at least the 12th century, when the title was Keeper of the Coast, but may be older; the Lord Warden was in charge of the Cinque Ports, a group of five port towns on the southeast coast of England, formed to collectively supply ships for The Crown in the absence at the time of a formal navy. Today the role is a sinecure and an honorary title, fourteen towns belong to the Cinque Ports confederation; the title is one of the higher honours bestowed by the Sovereign. The Lord Warden was responsible for the return of all writs to the Crown, along with the collection of taxes and the arrest of criminals, his court was held in St James's church, near Dover Castle, there he exercised jurisdiction broadly equivalent to that of Chancery. He had a "lieutenant's powers of muster", the Constableship of Dover Castle added to the warden's office, enabled him to keep a garrison and administrative staff, including the clerk and the lieutenant of the castle.
The coat of arms of the Cinque Ports first appeared in 1305, second amongst the earliest English known heraldic emblems, predating the coat of arms of the City of London. The coat of arms of the Cinque Ports displays three ships' hulls and three lions passant guardant conjoined to these hulls, all in gold; these may have been Gules three lions passant gardant in pale Or dimidiating Gules three ships' hulks in pale Or. The coat of arms of the Confederation of the Cinque Ports is set out on a red and blue background and traditionally represents the fourteen "corporate" members; the creation and appointment of the Lord Warden, once among the most powerful appointments of the realm, by the Sovereign was instituted principally after the portsmen sided with the Earl of Leicester against King Henry III, in the Second Barons' War, was intended to provide some central authority over the Cinque Ports, which were otherwise independent of the King's sheriffs. It was combined from 1267 with the office of Constable of Dover Castle.
However, from 1708 Walmer Castle at Deal was to be preferred as the official residence of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. The Lord Warden holds the office of Admiral of the Cinque Ports with a maritime jurisdiction extending to the middle of the English Channel, from Redcliffe near Seaford, in Sussex to the shore underneath the Naze Tower, encompassing Brightlingsea in Essex, the only Cinque Port north of the Thames. In earlier centuries the northern limit was taken as the Shoe Beacon in Essex; the courts of Brodhull and Guestling were established to protect the privileges of the Cinque Ports by the portsmen themselves. From the 15th century these courts had been replaced by the Lord Warden's Court at Dover. From the 16th century the principal business of the courts was the installation of the Lord Warden and the court is now only summoned; the office continued to be a powerful one. In 1550 the Mayor and Jurats of Dover refused to accept a Royal Writ because it was not accompanied by a letter of attendance from the Lord Warden.
The member ports' parliamentary representatives were appointed by the Lord Warden at first. At the installation of a new Lord Warden, the Speaker of the Confederation of the Cinque Ports instructs the Lord Warden: "to undertake the duties of the Ancient and Honourable Office and to uphold the Franchises, Liberties and Usages of the port." The office of Speaker has traditionally rotated between the affiliate townships every year dating from at least 1550. Inaugurations are begun on 21 May, membership is ordained through a longstanding maritime tradition of a principle of the prevailing winds coming from west to east. A unique uniform is specified for the Lord Warden; the uniform is similar to a pre-1956-pattern Admiral's uniform trimmed in red and with Cinque Ports insignia. Sir Robert Menzies's uniform, which he wore as Lord Warden from 1966 to 1978, is preserved at the National Library of Australia. All freemen of the ports, termed "portsmen", were deemed in the age of feudalism to be barons, thus members of the baronage entitled to attend the king's parliament.
Termed "Barons of the Cinque Ports", they reflected an early concept that military service at sea constituted land tenure per baroniam making them quasi feudal barons. The early 14th-century treatise Modus Tenendi Parliamentum stated the Barons of the Cinque Ports to hold a place of precedence below the lay magnates but above the representatives of the shires and boroughs. Writs of summons to Parliament were sent to the warden following which representative barons of the Cinque Ports were selected to attend parliament, thus the warden's duty in this respect was similar to that of the sheriff who received the writs for distribution to the barons in the shires. The warden and barons experienced clashes of jurisdiction. In the 21st century the title "Baron of the Cinque Ports" is now reserved for Freemen elected by the Mayor and Common Council of the Ports to attend a Coronation, is honorary in nature; the first authoritative list of Cinque Ports Confederation Members was produced in 1293 when Stephen of Pencester was Warden.
The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is appointed for life, but in the earliest of records this was not the case. The office of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports has been traced from the year 1226 from the appointment of Will
Liu Wenjun is a Paralympian athlete from China competing in category T54 wheelchair sprint and middle-distance events. Wenjun competed in the 2008 Summer Paralympics in China. There she won a gold medal in the women's 4 x 100 metre relay - T53/54 event, a silver medal in the women's 100 metres - T54 event, finished seventh in the women's 800 metres - T54 event and finished sixth in the women's Marathon - T54 event. Four years she won gold again, winning the 100m sprint at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London. Wenjun took two gold medals in the 100m and 4 x 100m relay events at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio. Liu Wenjun at the International Paralympic Committee
Trails and Ways is an indie pop band from Oakland, California. The band consists of Keith Brower Brown. Founding members Hannah Van Loon and Emma Oppen left the band in 2016; the members of Trails and Ways met while attending UC Berkeley, the band was formed in early 2012, after members had lived abroad in Brazil and Spain. Their songs have included Spanish and Portuguese, their lyrics have been described as "decidedly political". For example, their song "Skeletons" is about dancing at a club being "fast-forwarded a thousand years to what was left of the club on an ecologically collapsed earth". In 2015, they signed on with Barsuk Records. Territorial EP Temporal EP Trilingual EP Pathology Own it Official website
A fluidized bed reactor is a type of reactor device that can be used to carry out a variety of multiphase chemical reactions. In this type of reactor, a fluid is passed through a solid granular material at high enough velocities to suspend the solid and cause it to behave as though it were a fluid; this process, known as fluidization, imparts many important advantages to an FBR. As a result, FBRs are used for many industrial applications; the solid substrate material in the fluidized bed reactor is supported by a porous plate, known as a distributor. The fluid is forced through the distributor up through the solid material. At lower fluid velocities, the solids remain in place as the fluid passes through the voids in the material; this is known as a packed bed reactor. As the fluid velocity is increased, the reactor will reach a stage where the force of the fluid on the solids is enough to balance the weight of the solid material; this stage occurs at this minimum fluidization velocity. Once this minimum velocity is surpassed, the contents of the reactor bed begin to expand and swirl around much like an agitated tank or boiling pot of water.
The reactor is now a fluidized bed. Depending on the operating conditions and properties of solid phase various flow regimes can be observed in this reactor. Fluidized bed reactors are a new tool in the chemical engineering field; the first fluidized bed gas generator was developed by Fritz Winkler in Germany in the 1920s. One of the first United States fluidized bed reactors used in the petroleum industry was the Catalytic Cracking Unit, created in Baton Rouge, LA in 1942 by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey; this FBR and the many to follow were developed for the petrochemical industries. Here catalysts were used to reduce petroleum to simpler compounds through a process known as cracking; the invention of this technology made it possible to increase the production of various fuels in the United States. Today fluidized bed reactors are still used to produce gasoline and other fuels, along with many other chemicals. Many industrially produced polymers are made using FBR technology, such as rubber, vinyl chloride, polyethylene and polypropylene.
Various utilities use FBR's for coal gasification, nuclear power plants, water and waste treatment settings. Used in these applications, fluidized bed reactors allow for a cleaner, more efficient process than previous standard reactor technologies; the increase in fluidized bed reactor use in today's industrial world is due to the inherent advantages of the technology. Uniform Particle Mixing: Due to the intrinsic fluid-like behavior of the solid material, fluidized beds do not experience poor mixing as in packed beds; this complete mixing allows for a uniform product that can be hard to achieve in other reactor designs. The elimination of radial and axial concentration gradients allows for better fluid-solid contact, essential for reaction efficiency and quality. Uniform Temperature Gradients: Many chemical reactions require the addition or removal of heat. Local hot or cold spots within the reaction bed a problem in packed beds, are avoided in a fluidized situation such as an FBR. In other reactor types, these local temperature differences hotspots, can result in product degradation.
Thus FBRs are well suited to exothermic reactions. Researchers have learned that the bed-to-surface heat transfer coefficients for FBRs are high. Ability to Operate Reactor in Continuous State: The fluidized bed nature of these reactors allows for the ability to continuously withdraw product and introduce new reactants into the reaction vessel. Operating at a continuous process state allows manufacturers to produce their various products more efficiently due to the removal of startup conditions in batch processes; as in any design, the fluidized bed reactor does have its draw-backs, which any reactor designer must take into consideration. Increased Reactor Vessel Size: Because of the expansion of the bed materials in the reactor, a larger vessel is required than that for a packed bed reactor; this larger vessel means. Pumping Requirements and Pressure Drop: The requirement for the fluid to suspend the solid material necessitates that a higher fluid velocity is attained in the reactor. In order to achieve this, more pumping power and thus higher energy costs are needed.
In addition, the pressure drop associated with deep beds requires additional pumping power. Particle Entrainment: The high gas velocities present in this style of reactor result in fine particles becoming entrained in the fluid; these captured particles are carried out of the reactor with the fluid, where they must be separated. This can be a difficult and expensive problem to address depending on the design and function of the reactor; this may continue to be a problem with other entrainment reducing technologies. Lack of Current Understanding: Current understanding of the actual behavior of the materials in a fluidized bed is rather limited, it is difficult to predict and calculate the complex mass and heat flows within the bed. Due to this lack of understanding, a pilot plant for new processes is required. With pilot plants, the scale-up can be difficult and may not reflect what was experienced in the pilot trial. Erosion of Internal Components: The fluid-like behavior of the fine solid particles within the bed results in the wear of the reactor vessel.
This can require expensive upkeep for the reaction vessel and pipes. Press
An inclinometer or clinometer is an instrument used for measuring angles of slope, elevation, or depression of an object with respect to gravity's direction. It is known as a tilt indicator, tilt sensor, tilt meter, slope alert, slope gauge, gradient meter, level gauge, level meter and pitch & roll indicator. Clinometers measure both inclines and declines using three different units of measure: degrees and topo. Astrolabes are inclinometers that were used for navigation and locating astronomical objects from ancient times to the Renaissance. A tilt sensor can measure the tilting in two axes of a reference plane in two axes. In contrast, a full motion would use at least three axes and additional sensors. One way to measure tilt angle with reference to the earth's ground plane, is to use an accelerometer. Typical applications can be found in game controllers. In aircraft, the "ball" in turn coordinators or turn and bank indicators is sometimes referred to as an inclinometer. Inclinometers include examples such as Well's in-clinometer, the essential parts of which are a flat side, or base, on which it stands, a hollow disc just half filled with some heavy liquid.
The glass face of the disc is surrounded by a graduated scale that marks the angle at which the surface of the liquid stands, with reference to the flat base. The zero line is parallel to the base, when the liquid stands on that line, the flat side is horizontal. Intervening angles are marked, with the aid of simple conversion tables, the instrument indicates the rate of fall per set distance of horizontal measurement, set distance of the sloping line; the Abney level is a handheld surveying instrument developed in the 1870s that includes a sighting tube and inclinometer, arranged so that the surveyor may align the sighting tube with the reflection of the bubble in the spirit level of the inclinometer when the line of sight is at the angle set on the inclinometer. One of the more famous inclinometer installations was on the panel of the Ryan NYP "The Spirit of St. Louis"—in 1927 Charles Lindbergh chose the lightweight Rieker Inc P-1057 Degree Inclinometer to give him climb and descent angle information.
Hand-held clinometers are used for a variety of measurement tasks. In land surveying and mapping, a clinometer can provide a rapid measurement of the slope of a geographic feature, or used for cave survey. In prospecting for minerals, clinometers are used to measure the strike and dip of geologic formations. In forestry, tree height measurement can be done with a clinometer using standardized methods. Major artillery guns may have an associated clinometer used to facilitate aiming of shells over long distances. Permanently-installed tiltmeters are emplaced at major earthworks such as dams to monitor the long-term stability of the structure. Gravity Temperature, zero offset, vibration, cross-axis sensitivity, acceleration/deceleration. A clear line of sight between the user and the measured point is needed. A well defined object is required to obtain the maximum precision; the angle measurement precision and accuracy is limited to better than one arcsec. Certain sensitive electronic inclinometer sensors can achieve an output resolution to 0.0001°.
An inclinometer sensor's true or absolute accuracy, however, is a combination of initial sets of sensor zero offset and sensitivity, sensor linearity, hysteresis and the temperature drifts of zero and sensitivity—electronic inclinometers accuracy can range from ±0.01–2° depending on the sensor and situation. In room ambient conditions the accuracy is limited to the sensor linearity specification. Tilt sensors and inclinometers generate an artificial horizon and measure angular tilt with respect to this horizon, they are used in cameras, aircraft flight controls, automobile security systems, speciality switches and are used for platform leveling, boom angle indication, in other applications requiring measurement of tilt. Important specifications to consider for tilt sensors and inclinometers are the tilt angle range and the number of axes; the axes are but not always, orthogonal. The tilt angle range is the range of desired linear output. Common implementations of tilt sensors and inclinometers are accelerometer, Liquid Capacitive, gas bubble in liquid, pendulum.
Tilt sensor technology has been implemented in video games. Yoshi's Universal Gravitation and Kirby Tilt'n' Tumble are both built around a tilt sensor mechanism, built into the cartridge; the PlayStation 3 and Wii game controllers use tilt as a means to play video games. Inclinometers are used in civil engineering, for example, to measure the inclination of land to be built upon; some inclinometers provide an electronic interface based on CAN. In addition, those inclinometers may support the standardized CANopen profile. In this case, these inclinometers are compatible and interchangeable. Traditional spirit levels and pendulum-based electronic leveling instruments are constrained by only single-axis and narrow tilt measurement range. However, most precision leveling, angle measurement and surface flatness profiling tas
Is Not Magazine was an alternative bi-monthly magazine in the form of a 1.5m x 2m bill poster, produced in Melbourne, Australia. It was created by five young Melbourne writers and designers, who edited the magazine: Mel Campbell, Stuart Geddes, Natasha Ludowyk, Penny Modra and Jeremy Wortsman; the first issue appeared on 9 April 2005, after eleven issues the magazine was declared defunct on 30 August 2008. Most of the content was by the editorial team or from young local writers and illustrators, though submissions of articles, fiction, or other responses to the themes for a planned issue were open to anyone. Is Not contributors hailed from Finland, the United States and Argentina; the magazine was posted at 50 sites around Melbourne on public walls and in venues including cafés, bars and laundromats. Is Not was a non-profit enterprise. Is Not was available worldwide by sales of subscriptions and back issues on its online store, it was only available in its full-size poster format. Is Not used fonts created by the European typographic design studio Underware.
Issue four was repackaged in booklet format as Is Not Take-Away #1, intended as a showcase of Underware's typography. In October 2007, Is Not produced a special issue in conjunction with the Melbourne International Arts Festival to celebrate the career of festival guest, choreographer Merce Cunningham; the editors described the "Who Is Merce Cunningham?" issue as "a map-like interconnected sea of names, works and places associated with Merce, along with articles that form a group/personal/historical document of this artist and his contribution to contemporary art and culture." The magazine aimed to explore ambiguity in both its format and content. Each issue had two contradictory or overlapping themes, with writers and illustrators encouraged to address the relationship between the two; the magazine served as an outlet for new writing, but its design was an "editorial experiment". The poster had grid references at its edges, used for the contents instead of page numbers. Submissions were accepted not only via post and email, but via SMS or by writing on the posters themselves.
Some short articles and stories were deliberately printed at a size which could be read when photographed by a mobile phone camera. "Just the idea that a magazine can be more than words on paper is something we like," said co-designer Jeremy Wortsman. "And it maintains this sense of curiosity and innovation.”Is Not was an experiment in the uses of public space for purposes other than advertising. “We recognise that people are suspicious of advertising material encroaching on their lives. They don’t like being treated as a target market," said co-editor Mel Campbell. "It’s important to us that we address people in a genuine way, as thinkers, readers and as citizens who are engaged with the city around them." In 2005 issue two of Is Not Magazine was featured at the TypeCon design conference in New York. The magazine was featured at the CMYK Magazine Festival in Barcelona. In 2007 Is Not was featured at Colophon 2007, a magazine festival in Luxembourg curated by Jeremy Leslie, Andrew Losowsky and Mike Koedinger.
The magazine was featured in The Melbourne Design Guide, a definitive catalogue of creative culture in Melbourne. Is Not Magazine formed part of the city of Melbourne's successful submission to UNESCO's City Of Literature program. In 2009, the magazine was displayed in The Independent Type: Books and Writing in Victoria, an exhibition of local literary history held at the State Library of Victoria. Geddes and Wortsman won the 2006 Victorian Premier's Communications Design Prize for their work designing Is Not's first six issues. In 2009 the final issue, "All That Glitters Is/Not Gold", was nominated for the Designs of the Year award at the Design Museum in London. From their collaboration on Is Not and Wortsman together founded Chase & Galley, a collaborative design practice with a particular focus on publication design. Wortsman founded an illustration agency called the Jacky Winter Group, which specialises in placing work by Australian illustrators in international publications. Wortsman established a Melbourne gallery space known as Lamington Drive.
Due to his expanding commitments Wortsman stepped down from his directorship of Chase & Galley, but returns for occasional projects. Modra went on to edit ThreeThousand, a weekly email newsletter of Melbourne "subcultural snapshots": the best things to do, hear, eat and buy in Melbourne. Modra is a journalist and art critic. After working as a music and arts publicist, Ludowyk pursued a career in social research. Campbell co-founded the Australian online arts and culture magazine The Enthusiast. Campbell is a journalist specialising in popular culture. Is Not Magazine Chase & Galley The Jacky Winter Group ThreeThousand The Enthusiast