Tottenham High Road
Tottenham High Road is the main thoroughfare through the district of Tottenham, in the London Borough of Haringey. It runs from Edmonton in the north to Stamford Hill in the south, it follows, for the whole of its length, the course of Ermine Street. South of Bruce Grove the road is part of the A10. High Road N 15 falls within the South Tottenham postal district. High Road N 17 falls within the Tottenham postal district. Bruce Grove Bruce Grove railway station Seven Sisters Seven Sisters station
George Peabody was an American financier and philanthropist. He is regarded as the father of modern philanthropy. Born into a poor family in Massachusetts, Peabody went into business in dry goods and into banking. In 1837 he moved to London where he became the most noted American banker and helped to establish the young country's international credit. Having no son of his own to whom he could pass on his business, Peabody took on Junius Spencer Morgan as a partner in 1854 and their joint business would go on to become J. P. Morgan & Co. after Peabody's 1864 retirement. In his old age, Peabody won worldwide acclaim for his philanthropy, he founded the Peabody Trust in Britain and the Peabody Institute and George Peabody Library in Baltimore, was responsible for many other charitable initiatives. For his generosity, he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and made a Freeman of the City of London, among many other honors. Peabody was born in 1795 in what was South Danvers, Massachusetts, his family had Puritan ancestors in the state.
As one of seven children in a poor family, George suffered some deprivations during his childhood, was able to attend school for only a few years. He expressed "I have never forgotten and never can forget the great privations of my early years"; these factors influenced his devotion to both thrift and philanthropy. In 1816, he moved to Baltimore, where he would live for the next 20 years, he established his residence and office in the old Henry Fite House, became a businessman and financier. At that time London, Amsterdam and Frankfurt were at the center of international banking and finance; as all international transactions were settled in gold or gold certificates, a developing nation like the United States had to rely upon agents and merchant banks to raise capital through relationships with merchant banking houses in Europe. Only they held the quantity of reserves of capital necessary to extend long-term credit to a developing economy like that of the US. Peabody first visited England in 1827, seeking to use his firm and his agency to sell American states' bond issues, to raise capital for those states' various programs of "internal improvements".
Over the next decade Peabody made four more trans-Atlantic trips, starting in 1835 and establishing a branch office in Liverpool. He established the banking firm of "George Peabody & Company" in London. In 1837, he took up permanent residence in London. In the 1840s, the state of Maryland defaulted on its debt and Peabody, having marketed about half of Maryland's securities to individual investors in Europe, became persona non grata around London; the Times of London noted that while Peabody was an "American gentleman of the most unblemished character", the Reform Club had blackballed him for being a citizen of a country that reneged on its debts. At first, Peabody sent letters to scold Baltimore friends about the need for the state to resume interest payment and rewarded reporters with small gratuities for favourable articles about the state. At last, in 1845 he conspired with Barings to push Maryland into resuming payment by setting up a political slush fund to spread propaganda for debt resumption and elect legislators who would placate their investors.
By means of a secret account, the two firms transferred a thousand sterling to Baltimore and bribed Daniel Webster, the orator and statesman, to make speeches for debt repayment. Their attempts were successful: pro-resumption Whigs were elected and London bankers started to receive payments. Barrings duplicated the same tactics in Pennsylvania. Florida and Mississippi were the most persistent debtors and as such were excluded from Peabody's philanthropies. Although Peabody was engaged in 1838, he never married. Ron Chernow describes him as "homely", with "a rumpled face... knobby chin, bulbous nose, side whiskers, heavy-lidded eyes."Peabody entertained and provided letters of introduction for American businessmen visiting London, became known for the Anglo-American dinners he hosted in honor of American diplomats and other worthies, in celebration of the Fourth of July. In 1851, when the US Congress refused to support the American section at the Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace, Peabody advanced £3000 to improve the exhibit and uphold the reputation of the United States.
In 1854, he offended many of his American guests at a Fourth of July dinner when he chose to toast Queen Victoria before US President Franklin Pierce. At around this time, Peabody began to suffer from rheumatoid gout. In February 1867, on one of several return visits to the United States, at the height of his financial success, Peabody was suggested by Francis Preston Blair, an old crony of President Andrew Jackson and an active power in the smoldering Democratic Party as a possible Secretary of the Treasury in the cabinet of President Andrew Johnson. At about the same time, Peabody was mentioned in newspapers as a future presidential candidate. Peabody described the presidential suggestion as a "kind and complimentary reference", but considered that at age 72, he was too old for either office. While serving as a volunteer in the War of 1812, Peabody met Elisha Riggs, who, in 1814, provided financial backing for what became the wholesale dry goods f
Bruce Castle is a Grade I listed 16th-century manor house in Lordship Lane, London. It is named after the House of Bruce who owned the land on which it is built. Believed to stand on the site of an earlier building, about which little is known, the current house is one of the oldest surviving English brick houses, it was remodelled in the 18th and 19th centuries. The house has been home to Sir William Compton, the Barons Coleraine and Sir Rowland Hill, among others. After serving as a school during the 19th century, when a large extension was built to the west, it was converted into a museum exploring the history of the areas now constituting London Borough of Haringey and, on the strength of its connection with Sir Rowland Hill, the history of the Royal Mail; the building houses the archives of the London Borough of Haringey. Since 1892 the grounds have been Tottenham's oldest; the name Bruce Castle is derived from the House of Bruce, who had owned a third of the manor of Tottenham. However, there was no castle in the area, it is unlikely that the family lived nearby.
Upon his accession to the Scottish throne in 1306, Robert I of Scotland forfeited his lands in England, including the Bruce holdings in Tottenham, ending the connection between the Bruce family and the area. The former Bruce land in Tottenham was granted to Thomas Hethe; the three parts of the manor of Tottenham were united in the early 15th century under the Gedeney family and have remained united since. In all early records, the building is referred to as the Lordship House; the name Bruce Castle first appears to have been adopted by Henry Hare, 2nd Baron Coleraine, although Daniel Lysons speculates in The Environs of London the name's use dates to the late 13th century. A detached, cylindrical Tudor tower stands to the southwest of the house, is considered to be the earliest part of the building; the tower is built of local red brick, is 21 feet tall, with walls 3 feet thick. In 2006, excavations revealed, it was described in 1829 as being over a deep well, being used as a dairy. Sources disagree on the house's initial construction date, no records survive of its construction.
There is some archaeological evidence dating parts of the building to the 15th century. Nikolaus Pevsner speculates the front may have formed part of a courtyard house of which the remainder has disappeared; the Grade I mansion's principal facade has been remodelled. The house is made of red brick with ashlar quoining and the principal facade, terminated by symmetrical matching bays, has tall paned windows; the house and detached tower are among the earliest uses of brick as the principal building material for an English house. Henry Hare, 2nd Baron Coleraine oversaw a substantial remodelling of the house in 1684, much of the existing south facade dates from that time; the end bays were heightened, the central porch was rebuilt with stone quoins and pilasters, a balustraded top and a small tower and cupola. A plan from 1684 shows the hall in the house's centre, with service rooms to the west and the main parlour to the east. On the first floor, the dining room was over the hall, the main bedchamber over the kitchen, a lady's chamber over the porch.
In the early 18th century Henry Hare, 3rd Baron Coleraine oversaw a remodelling of the north of the house, that added a range of rooms to the north and the Coleraine coat of arms to the pediment of the north facade. In the late 18th century, under the ownership of James Townsend, the narrow east facade of the house was remodelled into an entrance front, given the appearance of a typical Georgian house. At the same time, the south front's gabled attics were removed, giving the house's southern elevation its current appearance. An inventory of the house made in 1789 in preparation for its sale listed a hall, drawing room, dining room and breakfast parlour on the ground floor, with a library and billiard room on the first floor. In the early 19th century, the house's west wing was demolished, leaving it with the asymmetrical appearance it retains today; the house was converted into a school, in 1870 a three-story extension was built in the Gothic Revival style to the northwest of the house. The 2006 excavations by the Museum of London uncovered the chalk foundations of an earlier building on the site, of which nothing is known.
Court rolls of 1742 refer to the repair of a drawbridge, implying that the building had a moat. A 1911 archaeological journal made passing reference to "the recent levelling of the moat", it is believed the house's first owner was Sir William Compton, Groom of the Stool to Henry VIII and one of the period's prominent courtiers, who acquired the manor of Tottenham in 1514. However, there is no evidence of Compton's living in the house, there is some evidence the building dates to a period; the earliest known reference to the building dates from 1516, when Henry VIII met his sister Margaret, Queen of Scots, at "Maister Compton's House beside Tottenham". The Comptons owned the building throughout the 16th century, but few records of the family or the building survive. In the early 17th century, Richard Sackville, 3rd Earl of Dorset and Lady Anne Clifford owned the house. Sackville ran up high debts through extravagant spending.
London County Council
London County Council was the principal local government body for the County of London throughout its existence from 1889 to 1965, the first London-wide general municipal authority to be directly elected. It was replaced by the Greater London Council; the LCC was the largest, most ambitious English municipal authority of its day. By the 19th century the City of London Corporation covered only a small fraction of metropolitan London. From 1855 the Metropolitan Board of Works had certain powers across the metropolis, but it was appointed rather than elected. Many powers remained in the hands of traditional bodies such as parishes and the counties of Middlesex and Kent; the creation of the LCC in 1889, as part of the Local Government Act 1888, was forced by a succession of scandals involving the MBW, was prompted by a general desire to create a competent government for the city, capable of strategising and delivering services effectively. While the Conservative government of the day would have preferred not to create a single body covering the whole of London, their electoral pact with Liberal Unionists led them to this policy.
It was established as a provisional council on 31 January 1889 and came into its powers on 21 March 1889. Shortly after its creation a Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London considered the means for amalgamation with the City of London. Although this was not achieved, it led to the creation of 28 metropolitan boroughs as lower tier authorities to replace the various local vestries and boards in 1900; the LCC inherited the powers of its predecessor the MBW, but had wider authority over matters such as education, city planning and council housing. It took over the functions of the London School Board in 1903, Dr C W Kimmins was appointed chief inspector of the education department in 1904. From 1899 the Council progressively acquired and operated the tramways in the county, which it electrified from 1903. By 1933, when the LCC Tramways were taken over by the London Passenger Transport Board, it was the largest tram operator in the United Kingdom, with more than 167 miles of route and over 1,700 tramcars.
One of the LCC's most important roles during the late 19th and early 20th century, was in the management of the expanding city and the re-development of its growing slums. In the Victorian era, new housing had been intentionally urban and large-scale tenement buildings dominated. Beginning in the 1930s, the LCC incentivised an increase in more suburban housing styles. A less-dense style of development, focusing on single family homes, was popular among London housing developers because it was believed that this would satisfy the working classes and provide insurance, "against Bolshevism," to quote one parliamentary secretary; the LCC set the standard for new construction at 12 houses per acre of land at a time when some London areas had as many as 80 housing units per acre. The passage of the Housing of the Working Classes Act in 1885 gave the LCC the power to compel the sale of land for housing development, a power, vital to the systematic rehousing that began under the council's early Progressive leadership.
The Totterdown Fields development at Tooting was the first large suburban-style development to be built under LCC authority, in 1903, was followed by developments at Roehampton and Becontree. By 1938, 76,877 units of housing had been built under the auspices of the LCC in the city and its periphery, an astonishing number given the previous pace of development. Many of these new housing developments were genuinely working-class, though the poorest could afford subsidised rents, they relied on an expanding London Underground network that ferried workers en masse to places of employment in central London. These housing developments were broadly successful, they resisted the slummification that blighted so many Victorian tenement developments; the success of these commuter developments constructed by the LCC in the periphery of the city is, "one of the more remarkable achievements in London government, contributed much to the marked improvement of conditions between the wars for the capital's working classes."
The LCC undertook between 1929 to standardise and clarify street names across London. Many streets in different areas of the city had similar or identical names, the rise of the car as a primary mode of transportation in the city made these names unworkable. In an extreme case, there were over 60 streets called "Cross Street" spread across London when the LCC began its process of systematic renaming; these were given names from an approved list, maintained by the LCC, containing only "suitably English" names. If street names were deemed un-English, they were slated for change. By 1939, the council had the following powers and duties: † Denotes a power administered by the City of London Corporation within the City; the LCC used the Spring Gardens headquarters inherited from the Metropolitan Board of Works. The building had been designed by Frederick Marrable, the MBW's superintending architect, dated from 1860. Opinions on the merits of the building varied: the Survey of London described it as "well balanced" while the architectural correspondent of The Times was less enthusiastic.
He summarised the building as "of the Palladian type of four storeys with two orders, Ionic above and Corinthian below as if its designer had looked rather hastily at the banqueting house of Inigo Jones." The most impressive feature was the curving or elliptical spiral staircase leading to the principal floor. The origin
Model dwellings company
Model dwellings companies were a group of private companies in Victorian Britain that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment. The principle of philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label "five per cent philanthropy"; the precursor to the aims of MDCs was the work of Edwin Chadwick and others in exposing the sanitary conditions of slums in large metropolitan areas. Once Chadwick's reforms had been implemented poverty remained rife in the overcrowded inner cities, reformers had to look elsewhere for the solution to the problems of the working class; the publication of Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 and The Communist Manifesto, as well as fear of further uprisings such as that of the Chartists in 1848, increased concern for the welfare of the working class amongst the middle and upper classes. Out of this environment, various societies and companies were formed to meet the housing needs of the working classes.
Improved accommodation was seen as a way of ameliorating overcrowding, as well as the moral and sanitary problems resulting from that. The movement started in a small way in London, with the Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes and Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes finding difficulty in raising sufficient capital to build commercially viable projects. Support from public figures and demonstrations at the Great Exhibition all improved public awareness, if not raising investment; the middle of the century saw the peak in MDC building, with around twenty-eight separate companies operating in London prior to the 1875 Cross Act. The movement picked up pace again after the Act, which granted local authorities the right to clear slum dwellings, however the entrepreneurial focus of the companies was restricted by an inability to make a competitive return and the intervention of large-scale municipal housing; the most successful builders post-1875 were those making a smaller return, such as the Four Per Cent Industrial Dwellings Company, the East End Dwellings Company founded on religious principles as much as commercial.
The first of these companies was formed out of the Labourer's Friend Society, which in 1844 agreed to change its name and purpose towards building houses for labourers that might be adopted by others as a template. Their first urban building project was completed in 1846 at Bagnigge Wells, designed by Henry Roberts. Although the Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes had the Prince Consort as its first president and contributed to the Great Exhibition of 1851, their block dwellings, in particular, were subject to criticism; the design of SICLC dwellings paid particular attention to sanitation and ventilation but was otherwise functional and utilitarian, the resulting estate was seen as grim and unpleasant. The Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes was formed in 1841, earlier than the SICLC, but spent several years acquiring capital to begin its building projects; these commenced after the company obtained a Royal Charter which established the Company on more commercial grounds, guaranteeing a minimum return of five per cent on investment.
This was outlined in the Company's resolution: That an association be formed for the purpose of providing the labouring man with an increase of the comforts and conveniences of life, with full return to the capitalist. The first MAIDIC blocks were completed in 1848, constituting twenty-one two room apartments and ninety three room apartments in Old St Pancras Road, again on an'associated' model - that is, with shared amenities such as lavatories and kitchen; this type of large, block residence with shared facilities became the norm for model dwellings companies. The MAIDIC was one by 1900 housed over 6,000 people; the Peabody Trust was founded after an unprecedented donation in 1862 of £150,000, by the American banker George Peabody for the good of the poor in London. A committee was set up to choose the most appropriate way to spend the money, it was decided to build a number of block dwellings for the poorest of the city; these apartments were of similar design to other companies, but rents were offered at lower levels, leading to complaints from other MDCs.
Tenancy in a Peabody Dwelling came with strict rules: rents had to be paid weekly and punctually, many trades were not permitted to be carried on at the dwellings. There was a night-time curfew and a set of moral standards to be adhered to; the largest MDC working in central London was the Improved Industrial Dwellings Company, founded by Sir Sydney Waterlow in 1863, which housed around 30,000 individuals by 1900. Its rigorous selection procedure and financial regulations meant that the IIDC was one of the more financially successful of these firms; the Artizans' Company became one of the largest of the MDCs, concentrating on suburban, low-rise estates rather than the central, high-rise model of other companies. It was founded by a former labourer, William Austin, in 1867 and set about building and selling model dwellings first in Battersea Salford and elsewhere, their first major contribution to the MDC movement came at Shaftesbury Park in Battersea, a large, suburban estate opened by Lord Shaftesbury in 1872 as a "workmen's city" for "clerks and labourers".
Building continued at a larger estate in Kilburn, Queen's Park a still larger estate at Hornsey, Noel Park, Leigham Court in Streatham. The company diversified into block dwellings and other, more commercially minded estates such as Pinnerwood Park
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.
Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation. Protected areas will encompass several other zones that have been deemed important for particular conservation uses, such as Important Bird Areas and Endemic Bird Areas, Centres of Plant Diversity and Community Conserved Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites and Key Biodiversity Areas among others. A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example.
As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success. Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, 15.2% is contained within protected areas. Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the world's carbon stock, the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests: 18.8% of the world's forest is covered by protected areas and sixteen of the twenty forest types have 10% or more protected area coverage. Of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI.
Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover 14.3% of the world's mountain areas, these mountainous protected areas made up 32.5% of the world's total terrestrial protected area coverage in 2009. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990 and out of the 198 countries with mountain areas, 43.9% still have less than 10% of their mountain areas protected. Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning. Through its World Commission on Protected Areas, the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.
The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category Ia — Strict Nature Reserve Category Ib — Wilderness Area Category II — National Park Category III — Natural Monument or Feature Category IV — Habitat/Species Management Area Category V — Protected Landscape/Seascape Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources Protected areas are cultural artifacts, their story is entwined with that of human civilization. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
The oldest le
London Borough of Haringey
The London Borough of Haringey is a London borough in North London, classified by some definitions as part of Inner London, by others as part of Outer London. It was created in 1965 by the amalgamation of three former boroughs, it shares borders with six other London boroughs. Clockwise from the north, they are: Enfield, Waltham Forest, Islington and Barnet. Haringey covers an area of more than 11 square miles; some of the more familiar local landmarks include Alexandra Palace, Bruce Castle, Jacksons Lane, Highpoint I and II, Tottenham Hotspur Football Club. The borough has extreme contrasts: areas in the west, such as Highgate, Muswell Hill and Crouch End are among the most prosperous in the country. Haringey is a borough of contrasts geographically. From the wooded high ground around Highgate and Muswell Hill, at 426.5 feet, the land falls away to the flat, open low-lying land beside the River Lea in the east. The borough includes large areas of green space; the local authority is Haringey London Borough Council.
Haringey Council has been the subject of nationwide criticism over its handling of the welfare of young children in connection with the murder of Victoria Climbié in 2000 and the death of Peter Connelly in 2007. In March 2009, Haringey Council's performance was placed by the Audit Commission in the bottom four of the country and the worst in London. In December 2009, Haringey's performance was placed by Ofsted in the bottom nine in the country for children's services. A series of positive Ofsted inspections culminated in the service being taken out of'special measures' by the government in February 2013. In the ice age, Haringey was at the edge of a huge glacial mass that reached as far south as Muswell Hill. There is evidence of both Stone Bronze Age activity. Prior to the Romans' arrival, Haringey was part of a large area covering Essex and Middlesex, home to a Celtic tribe called Trinobantes; the Romans' presence is evidenced chiefly by the roads. Tottenham High Road was part of the main Roman thoroughfare of Ermine Street.
There have been Roman finds in the borough which suggests possible Roman settlement. In the 5th and 6th centuries the Saxon invasions brought Haering, the chieftain whose name still lives on today in local placenames. Haringey remained a rural area until the 18th century when large country houses close to London became common; the coming of the railways from the mid-nineteenth century onwards led to rapid urbanisation. The borough in its modern form was founded in 1965, from the former Municipal Borough of Hornsey, the Municipal Borough of Wood Green and the Municipal Borough of Tottenham which had all been part of Middlesex; the new borough became part of the new Greater London Council. However, some legacy of the historic municipal divisions survives to the present day, with the relative prosperity of the different parts of the borough still split broadly along the old boundary lines; the town hall is the Civic Centre on Wood Green High Road. It was opened in 1958, it is a listed building. Although much of the building is now unused, the Civic Centre is the official seat of Haringey Council and contains the council chambers.
The names Haringey and Hornsey in use today are all different variations of the same Old English: Hæringeshege. Hæring was a Saxon chief who lived in the area around Hornsey. Hæringeshege meant Hæring's enclosure and evolved into Haringey and Hornsey; the official heraldic arms were granted on 10 May 1965, after the mergers of the former Municipal Borough of Hornsey, the Municipal Borough of Wood Green and the Municipal Borough of Tottenham. Unlike most other London boroughs, it was decided not to create arms based on the charges in the coats of arms of the former boroughs; the coat of arms contains black and gold, representing stability, a cogwheel for industry and a rising sun for the new borough. The borough has a simple badge described as "Eight Rays". A flag is used which looks like a banner of arms but with the tinctures reversed, so that it has eight black rays on a yellow field; the arms is used in the mayoral regalia of the borough. The mayoral chain has the heraldic achievement hanging in a badge made out of 18 k gold and enamel, with the text "The London Borough of Haringey MCMLXV".
The chain has stylized hares sitting within laurel wreaths. The hares represent the name of the borough, since Haringey is believed to mean "a meadow of Hares". Haringey is a borough of contrasts geographically. From the wooded high ground around Highgate and Muswell Hill, at 426.5 feet, the land falls away to the flat, open low-lying land beside the River Lea in the east. 60 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. Haringey shares borders with six other London boroughs. Clockwise from the north, they are: Enfield, Waltham Forest, Islington and Barnet, it covers an area of more than 11 square miles. Some of the more familiar local landmarks include Alexandra Palace, Bruce Castle and Tottenham Hotspur Football Club. Haringey has 600 acres of parks, recreation grounds and open spaces which make up more than 25% of its total area, they include both smaller local areas and large green areas which provide an amenity for Londoners beyond the borough's boundaries.
Local Nature Reserves and a number of conservation areas can be found in the borough